Music Appreciation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Allegro
fast
Decrescendo
Gradually softer
Ella Fitzgerald
Swing
Mezzo forte
Moderately loud
the symphony
new genre
Opera begin in
Italy
Pitch
highness/lowness of a tone
Louis Armstrong
New Orleans Style
keyboards
pipe organ, piano, hapsichard
-hapsichard:sound produced by mechanically plucking strings
-piano:expressive; key pressure affects dynamic level
Fugue
Subject, exposition, episode, pedal point. 3,4,or 5 parts.
RYTHEM
FLOW OF MUSIC THROUGH TIME
characteristic manner of presentation of musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, form, etc.)
style
Etude
a short one-movement composition designed to improve one aspect of a performer's technique
Marriage of figaro
Mozart
genre: opera buffa
librettist: Lorenzo da Ponte
in 4 acts: 3-4 hrs
language: italian
how loud or soft music is
dynamics
overture
one movement work, usually in sonata-allegro form, which foretells in music the essential dramatic events that will follow in an opera or play.
The Moldau
Nationalistic piece composed by Bedrich Smetna based on a river in Bohemia by same name.  From the works known as "My Country".  Symphonic poem.
sampling
reusing portions of a previously recorded sound and repeating it over and over then using it as a backdrop to the rap
polychoral
______ music led to boroque music
multiple movements are usually how many?
3
Ellen Taffee Zwilich\'s Concerto Grosso 1985 is an example of
quotation music
Brass
French horn, trumpet, trombone, and sometimes tuba
consonant
(in English articulation) a speech sound produced by occluding with or without releasing (p, b; t, d; k, g), diverting (m, n, ng), or obstructing (f, v; s, z, etc.) the flow of air from the lungs (
where is johan de meij from
the netherlands
piano transcription
transformation and reduction of an orchestral score, and a piece of orchestral music, onto the great staff for playing at the piano.
Septet
A piece for seven instruments or voices. Seven performers.
What was Ravel inspired by?
sound of waters
composer of Carmen "l'amour est un oiseau rebelle" habanera (realistic opera. romantic era. exoticism.)
Bizet
peasants
serfs, the people who worked the land
a remake of an older/ previous song
cover
a short, melodic rhythm or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
ostinato
Tchaikovsky\'s Romeo and Juliet is a(n)
concert overture
librettist
Dramatist who writes the libretto, or text, of an opera.
Bach
never left Germany
not well known in lifetime
1. Weimar-organ
2.Cothen-secular
3.Leipzig-contatas
Robert Shumann
Had song cycles, piano music, concertos, and 4 symphonies.
Besse Smith
- Began with Spirituals, worked her way into the saloons singing blues
- "Lost Your Head Blues"
song cycle
a collection of several songs united by a common textual theme or literary idea
Tone
Sound that has a definite pitch, or frequency.
bel canto
type of italian opera that features the beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice
soprano
the chorale melody is in ____ voice part
Bullini and Donsitti were considered what type of opera composers?
italian bel canto
sounds divorced from the past; his harmonies are much more dissonant and creates very challenging vocal parts that many singers are unable to perform
george crumb
What occured during the Renaissance?
the beginning of homophony
basso continuo
Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments: a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument.
triad
a chord of three tones, esp. one consisting of a given tone with its major or minor third and its perfect, augmented, or diminished fifth.
Where does the text from "The Messiah" by Georg Frederic Handel come from
the Bible
Hector Berlioz
Born in 1803, died in 1869.  Family wanted him to become a doctor.  1826 enters Paris Conservatory, infatuated with Harriet Smithsom.  Composed Symphonie Fantastique.
Melody
a series of pitches that seem to have a unified whole, singable vs. nonsingable
lyric song in ternary form commonly found in operas, contatas, and oratorios. (form:aba)
da capo aria
What is ground bass?
music constructed literally from the bottom up, "repeated harmonies"
note
In notation, a black or white oval to which a stem and flags can be added.
texture
the quality given, as to a musical or literary work, by the combination or interrelation of parts or elements.
dotted rhythm
dotted note followed by a note that is much shorter
What theme starts Romeo and Juliet?
love and vindeta? romantic strings
What is a concerto?
latin word to contest, to contend contest between solo and orchestra
theme and variations
Form in which a basic musical idea (the theme) is repeated over and over and is changed each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color. Used either as an independent piece or as one movement of a larger work.
What were Verdi’s last two works?
Otello, 5 February 1887Falstaff, 9 February 1893 ?
Art song (Lied)
a genre of song for voice and piano accompaniment with high artistic inspirations
Who were some famous composers of the 20th century?
Serge Rachmaninov, Giacoma, Puccinni, Tosca
What are miniatures? How were they titled and how long did they usually last?
pieces lasting only a few minutes, 5-10 minutes. named after ppl. or songs
What did the orchestra have in it during the Baroque period?
6 violins, 6 cellos, 12 violas, 2 contra bass, and 1 harp
Forte
Loud
p
piano; soft
legato
connected style; smooth
Miles Davis
cool jazz
Itzhak Perlman plays the
violin
TIMPANI-
KETTLE DRUMS,DEFINITE PITCH,SHAPED LIKE LARGE KETTLES WITH CALFS SKIN OR PLASTIC STRECHED ACROSS TOPS PLAYED WITH SOFT PADDED MALLETS
Bartók
Hungarycomposed Concerto for Orchestra
polyphonic composition
usually 1 movement
Recapitulation
Themes return in original order
large-scale dramatic genre originating in the baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo, chorus or orchestra
oratorio
tempo
Basic pace of the music.
Bach was the inspiration what?
master
father of the modern orchestra
hector berlioz
Conductor
coordinates the performers and shapes the interpretation of a musical composition
Interval
"Distance" betweenpitch in between any two tones.
absolute music
symphonies, sonatas, quartets, and other instrumental music with no extramusical or programmatic references
What was Chopin's outstanding ability?
Writing melodies
keyboard instrument where the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers
harpsichord
Blues
an expressive, soulful style of singing that emerged from the African American spiritual and work song at the end of the 19th century
Cadence
Stable and restful combination of tones, points of rest
Mazurka
Polish nationalism, rhythms of Polish dances of the same name.
Spirituals
The root of jazz; African American community
romance
a slow, lyrical piece, or movement within a larger work, for instruments, or instrument and voice, much favored by composers of the Romantic period
Rigoletto
Opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi in 1850 based on the play "The Kings Fool" written by Victor Hugo which was banned in France.  Story was modified to be performed in Italy with the King replaced by a Duke.
Who wrote "Jeux D'eau" and "Joie Devivre"?
Ravel
motive
fargment of a theme; short musical idea that is developed within a composition
is based on a musical organization system called tonality
key
Henry Purcell
1659-1695part of Mid-Baroque opera in England. A leading English composer and organist.- Used "masque-precedent" (?). - wrote song called "Dido and Aeneas" based on Dido/Aeneas myth.
What is the performances of voices singing along?
acapella
aria
Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas.
Hildegard von Bingen
earliest known female composer. founder of abbey in Bingen, Germany. she was a composer, poet, scientist. known as a prophet.
concerto
composition for one or more principal instruments, with orchestral accompaniment
Guillame de Machaut
Poet, composer, secular and sacred songs, medieval, Kyrie de Nostra Dama
sequence
repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch
Tone Color/Timbre
The Particular sound quality of a voice or instrument
music concrete
composer works with sounds not of instruments but of those naturally in the everyday world
Hildegard of Bingen
Composer; a poet, prophet, and religios leader. Wrote Scivias abd symphony of celestial revelations
Who was Verdi?
popular, started writing operas late, most popular w/Italians, wrote Aida, most famous opera connected with arais
half steps occur between scale degrees 3-4 and 7-8
major scale
How many movements does a string quartet have?
4 movements
voice categories of opera
coloratura soprano; lyric soprano; dramatic soprano; lyric tenor; dramatic tenor; basso buffo; basso profundo
Conjunct
A melodic line that moves in small, step wise intervals
monophonic
of or noting a system of sound recording and reproduction using only a single channel.
Sonata form
a musical form having 3 sections -- exposition and development and recapitulation (coda)
Recitative, Aria
the two main components of opera are ______ and _______.
--- is said to resolve to the tonic because the ear hears this progression as a strong motion that logically proceeds to the tonic
dominant
What is counterpoint?
forms of polyphony when played along with other lines
tempo indication
Words, usually at the beginning of a piece of music, often in Italian, which specify the pace at which the music should be played.
pentatonic scale
a scale having five tones to an octave, as one having intervals that correspond to the five black keys of a piano octave.
two-part form (A B)
gives a sense of statement and counterstatement
What other story did Wagner compose? what did he use for it?
Tristan and Iso-story, leitmotiv
Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
had influence on comic opera which became the most progressive operatic form of the classical century
libretto
the text or script of an opera which a composer sets mucsic to. a person who writes a liberetto is a librettist.
What did Felix Mendelsohnne write? and who is he?
composed since early age, wrote concert overtures written in sonata forms
description of concerto grosso
1. for small group of soloists + orchestra 2. multi-movement work 3. usually 3 movements (fast, slow, fast)
In chance, or aleatory music the composer
chooses pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods
The most famous riot in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of
Igor Stravinsky\'s The Rite of Spring
Mozart
child prodigy
pianoforte
a piano.
Ars Nova
"New Art"
Baroque (late phase)
1680-1750
major,minor 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The medieval church modes gradually gave way to the
 
_________ and _________ scales in the middle baroque.
the words to a song
lyrics
1797-1860 fell under which period?
Romantic
Who wrote Nocturne No. 2?
Chopin
Stile Rappresentativo
A.K.A. representational style. Consists of a melody that moved freely over a foundation of simple chords. Resulted from the Camerata.
Concert Band
band lacks string instruments
Richard Strauss
Composer for program music.
Who wrote "Fur Elise"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Madrigal
Secular music with or without instruments set to a poem.
antiphonal
groups singing in alternation, then together
Which composer was elected to Government Office?
Verdi
combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution
dissonance
Contrabasson
Double-reed woodwind instrument with a register one octave lower than that of the bassoon.
Chorus
groups of actors playing crowd parts
Ringo Starr was not the original drummer for the Beatles. He joined the group in what year?
1962
Idiomatic writing
musical composition that exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments
Movements for a Symphony
FAST(SONATA), SLOW(THEME AND VARIATIONS), DANCE(MINUET AND TRIO), FAST(RONDO)
CONCERT MASTER
PRINCIPLE 1ST VIOLINIST IN AN ORCHESTRA
Palestrina
LIving from 1525-1594, He was an italian composer associated with the Counter-reformation
Which composer started a music magazine due to a damaged hand?
robert schumann
bach's two volumes of the well tempered ---, each which contained a prelude and fugue of all twelve major keys and all twelve minor keys
clavier
through-composed
song structure that is composed form beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections. opposite is strophic
Virtuoso
an instrumentalist or singer with a highly developed technical facility
dynamics
Degrees of loudness or softness in music.
Theme
Melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music
solo concerto
piece for single soloist and orchestra
A pre-composed piece of music meant to sound improvised
toccata
syllabic singing
style of singing in which each syllable of text has one note
Scale
A series of tones or pitches in ascending or descending order. Scale tones are often assigned numbers (1-8) or syllables (do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do).
Gregorian Chant
Plain Chant/Song - monophonic - texts are most important - mostly non-secular
Key Signature
Composer uses KS, consisting of sharp or flat signs immediately following the clef sign at the beginning of the staff
What type of meolodies did Mendelssohn make?
lyrical melodies
all contrapuntal music and especially fugues can be quite...
difficult to create
programmatic music
instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association provided by the composer (whereas absolute music has no pictorial meaning). has 3 programmatic genres: symphonic poem, programmatic symphony, incidental music.
string instrument
Instrument whose sound is produced by the vibration of strings.
Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix
-Hildegard von Bingen
latin text; genre: gregorian chant
basic ternary form: ABA
monophonic texture
lots of melismas
More than half the instruments in an orchestra belong to which group?
string section
ORGAN STOPS
VARIOUS SETS OF PIPES ARE BROUGHT INTO PLAY BY PULLING KNOBS CALLED STOPS
prelude
played before any act besides Act I as an introduction
"The Four Seasons"
by Vivaldi, written in 1723. Most popular concerto. A violin concerto. Each concerto has three movements and is named after a season. Texture is varied and resembles the season. Four sonnets to be read with concerti.
What is the word and symbol for loud?
forte "f"
Dominant
Triad built on the fifth step of the scale
during the 1800s, the highest award in compostion in europe
prix de rome
 
Who wrote Rite of Spring? How would you describe the reaction of the audience to the first performance of this composition?
 
 
Stravinsky; Audiences were probably shocked and fearful because the music portrayed violence and that is something people of the times were accustomed to. This piece in particular depicted human sacrifice in the fertility ceremonies of primitive Slavic tribes.
 
Piano music characteristics
Used at home and a popular solo instrument for virtuosos. Technological developments (factory production) in the nineteenth century led to creation of modern concert grand piano. Allowed for access of piano to the masses.The rise of the virtuosic pianist was characteristic of the genre.
When is the theme presented?
in the beginning of the piece
Binary Form
Two part form (A B) Form that can be represented as statemet (A) and counerstatement (B). {AA BB}
describe the 1st theme of fugue presented.
1. soprano-one melody, subject2. alto-subject with new melody3. tenor-subject appears in another voice4. bass-subject play in particular melody
Who was Melormay associated with? And which ballet?
(Symbolist) Debucci. Afternoon of a faun.
What are chords?What is the simplest chord?
number of standard groupings of simultaneous pitches.3 note cord
What was the Comedia Del Arte and who used it?
Origins in renaissance, Shumann used chars. Shoernberg too. (Clowns)
plucking strings
pizzacato
non religious
secular
a jazz-like "slide"
glissando
Chamber Orchestra
small orchestra
consonance
pleasing or harmonious
Who was a jew?
Mendhellson
used an oratoria genre
handel
where is gustav holst from
england
Atonal
Total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation.
bass
lowest range of human voice
Ritornello
A short, recurring instrumental passage in Baroque aria and concerti, particularly in a tutti section.
Robert Schumann
Impassioned Melodies; "Song Cycle"
In what year did Elvis die?
1977
Woodwind Quintets
Standard chamber ensemble consisting of one each of the following: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and French horn (not a woodwind instrument).
MIDI
USED FOR INTERFACING SMNTHESIZER EQUIPTMENT- MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACING
instrumental music
mostly improvised, more secular because it has no words
In what form is the “Erlking”?
lied
Corelli
(1653-1713) Italian composer of trio sonatas. Style represented Baroque period. Most famous for 12 concert grossi. Played violin.
clavichord
Baroque keyboard instrument in which sound is produced by means of brass blades striking strings, capable of making gradual dynamic changes, but within a narrow volume range.
who wrote romeo and juliet, ballet
peter tchaikovsky
Opera Seria
Serious opera
-dealt w/ nobility and glorifies them
Crescendo
he dynamic effect of gradually growing louder, indicated in the musical score by the marking "
Motet
A vocal polyphonic composition for 3 or 4 voices based on gregorian chant (cantus firmus) using a sacred latin text
HOMOPHONIC
ONE MAIN MELODY IS ACCOMPANIED BE CHORDS
Homophony
Combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called, Counterpoint - one main melody accompanied by chords
What caused controversy in piano concerto by Liszt?
the triangle
How many characters are in the “Erlking”?
3
imitative polyphony was a common --- used during the baroque era
texture
. Mendelssohn wrote in all musical forms except
Operas
Exoticism
-use of sounds from outside the traditional Western European music experience-popular w/ late 19th century composers
downbeat
First, or stressed, beat of a measure.
a theme that recurs throughout a symphony to establish countinuity
idee fixe
Igor Stravinsky
Russian born composer born into a musical family.  Commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev to compose music, first piece was Firebird.  Composed Rite of Spring as well.  Moved to Switzerland in 1914 and US in in 1939.  Received Grammy for Lifetime Music.
TIMBRE-TONE COLOR
QUALITY OF A SOUND THAT DISTINGUISHES ONE INSTRUMENT OR VOICE FROM ANOTHER
Pope Gregory
Pope from 590-604 HE reorganized the liturgy assigning a particular chant to each part of the service
continuo
one part that takes two people to performa base line (cell, bassoon) and low melody (harpsichord, organ)
-famous and profilic violinist and teacher-music teacher at orphanage and school-composed over 500 concertos-four seasons (1725)
antonio vivaldi (1678-1741)
An artistic trend of the 1890s, in which operas dealt with ordinary people and true-to-life situations, was known as
verismo
Prepared piano
a piano outfitted w/ screws, bolts, washers, erasers, and bits of felt and plastic to transform the instrument from a melodic one to a percussive one
stem
Vertical line on a note indicating how long that note is to be held relative to the notes around it.
what was the binary form for the baroque suite
aabb
who wrote the phantom of the opera
andrew lloyd webber
broken chord (arpeggio)
individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another
Minnelied
It is a German secular song from the MIddle ages
What do we call music without singing yet is derived from a poem, etc
program music
symphonic poem
a.k.a. tone poem. a piece of program music for orchestra, in one movement, which in the course of contrasting sections develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene or creates a mood. gave composers flexibility.
Col legno
- an instruction to string players to strike the strings of the instrument with the wood of the bow
strophic form
multiple verses are sung over the same melody
Two Elements of Jazz
1. Swing: long, short, long, short
2. Improvising: the tune disappears
viols and vielles
They are bowed strings popular in the Renaissance
What is a fugue?
a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices,usually 3 or 4-built on a single principal theme
What is an exposition?
the section of the sonata form movement
Two parts of an Opera
Aria- an elaborate performance by a solo singer expressing themselvesRecitative- moves the plot forward
Who was the most famous Romantic composer? what nationality was her? what did he write?
Chopin, Polish, wrote 3 sonatas
monophonic texture, collected by pope gregory the great, conjunt movement
gregorian chant has ___ texture, was collected by ____, and has ___ movement
Three movies that Elvis starred in that featured his own music were?
Love Me Tender, Jailhouse Rock and King Creole
Who was Giovanni Palestrina? when was he born and where?
born in 1525-1594, born in Italy, he wrote hundreds of Masses
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