Music an Appreciation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Piano
Soft
Crescendo
gradually louder.
Scott Joplin
Ragtime
Presto
Very fast tempo
sounds darker
minor key
Recitative
presents plot material
Motive
fragment of a theme
Chuck Berry
Rhythm and Blues
melismatic
many pitches per sylable
Ritornello
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
Monophonic
One sound/melody/voice with no accompaniment.
-ab -aba-genre: concerto-ritornello form
baroque film
What is a monophone?
one melody
Ecco Mormorar
Monteverdi
genre: ilalian madrigal
published 1590
-5 voices
subtle word painting
images of nature
the structure and relationship of chords
harmony
Key
(tonality) central note, scale, and chord within a piece, in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard.
Polonaise
Piece composed by Frederick Chopin, subnamed "Military", form is ABA1 and is a Polish dance.
musical nationalism
emphasizes indigenous qualities in their music. incorporates national anthems, native dances, protest songs, victory symphonies
dissonant
baroque musicians used _____ chords more freely to express emotion intensity and color
creates challenging vocal parts; harmonies are much more disonant; sounds divorced from the past
george crumb
Schoenberg developed an unusual style of vocal performance, halfway between speaking and singing, called
Sprechstimme
Symphony Woodwinds
Flute, Clarinet, Oboe, and Bassoon
repetition
a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of a number of those making the request, that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy, or other benefit:
the circuit of variety shows touring the country at the turn of the 20th century
vaudeville
Piano Trios
Standard chamber ensemble of piano with violin and cello.
Who was the greatest European composer of the 20th century?
Bartok
composer of The ballad of sweeney todd(disonant. operatic style of musical theatre. technically demanding.)
Sondheim
clergy
Members of the roman catholic church were called
tutti
word meaning "all"the part of the piece in which all of the instruments join in
vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instruments, based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative; generally consists of several movements including recitative, arias and ensemble numbers
cantata
Edgard Varèse\'s Poème électronique
All of the Above
opera
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition involving vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery.
leap
Interval larger than that between two adjacent tones in the scale.
cadenza
virtuosic solo passage in the manner of an improviasation performed near the end of a Recapitulation of a concerto.
interval
the difference in pitch between two tones, as between two tones sounded simultaneously
Circular Breathing
blowing out with your mouth while taking air in through your nose
col legno
(Italian for with the wood) an instruction to string players to strike the strings of the instrument not with the horsehair of the bow, but with the wood of it
Accent
Emphasis of a note, which may result from its being louder (dynamic accent), longer, or higher in pitch than the notes near it.
composer La traviata, Act I, scene vi (bel canto. romantic era.)
Verdi
baroque concerto
work based on contrast of dissimilar bodies of sound
What term is used for something that represents an object or a person in an opera?
leitmotivs
a stock of musical materials for a particular use
repertoire
What is paraphrase?
the modification and decoration of plainchant melodies i early Renaissance music.the embellished chants with extra notes, graceful rhythms
diminution
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are shortened.
Riternello
a continuing theme to tie a piece together
T/F: Bach came from a huge family and fathered many children, some of whom also became composers
True
Bedrich Smetana
Born in 1824 and died in 1884.  Founder of the Czech National Music.  Discouraged to be a musician.  Opens a school for Piano in 1848 and marries in 1849.  Wrote a lot of programmatic and nationalist music.  Went deaf (but quicker then Beethoven).
De Machaut
"Agnus Dei" From the Notre Dame Mass ppl Singing1
minor key sounds darker because of the
third scale degree
What is imitation?
musical texture in which the various melodic lines use approximately the same themes.
cadence
(1) Resting place at the end of a phrase in a melody. (2) Progression giving a sense of conclusion, often from the dominant chord to the tonic chord.
whole step
an interval of two semitones, as A-B or B-C♯; a major second.
Triple Meter
Quadruple Meter

Sextuple Meter
3 beats per measure
4 beats per measure

6 beats per measure
What quality was most prized by Romantic Artists?
integrity of personal feeling.
Describe the movements in a concerto.
1st movement-brigh extravagant piece, fast tempo,2nd movement-contrast, quieter, slower, and more emotional3rd movement-faster than first, fast again
Messiah: Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exalted, Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo Andante
Orchestral ritornelloby, George Frideric Handel, 1741
Which of these composers is in the Mighty Five? (one will be true)
Balakiev, Borodin, Cui, Rimskikorsakov, Musorgsky
Whole-tone scale
a 6 note scale where each pitch is a whole tone away from the next
What are concert overtures? give an example of one written by Felix Mendelsohnne.
genre resembling an opera overture without any opera,a Midsummer night's dream
What was Wagner's name for a distinctive type of opera?
musical drama because the operas were so long and hard to listen to
What is chromatism? and what period was it used?
Romantic period. It is a term for a style that liberally employs all twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
Intensity
loudness/softness
Baroque Period
1600-1750
leitmotif
establishes characters
rest
pauses in music
resolution of themes
recapitulation
Portuguese word meaning "pearl"
Baroque
Note
written symbol for tone
What is recapitulation?
step-by-step review
sonata du camera
chamber sonata
Development
The center-most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence;
often the most confrontational and ustable section of the movement
Who invented Sprechstimme?
 
  Arnold Schoenberg
 
opening section of a sonata
exposition
Joplin
born in Texarkana, Texascomposed Treemonisha (an opera)composed Maple Leaf Rag, Sectional dance form
the baroque suite
instrumental, multi-movement work
what instrument did chopin primarily write music for
piano
ID Percussion Instruments
ex: bass drum, cymbals
Monophony
one melodic line with no harmony
gestamtkunstwerk
"total are work" (wagner) generated more realistic drama
cantata
multi-movement work for the lutheran service that resembles baroque opera
opening melody (---) returns in different keys after each deatiled scene(---)
tuttisolo
Polyrhythm
2 or more rhythms sounding simultaneously
Gustav Mahler
Post romantic; german; ten symphonies
metronome
a mechanical or electrical instrument that makes repeated clicking sounds at an adjustable pace, used for marking rhythm, esp. in practicing music.
Georg Frederic Handel was ________, but found most of his success in _______________.
German, England
recital
a concert of chamber music, usually for a solo performer
Romantic Orchestra
Formed during Romantic Era between 1820 - 1900, orchestra grows beyond 100 members and includes the addition of the piccolo, contrabassoon and tuba.  Changes to both strings and piano change range and color.
Who was Khachaturian influenced by?
Gershwin & Ravel
prepared piano
piano's given screws, bolts, washers, erasers, and bits of felt and plastic to go from melodic to percussive
the Lute
plucked string instrument with a rounded back
struggled to find individual musical expression...burnt manuscripts of his music; in fear that others would go back and scrutinize it
johannes brahms
Lutheran cantata
multimovement works with solo arias, recitatives and choruses, all with orchestral accompaniment. Intended for lutheran church services
What are jongleurs?
a medieval secular musician, popular
lyric soprano
Rather light voice; sings roles calling for grace and charm.
Quadruple Meter
A repeating rhythmic pattern which contains one strong beat and three weak beats
"Spring" from the four seasons
3 movements:
1. allegro-fast
2.largo-slow
3.allegro-fast
Felix Mendelssohn
Had a violin concerto, incidental music, 5 symphonies, and one oratorio.
Beatriz
Married to one guy, lover of others. Strophic, Medieval, "I Must Sing"
syncopation
an accented note comes where we would normally not expect it (the offbeat note is accented)
Consonance
A combination of tones in harmony that is restful and stable
song cycle
a collection of several songs united by a common textual theme or literary idea to tell a story
motet
came out with the addition of new texts to organum
Who was the master of the lied?
Franz Schubert
an unprecedented expansion in the way an instrument (including voice) is treated by composers and performers
extended techniques
What was changed during the classical period and how?
rhythms-more varietydynamics-flexibility, now writtentone color-more flexibility
Allegro, First movement
Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, about 1721
chorale
Hymn tune sung to a German religious text.
program music
music intended to convey an impression of a definite series of images, scenes, or events.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Organist, many children, you know this guy. Baroque.
Neoclassical Music
Newer music that is composed to sound like Classical Music
solo concerto, concerto grosso
the two types of Baroque concerto
--- offer a good way to visualize the musical alphabet
pianos
What is galliard?
usually paired with pavane, a solemn dance in triple meter
swing band
Typically, a large band made up of fourteen or fifteen musicians grouped in three sections: saxophones, brasses, and rhythm. They play swing, a jazz style.
Franz Liszt
Had solo piano music, etudes, 2 piano concertos, symphonic poems for orchestra, and was a composer and virtuoso performer.
Who were members of the 2nd Vionese school?
Shoernberg, Webern, Berg
Who is Frederic Chopin?
mostly wrote for piano, born in Poland (half french, polish). elegance & refinement of French music, Romantic sound produced by him
When did Beethoven live and what were the years that were important in his life?
(1770-1827)1770-1800-most classical period1800-1818-most heroic1818-1827-most tragic and serene
pedal point (organ point)
Single tone, usually in the bass, which is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it; often found in fugues.
What is the lied?
a particular type of German song that evolved in the late eighteenth century and flourished in the nineteenth. had to be sung and accompanied by piano
Tio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10
Arcangelo Corelli, 1689
An example of aleatoric music is
John Cage\'s Imaginary Landscape No. 4 for twelve radios
purpose is to educate the public about religious choral music
handel and haydn society of boston
What is program music and what is it written in association to?
it is a term for nonvocal music written in association with a poem, a story, or some other literary source-or even just a highly suggestive word or 2
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