Musculoskeletal System 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
spondyl/o
vertebra
burs/o
bursa
angi/ovas/ovascul/o
vessel
my/o
muscle
-porosis
porous
thorac/o
chest
femor/o
femur
dactyl/o
digit
actin/o
ray
gravis
severe
-trophy
growth; development
scapula
shoulder blade
articul/o
joint (articulation)
I.V., IV
intravenous
arthr/o
joint (articulation)
schisis
a splitting
M-Line
myosin filaments
Prefix:

Meta-
change, beyond
metacarpal bones
hand bones
ather/o
fatty (lipid) paste
lumb/o
loins (lower back)
MVA
Motor Vehicle Accident
ton/o
tone or tension
adhes/o, adher/o
stuck to
Chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
Therapeutic interventions:

Osteoclasis
(clasis:intentional break)

refracture of a bone, usually done if a bone has malunion
exoskeleton
hard covering or shell
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
HD
hemodialysis; hip disarticulation; hearing distance
-malacia
softening
 
ex. oste/o/malacia - softening of the bone
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
Ca++ \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t/ATPase Pump
Energy \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\trequiringCalcium is \t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tput back
Lordosis
anterior curvature of spine
Bone Disease:

Osteitis deformans
Paget's Disease
FROM
free range of motion
osteosarcoma
type of malignant bone tumor
ventriculogram
an x-ray visualizing the ventricles
-blast
embryonic cell
 
ex. oste/o/blast - embryonic cell bone
disk
flat structure composed of fibrocartillaginous tissue
Type II x \t\t\t\t\t\t\tmyosin–
fastest fibers
prolactin
stimulates milke production and secretion in female mammary glands
large intestine
cecum, colon, rectum (anus)
Upper Appendicular Bones:

Carpals
(carp/o)

8 wrist bones
Therapeutic interventions:

Amputation
AKA-above knee amputation
BKA-below knee amputation
angioscopy
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope accompanied by an irrigation system, a camera, a video recorder, and a monitor that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and select a mode of therapy
gold salts
Treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune systemGeneric/Trade name:auranofin/Ridauraaurothioglucose/Solganalgold sodium thiomalate/Myochrysine
Flexion
Movement of bending a body part.
A- Zone
width of the myosin filaments
diskography
x-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of disk)
tongue
taste buds, manipulates food during chewing, rolls it into a bolus (ball), pushes it into the pharynx
irreversible/reversible inhibition
irreversible occurs when inhibitor binds covalently or enzyme damage occurs and reversible is usually due to weak noncovalet binding
retina
innermost layer of eye with photoreceptors that sense light
pseudostratified epithelium
single-layered but appears stratified because cells vary in height
lacunae
spaces interspersed within matrix that house mature bone cells (osteocytes-bone maintenance), canalicule radiate from each lacuna and these interconnect with each other and Haversian canals to allow nutrient and waste exchange from bone to blood
Tendon
strong, non-elastic cords of collagen -located at the end of muscle to attach them to bone.
Bone Processes:

Trochanter
(trochanter/o)

one or two bony projections on the proximal ends of the femurs that serve as points of attachment for muscles
compound f.
Basically just an open fracture.
red marrow
thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of llong bones. located of blood cell formation
arrhythmia
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone
osteomalacia
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
Epicondylitis
Commonly known as tennis elbow or golfer's elbow. Trauma or overuse of the elbow which causes inflammation.
metaphysis
growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
computed tomography
x-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images
gastric glands
stimulated by nervous impulses from brain (response of sight, taste, smell of food); include mucous cells, chief cells, and parietal cells
fetal respiration
after 8 weeks oxygen/nutrients/loss of CO2 and wastes occurs via formed placenta (chorionic villi project into endometrium), alantois develops outpocketing of gut and enlarges to become umbillical vessels (nourished by yolk sac) after amnion envelopes the cord
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
females: maturation of ovarian follicles
males: maturation of seminiferous tubules and sperm production
regulated by estrogen and GnRH, anterior pituitary
Shoulders
Test for strength, should be equal bilaterally - if week CN XI may be affected.
Osteoclasts
Break down bone cells to transform them as needed
Costochondritis
inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
boxer f.
Fracture of the metacarpal neck, caused by striking something hard with a closed fist.
acetabulum
the socket in the hipbone that receives the head of the thighbone.
cartilage
found in the bone and ear, embryonic stages of all vertebrates; lacks nerves and blood vessels
pacemaker
a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract
intracardiac catheter ablation
use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying mycardial tissue at sites generating abnormal electrical pathways
exacerbation
Increase in severity of disease or of any of its symptoms
Oblique Fracture
Bone with slanted fracture of the shaft on its long axis.
crepitation
grating sound made by movement of some joints or broken bones
other liver functions
detoxification of toxins, storage of iron and vitamin B12, destruction of old erythrocytes, synthesis of bile, synthesis of various blood proteins, defense against various antigens, beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones, interconversion of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (TMJ)
Malocclusion, or "bad bite," puts stress on muscles mastication. Bruxism, abnormal bite, a faulty dentures can lead to TMJ dysfunction.
Trauma: (key term)

Strain
overstretching of muscle or a tendon
Shapes:

Irregular bones
Vertebra (back bone), stapes (bone of the middle ear)
alkaline phosphatase
Enzyme produced in the bone and liver.
eversion
a turning or being turned outward or inside out.
lumbar vertebrae [L1-L5]
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
/lucent, /lucency
transmits light,
a white spont on an x-ray
abductor vs. adductor
abductor moves part away from midline while adductor moves it toward the midline
Rheumatic Fever
May be indicated with joint pain 10-14 days after a sore throat.
Trauma: (key term)

Sprain
traumatic injury to ligaments of a joint, including tearing of a ligament
complicated f.
When there is injury to adjacent parts of the bone due to a fracture.
olfactory nerve
either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose.
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
lumbosacral spinal radiography (LS spine)
Radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, incuding anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
skin hair (fur)
entraps and retains warm air at skin's surface
What is Pagets disease?
a disorder of bone remodeling, bone reabsorption followed by excessive bone formation
carpal tunnel syndrome
a common disorder of the wrist and hand characterized by pain, tingling, and muscular weakness, caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist area and often associated with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, or edema of pregnancy.
bony necrosis or sequestrum
dead bone tissue from loss of blood supply such as can occur after a fracture
summation and tetanus
when fibers of a muscle are exposed to very frequent stimuli the contractions can combine and become stronger and more prolonged (frequency summation), muscle can't relax between, tetanus is when they add together to give an overly strong contraction which fatigues muscles
closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
name the procollagens in OI that are defective in synthesis and secretion
alpha 1 and alpha 2
what do you see when you take an x-ray of a patient with osteopetrosis?
bones with a broad metaphysis
Patella, patell/o
kneecap
cranium bones are
*frontal*parietal*sphenoid*temporal*occipital
Ankylosis
immobility, consolidation, and fixation of a joint because of disease, injury, or surgery; most often due to chronic rheumatoid arthritis
building up of bones
osteoblast
Bones of the pelvis
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Diaphysis
shaft along the bone
Fibula, fibul/o
lower leg bone
Femur, femor/o
upper leg bone
Radius, radi/o
lower arm bone
Swan's neck
flexion contraction of metacarpophalangeal joint, then hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint, and flexion of teh distal interphalangeal joint; occurs with chronic rheumatoid arthritis and is often accompanied by ulnar drift of the fingers
objective data
preperation- screening muscloskeltal examination,
equipment needed: tape measure, goniomenter
order of the examination: inspection, palpation, ROM, uscle testing
Hard, fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers most of the outside of the bone.
Periosteum
Increased mobility allows for increased independence. An adult ______ pattern, or manner of walking, develops between ages 3 and 5.
Gait
 
"widows hump", "hunch back" (thoracic)
kyphosis
the only moveable facial bone
mandible
Phalanges, phalang/o
finger and toe bones
Plantar wart
vascular papillomatous growth is probably due to a virus and occurs on teh sole of the foot, commonly at the ball; condition is extremely painful
Ganglion cyst
round, cystic, nontender nodule overlying a tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually on dorsum of wrist
Nucleus pulposus
center of the intervertebral disc
Rheumatoid arthritis
chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue
Subacromial bursitis
inflammation and swelling of subacrimonial bursa over the shoulder cause limited ROM and pain with motion
L4
an imaginary line connecting the highest point on each iliac crest crosses this vertebra
Hip
inspect the person stands, palpate with person supine, motion and expected ROM--raise leg, knee to chest, flex knee and hip, swing leg laterally, stand and swing leg back
ankylosing spindylitis
chronic progressive inflammation of spine, sacroliliac and larger joint of the extremites. a form of RA this affects primarily men. spasm of paraspinal muscles pulls spine into forward flexion
Also known as Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
Osteoarthritis
Spine Abnormality
"Sway back," is an exaggeration of the normal lumbar spine curve in the small of the back.
Lordosis
Dome-shaped muscle that forms the division between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.  It is also one of the most vital muscles in the body.
Diaphragm
A newborns cranium has several membranes ( Soft Spots). These are called __________ and are located between the cranial bones.
Fontanels
controls involuntary motions inside viscera ex: cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
Xiphoid process
lower portion of the sternum
Chondromalacia patellae
degeneration of the articular surface of patellae; joint motion is painless, but crepitus may be present; occurs most often in females
spine
33 connecting bones stacked in a vertical column
C7-T1 are prominent at the base of the neck
T7-T8 inferior angle of the scapula normally is at the level of this interspace
L4 highest point on each iliac crest crosses here
 
Ligaments
*strong fibrous bands and holds bone to bone
The number of bones in the spine.
26
Red bone marrow is responsible for manufacturing 1._____,2._____,and 3.______. This is called Hematopoisesis.
1.RBC's
2.WBC's
3.Platelets
Smallest bones
In middle ear:
malleus, incus, and stapes
Bursae are located around joints that are susceptible to pressure and trauma, such as the 1._______, 2._______,3._________, 4.________.
1.Knee
2.Shoulder
3.Elbow
4.Hip
Endosteum
membranous lining of the hollow cavity if the bone.
C7 and T1
the vertebral spinous processes that are prominent at the base of the neck
Pronation
turning of the forearm so that the palm is down
Supination
turning the forearm so that the palm is up
Bursa
this is an enclosed sac filled with viscous synovial fluid.
Synovial joints
 
these are freely moveable because they have bones that are separated from eachother and are enclosed in a joint cavity. the cavity is filled with lubricant which allows sliding of opposing surfaces.
Ankle and foot
the tibiotalar joint is the articulation of the tibia, fibula and talus. it is a hinge joint limited to flexion and extension.
landmarks are two boney prominences on either side- medial malleolus and lateral malleolus
midcarpal joint
this is the articulation between two parallel rows of carpal bones. allow flexion, extensiona and some rotation
The front boundary of the upper part of the thorax is the ________ or breastbone, a flat, sword shaped bone in the middle of the chest opposite of the thoracic vertebrae in the back
Sternum
Composed of small bony plates, it contains more spaces than compact bones
spongy bones
The following factors affect bone growth and maintenance:
Heredity
Nutrition
Exercise
Hormones
 
Explain them
Heredity:genes,genetic (inherited) tendencies
 
Nutrition:Protein, vitamins (A,D,C), and minerals(calcium, phosphorus)
 
Exercise:weight bearing (provides stress to strengthen bones)
 
Hormones: affect rate of bone growth, calcium metabolism, energy production, and overall maintenance
A bone in the leg contains both condyles and tuberosities on both ends, what is that bone?
Tibia
 
Coccyx
4 vertebrae fused together to form a tailbone
Inversion
moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle
Range of motion (ROM)
extent of movement of a joint
Herniated nucleus pulposus
the nucleus pulposus ruptures into the spinal canal and puts pressure onthe local spinal nerve root; usually occurs from stress, such as lifting, twisting, continuous flexion with lifting, or fall on buttocks
subacromial bursa
helps during abduction of the arm, so that the greater tubercle of the humerus moves easily
exersion
moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle
Nonsynovial joints
the bones are united by fibrous tissue or cartilage and are immoveable (sutures in the skull) or slightly moveable such as the vertebrae.
temporomandibular joint
place the tips of your first two fingers in front of each ear and ask the person to open and clse the mouth, an audible and palpable snap or click occurs in many healthy people as mouth opens
Periosteum also merges with 1._______ and 2._______ and contains 3.________ that supply oxygen and nutrients to the bone cells keeping them alive.
1. tendons
2. ligaments
3.blood vessels
 
Spine Abnormality
"Widow's hump" or "Humpback," may occure in aging and is more commen in women.
Kyphosis
 
Kyphosis is often caused by osteoporosis
Bone building cells are called?
Osteoblasts
&
Process by which bones become hardened, due to an increase in calcified tissue.
 
 
 
 
This joints allows movement in only one plane, smiliar to the hinge of a door.
Hinge (ginglymus) joint
Examples.
jaw
(Also moves slightly from side to side.)
 
knee and ankle joints
(allows rotary movement aswell)
 
Cancellous (spongy) bone
Contains little spaces like sponge and is encased in the layers compact bone.
T7 and T8
the inferior angle of the scapula is normally at the level of the interspace between these two vertebrae
phalen's test
for this test, ask the person to hold both hands back to bak while flexing the wrists 90 degrees. acute flexion of the writst for 60 seconds produces no symptoms in the nomal hand.
Produces numbness and buring in a person with carpal tunnel
Any prominence or projection of bone is called a 1._________. A spine  (spina) is a 2._________; a ridge or crest is a thin or 3.__________.
1.Bony process
2. Sharp process
3.Narrow process
In children the vertebral column consists of how many bones?
pg 176
Between 33-34 bones
 
As children go through the process of growth and development these bones fuse. The vertebral column of most adults consists of 26 bones.
 
Special considerations of the Vertebrae:Most people have 26 vertebrae. Individuals from certain cultural groups may have fewer---- 11% of african american women have 23 vertebrae, and 12% of alaska natives and native americans have 25.
 
Muscles need energy to move. The body uses stored glucose for fuel.
The body also breaks down fatty acids for fuel. This fuel is called?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
2 muscles of the body help with chewing. What are these muscles?
Masseter and Temporalis
These disks act as shock absorbers during walking, jump, or falling.
Intervertebral disks
 
A "slipped" disk refers to an intervertebral disk that has shifted out of position.
 
A "ruptured" disk occures when pressure forces some less dense tissue sideways, causing a protrusions in the walls of the disk (like a squashed grape).
Olecranon Bursitis
this is a large soft knob or goose egg and redness from inflammation on elbow
Sinuses. There are four pairs of cavities or sinuses in the cranial bones that make the skull lighter and enhance vocal sounds. What are those four pairs of bones?
Frontal, Ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary
 
The sinuses are named for the bones in which they lie.
Found in the ends of long bones, they are responsible for manufacturing red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
Red Bone Marrow
Pelvic bone and hip bones
made up of 3 bones fused together
What regions of the skeleton are contained in the appendicular skeleton?
upper and lower extremities (limbs) and the pelvic girdle.
 
The upper extremities include:
4 bones from the shoulder girdle
60 bones from the arms
 
The lower extremities include:
60 bones from the legs
 
The pelvic (hip) girdle has 2 bones
This joint in which the rounded end of one bone moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone.
Ball and socket joint
examples.
Hip joint
How many bones of the face and what are they?
2 Nasal
1 Vomer
2 Inferior Turbinates (in the nostrils)
2 Lacrimal (orbitals)
2 Zygomatic
2 palate
2 maxillae
1 mandible
14 total bones out of 28 bones of the adult skull
/ 177
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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