Music Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Maurice Ravel
protestant reformation
Goldberg Variations
J.S. Bach
becoming gradually slower
a short musical passage
in a leisurely manner
The Magic Flute
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-first theme in tonic key
-second theme in tonic key
-closing section in tonic key
the beginning brings resolution as we again hear the first theme in the tonic key
first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding sections are presented more or less as they were in the exposition, with one crucial difference all the principal material is now in the tonic key
a musical sound or tone.
Symphony No. 6, "Pathétique"
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Musical style which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy
What class did Haydn come from?
Bach, J.C

1735-82.  Nicknamed the "Milan Bach", JC Bach spent several years trianing in Italy, after which he went to England (he is also called the "London Bach"), where he became music master to the Queen.
He was an early influence to Mozart, who arranged some of his piano sonatas as concerti.
His style is marked by small design, elegance, and graceful melodies.
His music had popular appeal, especially to amateurs, who found the sonatas easily playable 
All of the following were characteristic of Romantic architecture except
(in medieval France and Norman England) an itinerant minstrel or entertainer who sang songs, often of his own composition, and told stories.
without breaks between the successive tones
what documentary did virgil thomson score following "the plow that....."?
"the river"
Sonata Allegro Form- Exposition
A section
First theme-Bridge (modulation to contrasting key)- Second Theme (expansion in contrasting key)- Closing theme (cadence in contrasting key)- repeat
Johann Sebastian 1685-1750
German composer; Genre- Baroque; Famous piece- Toccata and Fugue; instrument used in that piece was an organ
What years did Ludwig van Beethoven live in?
Clementi, Muzio

1752-1832.  A composer and virtuoso keyboardist who once performed in a piano competition against Mozart and who briefly taught composition to Beethoven.
Of the Classic era keyboard composers he comes closest to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven in stature and, during his lifetime, was extremely successful not only as a performer and composer but also as a conductor and publisher.

He lived in England for his entire adult life.
His piano music (sonatas, sonatinas, four-hand music etc.) demonstrates many of the traits of mature classicism including brilliant passagework, alberti bass, left-hand octaves, and Sturm und Drang Styles 
Charles Burney
English musician, composer and music historian, greatest success and legacy are his writings on music, His General History of Music was one of the first important music histories in English. The Present State of Music in France and Italy (1771) and The Present State of Music in Germany (1773). describes European society, life, customs, music and important musicians
A Classical concerto usually had at least one passage, called a __________, which was improvised by the soloist alone.
the sum of relations, melodic and harmonic, existing between the tones of a scale or musical system.
Symphony No. 8, "Symphony of a Thousand"
Gustav Mahler
the Resettlement Administration
Which government agency founded "The Plow that Broke the Plains"?
This person was French, a central figure of Neoclassicism, sympathetic to revolution, voted for execution of Louis XVI, supported Napoleon
Jacques-Louis David
George Gershwin 1898-1937
American Composer; composed music for Broadway and the Classical concert hall; influenced by Stravinsky; Famous pieces- i got rhythm, summertime, Rhapsody in Blue
Symphonie Concertante
As concert life expanded around 1770, a new genre emerged in response to the Parisian public's taste for pleasing melodies and virtuoso solos alongside tbig orchestral sonorities. This is a concerto-like work with two or more solo instruments in addition to the regular orchestra in which the main material is entrusted to the soloists. The format was ideal for the new concert environment because it gave composer-performers an opportunity to sho off their abilities to the public, attract students and encourage sales of their music. Hundreds of symphoies concertates were weritten, performed and published in the 1770's and 80's and composers in Manhnheim and elsewhere soon followed suit. The genre's popularity waned by 1830, displaced by a new focus on individual virtuosity in solo recitals and concertos.
rescue opera
A category of opera-comique in which the hero or heroine, threatened by a natural catastrophe, outlaw or tyrant, is rescued at the last minute by a person of great courage.
It was first popular in France at the end of the 18th century, and later taken up in Italy and Germany.
The most famous example is Beethoven's Fidelio
Beggar's Opera
ballad opera, took London by storm, one of the most frequently performed operatic works in English, consists of spoken dialogue interspersed with thematically relevant songs, taken from a variety of popular sources
a chord of three tones, esp. one consisting of a given tone with its major or minor third and its perfect, augmented, or diminished fifth.
a famous composer who began as a modernist but moved into folk-based compositions
aaron copland
which gov. agenicy funded "the plow.. "
the resettlement admin.
Sonata Allegro Form- Development
B section
Builds up tension against tonic by modulation to foreign keys and fragmentation/ manipulation of themes and motives- Transition back to tonic
what age did Haydn's voice break? Was he kicked out of the Church?
17, yes
deus ex machina
a theatric device used since antiquity in which the main character or the main plot was rescued by some sort of divine power or circumstance.

This technique was often used to wrap up the plots of 18th century comic operas 
first theme
first melody of sonata in first tonic key
time signature
a numerical or other indication at the beginning of a piece showing the meter.
he is known as "the dean of african-american composers"
william grant still
The Classical era is characterized by ____, _______, and _______ ________.
order, objectivity, harmonious proportion
What is the Recapitulation?(2)
Restatement of the main theme, return to the original key signiature
Johann Peter Salomon
Invites Haydn to compose two sets of six ‘Salomon’ or ‘London’ symphonies for London, played a leading part in English musical life,
how does the B section of "ocho por radio"differ stylistically from the A sections?
slower and languid
Four main types of instrumental music
Sonata, string quartet, concerto, and symphony
La clemenza di Tito
(the Mercy of Titus) by Mozart. Wrote in his last year of life for the coronation in prague of Leopold II as king of Bohemia.
a famous documentary scored by Virgil Thomson
"The Plow that Broke the Plains"
Name the operas that Mozart wrote
the escape from the seraglio, the marriage of figaro, don giovanni, the magic flute
Qualities of the Classical Period
1. Light 2. Airy. 3. Elegant 4. Well thought out 5. more interested in beauty and design. 6. Less Mystery 7. Idea of natural and pleasing variety 8. more contrast of mood
in which 2 pieces did john cage first use unconventional instruments
"first construction (in metal)" and "imaginary landscape No.1"
Obscured pulse
rococo in church
Line or tune
dull, not cheerful
to look at closely
achievement, something done successfully
a variety of musical pieces.
a small flake or spot
a small rectangular-shaped musical instrument
how melody moves up and down
the act of waiting or stopping
the way individual parts of music layered or the number of souns occuring simultaneously.
a woodwind instrument with a straight tube and one flared end
a style of painting started in France in the 1860's. This style of art empashied the effect of sunlight on objects and used small dabs of paints that are belended in the viewers eyes to imitate reflected light. Noted composures of include Edgar Degas, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Mary Cassatt and Claude Monet.
Accent is shifted to an off-beat from strong beats
Justin Bieber
This artist became famous off of YouTube. He was actually discovered by Usher. Usher flew this teen to his studio and got him to sing for him. Soon, his fame increased, and now he is one of the biggest stars on the planet!
The Madrigal
Lutheran hymns
Gradually Softer
rhythmic pulses
pressed together, hurried
Ludwig Van Beethoven
conjunct motion
small intervals
\"Istanpitta Ghaetta\" genre?
a collection of works
Short, recurring musical ideas
Senza rigore
without rigor; strictness
a stable tone combination
moderately slow and even.
Arnold Schoenberg--Pierrot Lunaire
20th Century Music
Sergei Rachmaninov
Russian composer.
After tchaikvosky is one of the most abused names in all of classical music. Best remembered today for his piano conertos and the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (also for piano and orchestrah.)  He composed a number of smaller works for piano and large works for piano, orchestrah, three operas, three symphonies, tone poems/concert overtures, chamber pieces, and choral works.
His music marks the end of the true romanticism period in Russia.
Fiddler on the Roof
Jerry Bock
Agricultural based tribe of Zimbabwe.
Plucked twenty-two string classical instrument of North India
-A syncopated accentuation on the "off" beat.
- In a simple 4/4 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4.
-Similar to syncopation.3
A keyboard instrument popularized in the eighteenth century, it can sustain pitches and crescendo-decrescendo
Javanese Gamelan
More majestic sounding, slower tempo
Little group of three
commonly found in carribean music
stands midway between repetition and contrast
A colloquial expression, meaning an added or "tagged" on ending.
Freer in form and quite short?
music originating in New Orleans around the beginning of the 20th century and subsequently developing through various increasingly complex styles, generally marked by intricate, propulsive rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, improvisatory, virtuosic sol
Late Baroque
1680-1750; dominant chord to the tonic
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
A specific pitch produced by sound waves
binary beats
beats contain two shorter durations; "simple" meter
Pitch Bending
A musical ornamentation in which musicians slightly alter the sound of a pitch
produces the lowest tone of the woodwinds
Richard Wagner
German opera composer. Controlled all elements of opera. "Tristan and Isolde" , "The Flying Dutchman", "Die Valkyries" "The Mastersingers of Nuremburg" , "The Ring"
sequence of notes or chords indicating completion of a composition, section, phrase
a florid, showy, passage for a solo instrument
Whenever we use a plugin, our outboard piece of gear that we may not have in other rooms were going to work on our sound designs in, we typically record down the sounds with the plugins/outboard gear written into the waveform. What do we call this process?
a passage added to the last major section of a form
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
Beethoven studied counterpoint for a yer w/hm. one of leading teachers of his day
Improv is used in which of the following settings?FormalCausalBoth
speed of the music- how fast, how slowadagio, andante, moderato, allegretto, allegro, presto
Recapitulation a.k.a. Restatement
-restates all main themes from exposition but all are in tonic key
-two other possible additions, introduction=slow, coda=the big finish/rousing conclusion
a recurrent theory or belief, as in philosophy or art, that the qualities of primitive or chronologically early cultures are superior to those of contemporary civilization.
The grouping of beats by accent into a pattern.
section of a fugue where the subject is present
tonic pitch
key pitch, "home" makes u feel at rest
The piano's relentless rhythm in "Erlkonig" suggests the
galloping of the horse
Define SCALE
A sequence of tones arranged in rising pitches
What were enharmonic notes?
Enharmonic notes are two notes which sound the same but are written differently.
Dominant chord
triad built on the fifth note of the scale, which sets up tension that is resolved by the tonic chord.
Define casual listening
when one allows music to blend into the background as more of "elevator music"
1.  John Cages groundbeaking composition that is made up entirely of rests.
a.  The Perilous Night
b.  Fontana Mix
c.  4'33'
d.  Construction 1 in Metal
2.  Singer whose extreme vocal techniques inspired composer George Crumb.
1. c 4'33'
2. d.  Jan DeGaetani
3. a.  Eclecticism
Great Staff or Grand Staff
Treble clef and bass clef are attached by a brace (a single line attaching them) and a curved bracket. Treble clef is always above bass clef, and the two are separated by at least one staff-height.
The Pipe Organ uses ? to change the sound and "?" is its popular phrase
Stops"Pulling Out All The Stops"
to record
Hungarian Dances
divisi (div.)
gradually faster
Motets and Masses
Modern Jazz QT
diminishing in loudness
sextetto criollo puertoriqueno
Porgy and Bess
Gershwin (opera)
Elements of Performing Media
ChordophonesAerophonesMembranophonesIdiophonesVoice RangesInstruments
con anima
with animation; spirited
musical work or composition
quickly, rapidly, or immediately.
Sonny Rollins/ Clifford Brown
Pent-up House
Process of simultatneously composing and performing music.
marcato il canto
emphasize the melody
judge things from own perspective
Art Song can either be:
• Through-composed
• Strophic
where the neck starts the guitar.
was a large scale, multi-movement composition setting a seacred text.
Men voices from high to low
Jule Styne, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, book by Arthur Laurents
Ethel Merman
producer David Merrick 
Theme 1Motivic Development- Bits and pieces of theme that are thrown all over the orchestra
Born in Leipzig, GermanyLargely self-taught in music. Tried to make a name in Paris as an opera composer, but was met with indifference. He turned to music criticism and went broke for a while, even spent time in prison.
Richard Wagner
An instrumental suite common chiefly in the 18th century a set of variations
Chamber Music
Instrumental ensemble music in which there is one player for each part, as opposed to orchestral music in which there are many more players than parts.
1600- 1750
Baroque – Bach – “indoor” “church” music- not bands – played in rich people homes (string)- Council of Trent: determined music “ok” for churchi. choral musicii. string and key music
Coda –
concluding section, in effect serving as an extension of the tonic ending but building up to and creating anticipation of the final cadence
Francesca Caccini
composer from the florentine camerata, known for madrigals, operas, and some sacred works
Zart bewegt
tenderly; softly and delicately with motion
male or female between alto and tenor
generic term for folk band in Mexico
Sonata-Allegro Form
A B A overall
-1st movement=exposition (statement)
-2nd movement=development (fantasia)
-3rd movement=recapitulation (restatement)
movement or procedure with uniform or patterned recurrence of a beat, accent, or the like.
the scientific study of sound / a branch of Physics
What are the four main categories of voice?
More than one line or melody produced at the same time
music drama
term used for mature operas of Wagner
Low down the chariot
Doc reed and vera hall
In the light of such horrors, such destruction, artists turn to things that express
1. Disjunction
2. Anxiety
3. Hysteria
mezzo piano
somewhat louder than piano but softer than forte; moderately soft.
the mode of a scale / quality & character
Bela Fleck
Plays banjo; went to Africa to learn musical heritage
Franz Liszt
He is referred to as the “Paganini of the piano” Greatest pianist that ever lived. Astonished audiences with his proformance of Beethovens late works some considered "unplayable". He put the piano sideways dressed up with flamboyance. Long gloves which he would pass out to fans.  He pushed piano technique compositions and composed for piano and other forces. Piano composisitions are works big and small, and  other major composistions Todtentanz, Hungarian fantasia, rapsodie espagnole. Two piano concertos and a number of composistions he called Symphonic poems/tone poems. progoromatic single movement orchestral works.
He concieved the idea of what he called the Thematic transformation simillar to berlioz idee fixe.
sheet music samplers
played sheet music outside of music stores to advertise new songs
Born to an upper middle class familyhe had a good ear fro music he went to law school and became a clerk for the ministry of justice. But music called and he went back to school at the St. Petersburg Conservatory
Peter Tchaikovsky
High Lonesome Sound
High pitch male voice, harmony above melody
fuga (running away)
what latin term does the word fugue come from and what does it mean
What was the twelve-tone system?
a 20th century alternative to tonality, a new way of organizing pitch in a composition
Schubert - "Die Forelle" (The Trout) - art song
Title: DuhComposer: Franz SchubertStyle: RomanticInstruments Used: Voice and PianoDate/Musical Period: Romantic (1817)Outstanding Musical Elements: charming in the way it sets the atmospherePerformers:
retardando rit, ritard
A gradual slowing of the speed or tempo
The parts are-exposition, development, recapitulation
It is the second part of hte pattern described in #27
1200- 1400:
ars nova “new art” - hormonies began – more complex chant
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