Music Appreciation Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
adagio
slow
Diminuendo
Growing softer.
electronische Musik
synthesizer
Poco
a little, slightly,
-expositiondevelopmentreconvitalation
sections of sonata
Idee fixe
Fixed idea.
Form
structure of musical composition
The twentieth-century artistic movement that stressed intense, subjective emotion was called
Expressionism
polyphonic composition
usually 1 movement
Sonata
"something sounded"
-a multi movement work for solo instrument, or instrument w/ keyboard accompaniment
MONOPHONIC
SINGLE MELODIC LINE WITHOUT ACCOMPANIMENT
-1756-1791-patronage-famous for operas, symphonies, string quartets, piano sonatas, plano concerts, etc
wolfgang amadeous mozart
Minimalism
Music, painting, and sculptureBarest essentialsMusic turns away from serialismFeatures repetition, with
some variation of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic
Opera Buffa
comic opera
-more contemporary setting
-upbeat, sometimes serious themes
-about "normal" people
woodwind that doesn't use a reed
flute
nationalism
flood of national anthems, native dances, military marches, protest songs, and victory symphonies gave musical voice to the rising tide of nationalism
Symphonic Poem
Single movement piece, programmatic; also known as a tone poem, do not usually follow a form because they follow the flow of the poem, The Moldau is an example.
through composed
musical composition featuring ever changing melodic and harmonic material (erlkonig: schubert)
camerata
aristocrats who wanted to ressurect musical dramas of ancient greece
within handels oratorio, --- were performed
concertos
What is a measure?
a bar line
Impressionist Music
Music captured vague, "first impressions"1880-1900
dissonance
inharmonious or harsh sound; discord; cacophony.
who wrote crouching tiger, hidden dragon
Tan Dun
program music
instrumental music, usually for a symphony orchestra, that seeks to recreate in sound the events and emotions portrayed in some extramusical source: a story, play, historical event, or a painting.
Symphonie Fantastique
Piece composed by Hector Berlioz, referencing Harriet Smithson, his infatuation.  Melody is idee fixe and has 5 movements.
Who wrote "Rhapsody in Blue" and "Concerto in F"?
Gershwin
composer of Transcendental Etude No. 8 "Wilde Jagd" (romantic era. virtuoso. created symphonic poem. etude.)
Liszt
clergy
only literate class of the middle ages, the ones who preserved music and its history
aria
peak of performance (when the vocals show their talent and instruments build)
her harmonies and melodies are reminiscent of music from the romantic period
joan touer
Opera characteristics
Secular, long length (lasts for hours), staged, choir, solo vocalists, orchestra, multi-movement
When did the organum be created?
in 1000.
movement
Piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part ofa larger composition.
George Friedrich Handel
international famous in his lifetime
known for
-operas: italian
-oratorios: english
Character pieces
Pieces portraying a single mood, emotion, or idea.
Libretto
the words of an opera or musical play
Lied
(German for song) the genre of art song, for voice and piano accompaniment, that originated in Germany ca. 1800
Gregorian chant
A cappella liturgical chant sung to latin texts of the Roman Catholic mass
symphonic/tone poem
musical expression to the emotions or events of a story
Henry Purcell
the first native english composer of the baroque was _______
What kind of music is “Pictures at an Exhibition"?
Suite?
one pitch to the very next pitch
half steps
What type of music became very popular during the classical period?
orchestral music
Ritornello form
Compositional form usually used in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritornello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material.
absolute music
instrumental music, as a concerto or string quartet, that draws no inspiration from or makes no reference to a text, program, visual image, or title and that exists solely in terms of its musical form, structure, and elements.
Charlie Buddy Bolbens (1868-1931)
- Bandleader who establishes the routine: trumpet, trombone, clarinet up front. Rhythm section behind
- Three melodies at the same time
Billy the Kid
Piece composed by Aaron Copeland first performed in Chicago in 1938.  Very widely performed based on old American Folksongs.  Orchestral Suite was composed in 1940.
syllabic
type of chant, one note sung to each syllable
in a fogue, a secondary them heard against the subject; a counter theme
counter subject
what is antiphon?
a genre of plainchant usually showing a simple melodic style with few melismas
flag
Wavy line attached to the stem on a note, indicating how long that note is to be held relative to the notes around it.
Through-composed form
Applied to songs where new music is used for successive verse.
What dramatic contada did we study?
Survivor from Warsaw by Shoenberg.
What was Rossini most famous for?
opera-"Lucia Delamermoor" the only arias of opera
Who was the pope during the Middle ages?
Gregory the 1st
middle c
Note c nearest to the center of the piano keyboard, notated as the pitch on the ledger line below the treble clef and above the bass clef.
What is a concert overture?
early 19th cent overture but no following opera
"Prelude in E Minor for Piano, Op.28, No. 4"
by Frederic Chopin, 1839
c d e flat f g a flat b flat c
minor scale
a pianist walks to a piano, opens the lid, and never plays a single note for four minutes and thirty-three seconds. what was the idea behind this?
the audience became the performance
Who is Guillame Dufay?Where was he born?
he came up with the hymn, born in France, lived between 1400-1474
one
solo
DIMINISENDO
GRADUALLY SOFTER
Baroque Music
1600-1750
Medieval Period
0-1450 A.D.
progression
Series of chords.
"walking speed" in Italian
andante
Triad
simple most basic chord
prestissimo
as fast as possible
harmony
agreement; accord; harmonious relations.
Soprano
Female voice of high range.
monody
solo song with instrumental accompaniment
display of performance virtuousity
episode (solo)
English horn
Double-reed woodwind instrument, slightly larger than the oboe and with a lower range, straight in shape with an egg-shaped bell.
libretto is written by a
librettist
who wrote rhapsody in blue
george gershwin
Wide variety of performances became available in which age?
Classical
Estampie
Midevil intrumental dance music in triple time with a strong fast beat
Pitch Range
Distance between the lowest/Highest tones that a voice/instrument can produce
What type of lyrisist was Mendelssohn?
Sentimental
serves a dramatic function (moving plot forward) that is less meaningful if performed in part, rather than in entirety
recitative
Revueltas
born in Durangocomposed Homenaje a Federico García Lorca
tenor
adult male voice intermediate between the bass and the alto
Dance Suite
A multimovement Baroque work for keyboard or orchestra.
Notation
system of writing music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated
What was the Earliest Music written for?
Church
What time period was Saint-Saens?
Late Romantic Period
poly rhythm
2 or more rhythms sounding simultaneously
chorale
the cantata is unified by a ____
What did Schubert write a lot of?
lied
-solo concerto-group of four "programmatic" concertos-each has 3 movements-each based on italian sonnet to issustrate imagery season
four seasons-antonio vivaldi
Florentine Camerata
A group of humanists resurrecting Greek culture during the Baroque period. Wanted to make music more accessible, more vocal. Part of the origin of the monodic style. Believed that music must heighten the emotional power of the text.
What is the closing theme called?
cadence theme
suite
In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movements all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character.
Cadence
Harmonically the last few chords heard at the end of a musical phrase
recitative
a style of vocal music intermediate between speaking and singing.
Johann Pachelbel
Canon in D. Chamber Cantata and sonata. Baroque.
What does Klaugfarbenmelodie mean?
"Tone Color Melody" By Webern
Mass
music set to the liturgical service of the roman catholic church featuring kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Santus, Agnus Dei, and Benedictus
Ayre
It is and English secular song from the Renaissance for solo voice and lute.
word painting
making music reflect the meaning of words
What is significant in Romantic period to write? and what is it called?
beautiful melody-fel canto
Intermezzo
Precursor to opera in Italy. A show performed between breaks of performances with lots of skits. Over time, it got much longer, and more musical.
What is the word for gradually increasing?
diminuendo, descrescendo
dramatic soprano
Full, powerful voice; is capable of passionate intensity
Octave
the interval from note to the next note of the same name
Hector Berlioz
Had program symphonies and the grand opera.
Tone Color or timbre
(timber) Quality of sound that distinguises one instrument of voice from another.
Scale
A series of whole and half steps into patterns which form a distinctive key
council of trent
to regulate every aspect of church discipline, _____ was formed. They took up the matter of church music
--- remind us that opera is about a sung drama not just text and music
scholars
What is classical variation form?
entails the successive uninterrupted repitition of a clearly defined melodic unit, then with various changes at each repitition
accompanied recitatives
Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra.
What is a gamelan?
an Indonesian orchestra made up of drums, xylophones, gongs, chimes and other percussion instruments
Earliest form of notation
much different then ours. One line, note 5. way it was shaped depended on what it sounded like
-fame was mostly limited to his region of germany-dedicated to keyboard players
johan sebastian bach
What is exposition?
a sonata form movement is a large, diverse section of music in which the basic material of the movement is presented (exposed)
bach wrote huge amounts of music for where?
the church (lutheran)
What are two composers from the impressionistic era?
Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel
figured bass of baroque music?
bass part w/numbers to represent chord tones
Who is George Frideric Handel? when was he born>
1724, wrote operas, and oratio Messiah
What Beehtoven do at the end of his life?
started to compose Romantic style
piano
soft
Theme
Important melody
Consanace
Stable, restful chords
ff
fortizzimo; very loud
Pianissimo
As softly as possible.
What was Schumann's ethnicity?
German
Over time Beethoven lost his
hearing
Beat
regular, recurrent pulsaton that divides music into equal units

organization of music in time
trio sonata
two instruments plus continuo
-ornate and complex-depiction of specific affects in a direct manner
1600-1750
Interval
The distance between two notes
where was Claudio Monteverdi from
italy
Who wrote "Moonlight Sonata"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Who was the extension of Liszt?
Ravel
fugue
based on imitation and counterpoint. Has a subject (the focal point) and an answer
scherzo
compositional form in three parts (ABA) sometimes used as a third movement in classical music;faster than a minuet
-formal and restrained-depiction of a larger, overarching story
1750-1825
coda
In a sonata-form movement, a concluding section following the recapitulation and rounding off the movement by repeating themes or developing them further.
Da capo aria
Go to the beginning
Elvis Presley was best known for singing what style of music?
rock-and-roll
What style is Edvard Munch associated with? (Scream)
Expressionism
Oratorio
an piece representing an opera but without the theatrical aspects
DYNAMICS
DEGREE OF LOUDNESS OR SOFTNESS IN MUSIC
Josquin das Pres
wrote the motet Ave Maria
What is the mood of the “Erlking”?
dark
produced several collections of fugues
johann sebastian bach
Bedrich Smetana
1824-1884. born in bohemia, a nationalist. wrote operas for the national theatre. best known for "bartered bride" and "my country". wrote 8 operas, orchestral music, choral music and songs. Most famous work was about the Moldau, the bohemian river.
Rubato
in musical notation, a tempo mark indicating that the performer may take, or steal, great liberties with the tempo
bar
Another term for measure, often used in jazz.
Pizzicato
Plucking the strings of a string instrument instead of using a bow. usually with the right hand.
2 primary types of solo songs
Recitative, Aria
who wrote the pirates of penzance
gilbert and sullivan
Troubadour
a type of secular poet musician that flourished in southern france during the 12th and 13th centuries
Vibrato
Small fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound.
Rennaissance
1450 - 1600 - Considered rebirth - increase in secular society, science takes hold, merchant class moves up, musicians employed
A cappella
It refers to voices with out accompaniment
Before writing music, what did Liszt want to become instead?
A Priest
a represents a minuet in any ab form
minuet
Josquin des Prez
1450-1521. A Flemish, classical music composer from Italy. Made lots of secular music, mostly masses and motets. Composed more than 100 motets. Often used 4 or more voices in compositions. Considered one of the greatest composers during Renaissance. "Ave Maria" is one of his most famous pieces, a prime example of how he Used imitative polyphony, specifically "points of imitation".
Prima Donna (diva)
leading female singer in an opera
Bach, Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, Seventh Movement
chorale
motive
a short melodic or rhythmic unit; a small fragment of a theme.
ballad
a light, simple song of sentimental or romantic character, having two or more stanzas all sung to the same melody
Instruments of the orchestra family
woodwind, brass, string, percussion (piano: keyboard percussion)
STAFF
SET OF 5 HORIZONTIAL LINES BETWEEN OR ON WHICH NOTES ARE PLACED
imitation of a melodic statement in a polyphonic texture-featured in both handel's messiah and bach's cantata no. 80 feature this
imitative polyphony
What is harmony?
melody and rhythm can exist without it, "the nature of the chords"
Who wrote "Toccata and Fugue in d minor"
Johann Sebastian Bach
 
What is atonal music?
 
 
Music where no tonal center, or focus of a piece, can be detected
 
used on stange bands sometimes rather than the orchestra in the pit
verdi, 19th century composer
What is development?
the second section of the sonata form movement, which features the development process
What is the festive orchestra?
used brass and percussion along with the normal instruments of an orchestra
Proper of the mass
The sections of the mass that are sung to texts that vary with each feast day
What is a sharp?
the note it precedes is to be played semitone higher
Small group vs tudi was called what? (form)
concerto, 3 movements (fast, slow, fast) Row row row your boat...row row (started a measure later)... was called what? Fugue, 1 movement
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