Music Appreciation FInal Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Molto
much
contrast
provides variety
Thekinious Monk
Bebop
Mezzo piano
Moderately soft.
elaboration of themes
development
First known opera
Euridice
Who incorporated the flexatone?
Khachaturian
Twelve-tone compositional techniques used to organize rhythm, dynamics, tone color, and other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are called
Serialism
syllabic
one pitch per sylable
Recitative
musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
TAMBOURINE
PERCUSSION OF INDEFINITE PITCH CONSTRUCTED OF A SKIN STRETCHED ACROSS A SHALLOW CYLINDER WITH SMALL CIRCULAR PLATES SET INTO THE CYLINDER WHICH JINGLE WHEN THE SKIN IS STRUCK OR CYLINDER IS SHAKEN
maria callas was a
prima donna
Cover
new version of a standard
brass
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
-made of metal
-sound production:vibration of air
-mouth pieces
means "beautiful singing" in Italian
Bel canto
absolute music
symphonies, sonatas, quartets, and other instrumental music without extramusical or programmatic references.
Gilda
Character in Rigoletto, daughter of main character; center of the story.  Love interest of the Duke.  Killed due to misfortune and wrong identity.
leitmotif
brief, distinct unit of music. represents a character, an object, or an idea (starwars: wagner) which returns repeatedly to show how the drama unfolds
camerata
monody was first cultivated by _____
eline kleine nachtmusik
a little night music
Appalachian Spring originated as a
ballet score
Glissando
A gradual sliding of a pitch
consonance
a simultaneous combination of tones conventionally accepted as being in a state of repose.
who wrote jesus christ superstar
andrew lloyd webber
rubato
in musical notation, a tempo mark indicating that the performer may take, steal, great liberties with the tempo.
Sergei Diaghilev
Commissioned Igor Stravinsky to create musical pieces after finding his music.  First piece commissioned was Firebird that also put Stravinsky "on the map".
Who wrote "Romanian Dance No. 1", "Music for strings, percussion & celeste" ?
Bartok
composer of violin concerto in D major(romantic era. absolute music.)
Brahms
ordinary
texts that remain the same for everyday mass
suite
previous dance term in which each dancer has a different movement;
 multi-movement instrumental chorus
the return to emotional expression associated with 19th century romanticism
new romanticism
Vivaldi
(1678-1741)Grew up in Venice. He was a music master at music schools in Venice. Violinist, did solo concertos. Made the Four Seasons. Invented idea of contrast between soloist and the orchestra. Wrote more than 500 concertos, about half were for solo violin concertos. Composed chamber music and vocal music, too.
What kind of troubadours performed in Germany?
Minnesingers
prelude
(1) Short piece usually serving to introduce a fugue or other composition; a short piece for piano. (2) Short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood. Orchestral introductions to later acts of an opera are called preludes.
Cantata
developed as part of the Lutheran service
based on chorale melody
used as central part of church service
several movements
15-30min long
Nocturne
Night piece. It is gentle and reflective.
Louis Armstrong
- Born is New Orleans
- Trumpet player
- Moved to Chicago working in Speakeasies during prohibition
- Known as "Pops Armstrong"
- Played as long as he gets to choose the trombone and clarinet player and rhythm section
- Invented Scat singing (vocalizing a melody)
- Forgot the words on stage so he made up the syllables
- "Someday You'll Be Sorry" = scats
- Named the Ambassador of Music by the White House
mazurka
a fast dance of Polish origins in triple meter with an accent on the second beat
Declamation
setting the rhythm of music to the normal rhythmic patterns of the language used
col legno
instructions to strings to strike the strings with the wood of the bow instead of the sting
Florentine Camerata
Opera was created by the ______
What would be the translation for a “night piece”?
nocturn
combining multiple --- --- into a polyphonic composition with smooth, constant, pleasing harmonies
melodic lines
What was the most popular instrument during the Renaissance era?
the lute
augmentation
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are lengthened.
triplet
In notation of rhythm, three notes of equal duration grouped within a curved line with the numeral 3, lasting only as long as two notes of the same length would normally last.
Be-Bop
- Musicians are out of work, moves to the after hour clubs in Chicago, Detroit, and New York
- Become coffee houses
- Musicians playing for each other
- Mixture of young learning artists and big band artists
Claude Debussy
Born in 1862 died in 1918.  French born composer from a non-musical family.  Attends Paris Conservatory and was considered a "natural rebel".  Enters Prix de Rome in 1884.  Well traveled but very egotistical and pompous.  Honored as Greatest Living Composer at the time.
The Christian Church
Center of power during the middle ages
new symphony:1. allegro2.slow movement3.minuet4.allegro
(in sonata form)(free form)(in minuet form)(in sonata form)
What is oratio?
basically an opera on a religious subject
flat sign
Symbol which notates a pitch one half step lower than the pitch that would otherwise be indicated- for example, the next lower key on the piano.
key signature
(in notation) the group of sharps or flats placed after the clef to indicate the tonality of the music following.
cadence
resting place at the end of a phrase - point of arrival
What does the piano intro in the “Erlking” bring to mind (what does it sound like)?
horse hooves/ excitement
What is variation form? second movement of a concerto
entails the successive uninterrupted repitition of one cleaerly defined melodic unit, with changes that causes the listener's interest w/out losing touch with the theme.
tone cluster
Chord made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart, used in twentieth-century music.
Know which composers is a Romantic Composer?
Schubert, berlinz, verdi, wagner, tchickovsy, bromz, mohler,
Ground bass (basso ostinato)
Variation form in which a musical idea in the bass is repeated ove and over while the melodies above it constantly change; common in baroque music.
In every big city was it built?
an opera house as a landmark
between a and b is a pitch called both
a sharp and b flat
Who was Thomas Weelkes? When was he born?
one of the best composers of English madrigal. born in 1575-1623
aba
ternary
RITARDARDO
BECOMING SLOWER
ritardando
becoming slower
The Modern Period
1900-today
Ornette Coleman
Free Jazz
related to the ear
aural
Duke Ellington
C Jam Blues
phrases
Parts of a melody.
Bach was from where?
Germany
Bass
male voice of low range
dynamics
Degree of loudness or softness
completely on the computer-
digital sampling
Triangle
Percussion instrument of indefinite pitch, consisting of a triangular length of metal suspended from a hook or cord, played by striking with a metal rod.
mood of baroque music?
one mood
who wrote the mikado
gilbert and sullivan
complete cadence
gives a sense of finality
Rennaissance composers to know
Desprez, Palestrina, Weelkes
Hildegard of Bingen
"O-Successores" women chanting 1
How many nocturnes did Chopin write?
21
tonic and dominant is important because these two chords are often used for
cadenses
West Side Story
composed by Bernsteinmusical theater
Ritornello
a short recurring instrumental passage often found in Baroque arias and concertos
recapitulation
the modified restatement of the exposition following the development section in a sonata-form movement.
Ostinato
a musical phrase repeated over and over during a composition
tie
another way to lengthen the duration of a note; first note lengethened by the duration of the second
Idee Fixe
Melody found in Symphonie Fantastique; fixed idea found in each movement of a piece.
Counterpoint
technique of combining 2 or more melodies at the same time
atonal music
music without tonality, music without a key center, associated with avant-garde style of schoenberg
monteverdi
the first master of opera was ______
What country gave rise to nationalism in music?
?
-comes from the word "eight", just like the words "octopus" and "octagon"-the two a sounds will sound consonant
octave
Musica Transalpina
1588. Books with italian madrigal verses translated into english. Music was retained though. Created by John Farmer, an English Madrigal composer.
What was the Enlightenment's greatest artistic legacy to 19th and 20th centuries?
the novel
trio sonatas
Baroque composition with three melodic lines: two high ones, each played by one instrument; and a basso continuo, played by two instruments.
tone
a musical sound with pitch and duration
Kalenda Maya
genre: troubador dance song; about courtly love
melody probably not by raimbaut
strophic form; 6 strophes
MONOPHONIC texture!!
sonata
a composition for one or two instruments, typically in three or four movements in contrasted forms and keys.
Terraced Dynamics
the Baroque practice of suing sudden changed in dynamics, as opposed to a gradual increase or decrease in volume
The sonata and rondo are from which period?
Classical
Texture
How many layers or musical ideas can be heard at once in a piece
Guillamume de Machaut
foremost composer-poet of Ars Nova; wrote clergy and secular music
What are symphonic poems?
a one-movement orchestral composition with a program in a free musical form
Genre: mass
Used a full-scale musical form during the Renaissance. Josquin des Prez made lots of masses. Has six sections of the mass: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei.
What is syncopation?
one way of obtaining interesting striking effects in music is to diplace the accents in a foreground rythm away from their normal position on the beats of the background meter.
basso profundo
Very low range, powerful voice; takes roles calling for great dignity.
Disjunct
A melodic line that moves in large, skipping intervals
Fredrick Chopin
Had solo piano music like nocturnes, etudes, preludes, polonaises, mazurkas, waltzes, and 2 piano concertos.
Melody
Series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole.
Cantus Firmus
Fixed song or Gregorian Chant on which 3 or 4 part motets or madrigals are based in middle ages and Rennaisance
Josquin das Pres
person we associate with the motet; most influential composer of the renaissance
two chords often used as cadences; built on the fifth scale degree
tonic and dominant
What period followed the Romantic period? and then after this period?
impressionistic period, contemporary music
Suite No. 3 in D Major
Johann Sebastian Bach, 1729-1731
libretto
the text or words of an opera or similar extended musical composition.
Symphony Form - MINUET AND TRIO
a dance section, ABA form
in addition to a tonic pitch, there is also a
tonic triad
What are the four movements of Haydn's symphony # 95?
1st-sonata2nd-slow movement -varition form-theme, var.1,2,33rd-minuet form4th-rondo form
Monteverdi worked where for 30 years?
at St. Mark's in Venice
Describe Stravinsky's ballads and name 3.
lack of emotions in his music, Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring
what was sig. about Vivaldi
taught music at girl's orphanage in Venice
what kind of music occured during the middle ages?
chants, plainchants in churches, singing words
Describe the parts of the double-exposition form.
orchestra plays in tonic key the 1st theme and then 2nd theme, candence theme, 1st theme, the bridge, soloist plays 2nd theme and cadence in tonic key, then soloist & orchestra plays
Impressionism








 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 










atmosphere and mood take the place of strong emotion, or of
the story in program music


1600-1750
baroque dates?
etudes
study pieces
PIANISSIMO
SOFTLY AS POSSIBLE
Baroque (early phase)
1600-1640
Gioacchino Rossini was from
Italy
many
mellismatic has ____ syllables
non troppo
not too much
who wrote minute waltz
frederic chopin
ID String Instruments
ex: guitar, violin
modes
scale patterns, siggest melodic contours
kips over one pitch
whole steps
upbeat
Unaccented pulse precding the downbeat.
Dates of the baroque period?
1600-1750
who wrote porgy and bess
george gershwin
Opera houses opened in which period?
Baroque
Homophony
One musical idea with harmonic accompaniment or 2 musical ideas
Renaissance
Literally, it mean "rebirth". IT refers to the 15th and 16th centuries and is characterized by a renewed interest in all things classical
aerophones
instruments that produce sound using air
-it returns either completely or partially-with different keys-solo episodes as modulation
ritornello
episodes
Transitional section in a fugue between presentations of the subject, which offers either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject.
ars nova
new art
-growing complexity
-end of middle ages (1300-1400)
What string instrument can play the highest notes of all stringed instruments?
violin
Oratorio
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
step
interval between two adjacent tones in the "do-re-mi" scale
Electronic Music
use of computers for music. MIDIPrimary Composer- Edgar Varese
Pope Marcellus
Received a dedicated mass by Palestrina for his abonishment of choir during holy week because of poor vocals.
primma donna
leading female singer in an opera
italy, england
madrigals started in _____, then spread to ______.
What instrument did Chopin not write for?
piano
-western european and american music is based on a limited numer of pitches that are then combined in almost limitless ways
musical alphabet
Frederic Chopin
1810-1849.all his works were centered around piano. Half polish, half french originated modern piano style, used rubato. Lived and worked in Paris. created etudes, meditative nocturnes, preludes, and dances. Created mazurkas and 4 ballades. educated at the Conservatory of Warsaw. Befriended novelist George Sand. Chopin died of Tuberculosis at age 39.
What is the word for gradually getting faster?
accelerando
instrument
any mechanism, other than the voice, that produces musical sounds
Overtures
introduction to opera; got made into its own piece.
what spiritual background was Bach?
lutheran, deeply religious
In what year did the Beatles announce their breakup?
1970
Kochel (K) number
identifies all of mozarts 600+ compositionsin chronological order
What is Ostinado?
Repetitive figure (minimalism) Used in beginning of Erl King.
Who wrote a peice for piano in percussive style?
Prokofiev
Sackbut
IT is a middle ages brass instrument, the forerunner of the trombone
pope marcellus mass, polyphonic
the ______ mass retained intelligibility of sacred text and even had a _____ texture
senses the hand gestures of the performer, sent to a computer which translates these movements into sounds
gestural glove
Libretto
text or script of an opera prepared by a librettist. A librettist writes the texts of an opera work.
What is rythm?
the main driving force for music.
syncopation
Accenting of a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat. Syncopation is a major characteristic of jazz.
Richard Strauss
Don Waun- official composer of the third write
rondo
a work or movement, often the last movement of a sonata, having one principal subject that is stated at least three times in the same key and to which return is made after the introduction of each subordinate theme.
George Sand
the pen name of Aurore Dudevant, the author who was Chopin's lover and protector
KEY TONALITY
cENTRAL NOTE SCALE AND CHORD WITHIN A PIECE IN TEALTIONSHIP TO WHICH ALL OTHER TONES IN A COMPOSITION ARE HEARD
What time period did Schumann live in?
Early Romantic Period
who wrote not just more idle chatter (1988)
paul lansky
What is sonata form?
contrasting two forms, theme must contrast
thematic transformation
Alteration of the character of a theme by means of changes indynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section; often found in romantic music.
The Beatles moved from simple love songs to songs about changes taking place in 1960's society? Two albums produced during this time were?
Rubber Soul and Revolver
"The Red Priest"
Nickname for Vivaldi - due to the color of his hair.
allows a computer to respond to a live performer
gestural controller
What are the common tempo indications?
slow:adagiowalking,on the slow side: andantemoderate:moderate speedon the fast side: allegrettofast:allegro, very fast:presto
What is an orchestra?
a group of musicians who play musical instruments
fagues and fugal passages were often included in compositions for --- --- or in --- ---
instrumental ensembles larger vocal works
Who were the main songwriters for the Beatles?
John Lennon and Paul McCartney
What are melodies like in symphonies during the classical period?
shorter and easier to memorize, usually repeated sereral times during the movement
What woodwind instruments are included in the classical orchestra?
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, and 2 bassoons
sacred
religious
-contrast-return-exposition>development>recapitulation
sonata form
German art song
lied
Tempo
Speed of music
Homophonic
Melody and Harmony
note
written symbol representing music
Who composed Valkyrie?
Richard wagner
Franz Liszt
chromatic; choral music
who wrote the erlking
franz schubert
Which composer resided in LA?
Stravinksy
Pitch
highest/lowest sound of a tone
Rubato
Characteristic of romantic music. fluctuation in tempo, aka "borrowed time". The performer hesitates or hurries forward at some point in the song, lends to flexibility.
lied
german art song (Franz Schupert)
alto
the highest male voice; countertenor.
Style
Product of melody, rhythm, harmony, color, texture, and form.
Canon
Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.
PIANO
SOFT ALSO WIDLY USED DEYBOARD INSTRUMENT GREAT RANGE AND VERSATILITY OF SOUND PRODUCED BY FELT HAMMERS STRINKING STEEL STRINGS
palestrina
who wrote the poper marcellus mass
Which composer only wrote one opera?
shumann
Chanson
a secular polyphonic piece in French.
Fugue
Polyphonic composition based on one main theme, or subject.
the baroque suite was dance inspired
yup
period during which jazz came to be
contemporary
transition (bridge)
In sonata-allegro form, the unstable section in which the tonality changes from tonic to dominant in preparation for the appearance of a 2nd theme
Through-Composed
Song structure that is composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections.
OCTAVE
440 VIBRATINS TO 880 VIBRATIONS TWICE THE FREQUENCY OF THE LESSER TONE INTERVALS BETWEEN 2 SOUNDS
Morley
He was a renaissance madrigal composer known for ayres and ballett-style madrigals
syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
3 types of chant melodies
How does the Romantic Composer treat Tone Color?
enthusiastically
performed bach's st. matthew passion in 1829
felix mendelssohn
Johanne Brahms
1833-1897. Born in Hamburg. Played violin. Arranged to meet Schumann at a young age, mentored by him. he was attracted to Schumann's wife, Clara. Settled in Vienna. Wrote "A german requiem" based on his mother's death.Music was traditionalist, draws upon traditional elements. Wrote orchestral, chamber, solo music and piano music. He was intimidated by Beethoven whhen writing symphonies.
Gesamtkunstwerk
-an art that involves music, poetry, drama, and scene design-often used in reference to Wagner's music dramas
rhythm
Ordered flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music.
Harmony
How chords are constructed and follow each other
orchestra movements of baroque music?
pauses between movements
period in which emphasis in music was placed on order, elegance, and beauty
classical
Strophic
The same part played over and over again.
REGISTRAR
PART OF THE TOTAL RANGE OF AN INSTRUMENT OR VOICE -THE TONE COLOR OF THE INSTRUMENT OR VOICE MAY VARY WITH THE REGISTRAR IN WHICH IT IS PLAYED OR SUNG
Years of the Middle Ages or the Medieval period
500-1450
Handel, Bach
The two musical giants of the baroque were ____
and ____.
-also use of binary and ternary forms-genre:symphony-sonata form
classical form
Basso Continuo
continuous bass, bass line that is never silent
clef
Symbol placed at the beginning of the staff to show the exact pitch of notes placed on each line and space.
melisma
a vowel that is stretched out over many pitches.
Where what city and state was Elvis born?
Tupelo, Mississippi
What piece did Scott Joplin write?
The Maple Leaf Rag
fusion
new style of jazz in the 1960s it incorporated many elements of rock
What is characteristic of all nationalistic music?
folk music is incorporated
"Dido and Aeneas"
An opera by Henry Purcell. First performed in 1689. Has three acts, lasts an hour. Based on the Aeneid. Uses lament and continuo. Has descending ground bass aria, composed for a girls' school. Recitative sung by Dido (mezzo-soprano), followed by descending ground bass aria.
Ragtime
an early type of jazz emerging in the 1980s and characterized by a steady bass and a sycopated, jazzy treble
"Little" Fugue in G Minor
genre: organ fugue
4 voice imitation
separate distinct enterances
Big Band Era (1920's)
- Dancing became the craze
- Dixieland band wasn't loud enough
- Built dance halls
- 17-24 players, front line are seated: 4 or 5 Saxophones. Behind, 4 or 5 Trombones (filled harmony). Behind them, 4 or 5 Trumpets (add volume). Sides are Rhythm section: Piano, bass and drums and sometime guitar (provide the rhythm)
- Play along with the big band but double everything
- Added a soloist
Chromatic Scale
The 12 tones of an octave. All white and black keys in one octave on the piano
The Erlking is an example of an art song, and was composed by
Franz Schubert
What is form in music?
the elements form and organization relationship that connects those beginnings, middles, and ends.
La Sacre du Printemps means what?
Rite of Spring by Stravenski (primitive folklore)
What is plainchant? whats another name for it?
a great repertory of melodies designated for the many religious texts to be sung at services throughout the year, gregorian chant
PIANO HAS 88 KEYS
88 KEYS 52 WHITE 36 BLACK
dotted note
Note with a dot to the right of it. This dot increases the note's undotted duration by half.
How did Hector Belioz write his music?
had the theme repeating in all the movements and his tone colors gave great effects.
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