Musculoskeletal System Flashcards

Medicine
Terms Definitions
ergonomic
human engineering.
intervertebral
situated between the vertebrae.
spondylitis
inflammation of the vertebrae.
protract
to extend or protrude.
syndactyl
having certain digits joined together.
extension
the act of straightening a limb.
flexion
the act of bending a limb.
synovial
a lubricating fluid resembling the white of an egg, secreted by certain membranes, as those of the joints.
tubercle
a small rounded projection or excrescence, as on a bone or on the surface of the body.
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities, and ordinarily associated with manifestations of a general, or systemic, affliction.
sacral
of or pertaining to the sacrum.
deltoid
a large, triangular muscle covering the joint of the shoulder, the action of which raises the arm away from the side of the body.
biceps brachii
either of two flexor muscles, one
temporomandibular
of, pertaining to, or situated near the hinge joint formed by the lower jaw and the temporal bone of the skull.
carpal
any of the bones of the wrist.
strain
to impair, injure, or weaken (a muscle, tendon, etc.) by stretching or overexertion.
sprain
to overstrain or wrench (the ligaments of an ankle, wrist, or other joint) so as to injure without fracture or dislocation.
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
bone
one of the structures composing the skeleton of a vertebrate.
acetabulum
the socket in the hipbone that receives the head of the thighbone.
iliac
of, pertaining to, or situated near the ilium.
kyphosis
an abnormal, convex curvature of the spine, with a resultant bulge at the upper back.
clavicle
(in humans) either of two slender bones, each articulating with the sternum and a scapula and forming the anterior part of a shoulder; collarbone.
osteoarthritis
the most common form of arthritis, usually occurring after middle age, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling.
scapula
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans; shoulder blade.
pubis
that part of either innominate bone that, with the corresponding part of the other, forms the front of the pelvis.
intervertebral disk
the plate of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.
arthritis
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes and having diverse causes, as infection, crystal deposition, or injury.
deformity
an abnormally formed part of the body.
eversion
a turning or being turned outward or inside out.
tendon
a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to connect a muscle with a bone or part; sinew.
muscle
a tissue composed of cells or fibers, the contraction of which produces movement in the body.
osteoporosis
a disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous, brittle, and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineral components, sometimes resulting in pain, decreased height, and skeletal deformities: common in older persons, primarily
talus
the uppermost bone of the proximal row of bones of the tarsus; anklebone.
vertebrae
any of the bones or segments composing the spinal column, consisting typically of a cylindrical body and an arch with various processes, and forming a foramen, or opening, through which the spinal cord passes.
abducens
either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
pronation
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward the back (
fracture
the breaking of a bone, cartilage, or the like, or the resulting condition.
ankylosis
the union or consolidation of two or more bones or other hard tissues into one.
acoustic nerve
either one of the eighth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the organs of hearing and from the semicircular canals to the brain.
trigeminal nerve
either one of the fifth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of mastication, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the head and face to the brain.
humerus
the long bone in the arm of humans extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
oculomotor nerve
either one of the third pair of cranial nerves, consisting chiefly of motor fibers that innervate most of the muscles of the eyeball.
femur
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
elbow
the bend or joint of the human arm between upper arm and forearm.
cranial nerve
any of the nerves arising from the brainstem and exiting to the periphery of the head through skull openings, including 10 pairs in fish and amphibians and 12 pairs in reptiles, birds, and mammals: in humans, these are the abducens nerve, accessory nerve,
external auditory meatus
the canal extending from the opening in the external ear to the tympanic membrane.
olfactory nerve
either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose.
subacromial
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
retraction
the act of retracting or the state of being retracted.
ulna
the bone of the forearm on the side opposite to the thumb.
popliteal
of or pertaining to the ham, or part of the leg back of the knee.
spinous process
a spinelike process of a bone, esp. the dorsal projection from the center of the arch of a vertebra.
acromion
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
trochlear nerve
either one of the fourth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the superior oblique muscle of the upper part of the eyeball.
vagus nerve
either one of the tenth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain.
facial nerve
either one of the seventh pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that control muscles of the face except those used in chewing.
zygomatic arch
the bony arch at the outer border of the eye socket, formed by the union of the cheekbone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
adduct
to move or draw toward the axis of the body or one of its parts (
trochanter
either of two knobs at the top of the femur, the greater on the outside and the lesser on the inside, serving for the attachment of muscles between the thigh and pelvis.
carpal tunnel syndrome
a common disorder of the wrist and hand characterized by pain, tingling, and muscular weakness, caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist area and often associated with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, or edema of pregnancy.
abduct
to move or draw away from the axis of the body or limb (
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon.
node
a knotlike mass of tissue:
interphalangeal
of or pertaining to a phalanx.
crepitation
to make a crackling sound; crackle.
thoracic
of or pertaining to the thorax.
rotator cuff
a bandlike structure encircling and supporting the shoulder joint, formed by four muscles attached to and merging with the joint capsule.
cartilage
a firm, elastic, flexible type of connective tissue of a translucent whitish or yellowish color; gristle.
articulation
a jointed state or formation; a joint.
glenoid
shallow or slightly cupped, as the articular cavities of the scapula and the temporal bone.
hypoglossal-nerve
either one of the twelfth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the tongue.
ligament
a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
polydactyl
having more than the normal number of fingers or toes.
supination
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward (
cervical
of or pertaining to the cervix or neck.
condyle
the smooth surface area at the end of a bone, forming part of a joint.
olecranon
the part of the ulna beyond the elbow joint.
glossopharyngeal nerve
either of the ninth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, the soft palate, and the parotid glands, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses to the brain from the pharynx, the middle ear, and the p
epicondyle
a rounded protuberance at the end of a bone, serving as a place of attachment for ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
bursa
a pouch, sac, or vesicle, esp. a sac containing synovia, to facilitate motion, as between a tendon and a bone.
radius
the bone of the forearm on the thumb side.
plantar
of or pertaining to the sole of the foot.
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain.
atrophy
a wasting away of the body or of an organ or part, as from defective nutrition or nerve damage.
pubic symphysis
the fixed joint at the front of the pelvic girdle where the halves of the pubis meet.
brady-
slow
ligament/o
ligament
scoli/o
twisted
femor/o
femur
tend/o
tendon
oste/o
bone
dactyl/o
digit
kyph/o
humpback
ili/o
ilium
Tropomyosin
Acetylcholin
Prefix:

Inter-
between
coccyg/o
coccyx; tailbone
inversion
turning inward
-scopy
visual examination
articul/o
joint (articulation)
desis
binding, fixation
Combining Form:

Antrum
antr/o
Combining Form:

burs/o
bursa
myoplasty
repair of muscle
tendin/o
tendon (to stretch)
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
calcane/o
calcaneum (heel bone)
clasis
break, fracture, refracture
Thin \t\t\t\t\tMyofilament
Protein actin
Combining Form:

Nose
nas/o; rhin/o
THR
total hip replacement
fasci/o
band of fibrous tissue
osteomy
an incision into bone
arthr/o
joint
 
ex. arthr/o/centesis - puncture of the joint
/desis
surgical fusion or fixation
Insertion
attachment farthest from trunk
Lordosis
"swayback'
exaggerated anterior curve of the lumbar vertebrae (lower back)
Rheumatology
Disorders of connective tissue
flutter
extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular
cardiac muscle
muscle of the heart
lamin/o
lamina (part of vertebral arch)
metacarp/o
metacarpus (bones of the hand)
 
ex. metacarp/ectomy - exciscion of the metacarpus
fibul/o
smaller bone of lower leg
Cardiac \t\t\tMuscle
Multi- \t\t\t\tintercalated discs, involuntary, central nuclei, visible \t\t\t\tstriations
estrogens
steroid hormone, normal female maturation, stimulate development of female reproductive tract and secondary sexual characteristics/sex drive, thickening of endometrium, secreted by ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
interoceptors
monitor aspects of internal environment like blood pressure, CO2 partial pressure in blood, blood pH
stratified epithelium
multiple layers of cells
Muscle Disorders:

Polymyositis
means 'many muscle inflammation'
auscultation
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
pericardial cavity
fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
opioid analgesics
Relieve moderate to severe painGeneric/Trade names:fentanyl/Sublimaze, Duragesic, Actiqhydromorphone/Dilaudid, Hydrostat IR, PMS Hydromorphonemeperidine/Demerolmorphine/ Astramorph, Duramorph, MS Contin, Roxanolpropoxyphene hydrochloride/Darvon
cephal/o
head
 
ex. cephal/ad - toward the head
Motor \t\t\t\t\t\tUnits
Motor neuron \t\t\t\t\t\t\tto some number of muscle fibersAvg. = 150 \t\t\t\t\t\t\tfibers per neuronEyes are \t\t\t\t\t\t\tvery precise = 6-12 fibers/neuronThighs = \t\t\t\t\t\t\t>1000 fibers/neuron
rheumatologists
physicians who specialize primarily in joint problems such as arthritis
ectoderm development
integument (epidermis, hair, nails, nose epithelium, mouth, anal canal), lens of eye, nervous system
myofibrils
embedded in muscle fibers which contain the sarcomere units, have a surrounding sarcoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions, membrane of myofibril is sarcolemma and is capable of propagating action potential
somatostatin
pancreas, secretion increased by high blood glucose or high amino acid levels, regulated by CCK and GH levels
Circumduction
process of carrying around; the circular movement of the distal end of a limb around its point of attachment
True ribs...
1st seven pairs

attached directly to the breastbone (sternum) in the front of the body
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
repolarization
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
-desis
binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
some muscle fibers are contracting all the time – \t\t\t\t\t\t\tconsciously controlled system – brain is constantly sending \t\t\t\t\t\t\tmessages to at least some cells
Anatomy
Lyme disease
disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise
serum calcium
measurement of calcium level in serum
axon hillock
where action potential is first initiated (decision point on whether potential will be fired)
umbilical vein
carries oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus, which mixes with deoxygenated blood of vena cavea in right atrium (partially oxygenated)
nephron secretion
secretes acids, bases, ions from interstitial fluid into filtrate (passive and active to maintain blood pH, potassium concentration in blood, and nitrogenous waste concentration in filtrate
hibernation
type of torpor where animal remains dormant, lowering metabolic rate and allowing body temperature to fall below normal
colon
functions in absorption of salts and any left over water from small intestine (diarrhea occurs if matter moves too quickly through colon, constipation when material moves too slow as too much water is reabsorbed)
Gout
formation of uric acid in joints especially the BIG TOE. Body's inability to metabolize PURINE foods.
Ligaments
Fibrous bands of tissue that attach bone to bone
bone marrow
material found in the cavities of bones
traction (Tx)
application of pulling force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
diureticc
a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed to treat hypertension
open fracture
compound fracture; a broken bone with an open wound
splinting
Use of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabalization, and protection during the healing process
Fibromyalgia
Chronic pain in the muscle and soft tissues.
striated muscle
under voluntary control, move all the bones as well as the face and eyes
esophagus
muscular tube that moves food down by rhythmic waves of involuntary muscular contractions (peristalis), lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular ring at the bottom that opens for food and closes after it goes into stomach to prevent regurgitation
viral progeny release
after assembly (spontaneous or with aid of enzymes) viral progeny may be released by host lysis or extrusion (budding)
allosteric enzyme
2 or more active sites, regulators stabilize a conformation to prevent or promote substrate binding
compact vs. spongy bone
compact: dense, no caivites
spongy: less dense, interconnecting lattice of bony spicules (trabeculae)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a defect in what type of collagen?
Type I
Imaging:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
procedure that uses magnetic properties to record detailed information about internal structures
Ewing tumor
This is a cancerous tumor or malignancy that invades the entire shaft of the bone.Symptoms include pain and swelling.
stroke volume (SV)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
Red \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tfibers –
rich with myoglobin – stores oxygen, \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tenhances rapid diffusion of oxygen from the blood to the \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tmuscles
erythroblastosis fetalis
rh- woman has an rh+ baby, makes antibodies to the antigen and then the next baby will be exposed to antibodies if it is rh+
Gout symptoms
Sudden onset of pain and erythema in great toe, ankle or lower leg.
Bone Disease: (key term)

Osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone and bone marrow
dislocation f.
A fracture that occurs near a joint and results in displacement of the joint.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme; used in the treatment of hypertension
competitive inhibition
binds to active site to increase Km so substrate can't bind as well (Vmax unchanged), can be relieved by higher substrate
Baker cyst
also known as a popliteal cyst, is a benign swelling of the semimembranous or more rarely some other synovial bursa found behind the knee joint
Name the three types of muscle, whether they are voluntary or not, and an example of each.
Skeletal: voluntary, arms and legsSmooth: involuntary, GI tract and most other involuntary musclesCardiac: involuntary, heart
Hip Fracture - Risk Factors
Age: most occur after 75, Genetics, Body size: tall at young age, thin, losing more than 10% of body weight since age 25, Osteoporosis, Fluoride deficit, Medications, caffeine.
More force \t\t\t\t\tneeded for more sacromeres
Zone width of the myosin filamentsBand only actin length with Z line in the middle
How do we describe tested muscle resistance?
In a normal adult: equal bilaterally, strength is 5, with full resistance to opposition.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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