Music History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nuages Gris
-Character Piece
Tristan Und Sold
-Music Drama
Example 12b
Genre: Choral madrigal from an opera
Century :17th (1607)
Form: Sectional (2 sections)
Characteristics: 1) Music is in the style of a madrigal ( polyphonic, with some use of imitation)
2)Dramatic outbursts of Ahi! (ALAS!)
3) Madrigalistic word painting for certain images of text ( Voices rise at "Steep ascent" and leap down at "precipice"
Viderunt omnes
-4 voices
-drone on bottom
-voice crossing
TITLE: Nuages
GENRE: Impressionist orchestral work
CENTURY: late 19th
1. Instrumental colour and texture begin to replace melody (theme) as the primary agents in the creation of musical form
2. The oscillating pattern of fifth and thirds which begins the piece conveys an impression of movement but no harmonic direction (evoking shifting clouds).
3. Juxtaposed with this figure is an English-horn motive that quickly rises and slowly falls through a segment of the octatonic scale. This motive is never developed, transposed, or given to another instrument.
4. The profoundly calm middle section (B, beginning at Track 15) features sustained strings and a pentatonic tune in flute and harp that evokes the sound world of Asia.
5. Individual voices and chords often move without regard to the traditional rules of voice leading; e.g., there are successions of parallel triads and parallel ninth chords.
6. Rhythms tend to be fluid, avoiding any definite sense of meter.
7. Sounds are allowed simply to exist without having to move (by means of harmonic progressions) toward some distant goal.
D. Debussy is widely regarded as the first great composer of the 20th century.
1. The changes he introduced in harmonic language and orchestral writing made him one of the seminal forces in the history of music. His emphasis on sound itself as an element of music opened doors to new possibilities later explored after World War II by Varèse, Cage, Crumb, and others.
A chanter
Comtessa di Dia
troubadour song
late 1100s
Bar form
Wozzeck, Act III, Scene 3; 1917
Souvenir de Porto Rico, Op. 31
My bonny lass she smileth
Texture: imitative polyphony/homophony
Form: Ballett = light, homophonic, strophic song with dance rhythms and a contrapuntal "fa la la" refrain. Deck the Halls comes from this tradition. AABB
Genre: Ballet
Author: Thomas Morley (1557/8 - 1602)
Lyrics: My bonny lass she smileth
Page: 338
"Stasimon chorus" from Orestes
Date: 408 BCE
Melody: disjunct, mixture of diatonic and chromatic
Harmony: dissonant
Genre: greek tragedy
Author: Euripides
Misc: stasimon= an ode the chorus sings while standing still in their place in the orchestra. Two versions: chromatic and enharmonic
En remirant vo douce portraiture
Phillippus de Caserta
-ca. 1370
Revecy venir du printans
Rhythm: alternates long and short notes according to the assigned length of syllables. This produces alternations of duple and triple meter.
Texture: Short melismas relieve the uniformity of the rhythm in homophony. The refrain and strophe form allows for changes in texture.
Genre: Chanson
Author: Claude le Jeune 1528-1600 Many composers sought to use the rhythm of Greek and Roman poetry to inspire Platonic ethos in their listeners. The Academie de Poésie et de Musique attempted this by assigning French vowels long and short durations. Composer Claude le Jeune was active in setting these sorts of texts according to the Academie's principles
His Revecy venir du printans is an example of this approach
Lyrics: Revecy venir du printans (here again comes the spring)
Page: 330
Misc: sought to use the rhythm of Greek and Roman poetry to inspire Platonic ethos in their listeners.
"Wozzeck" - Berg
Expressionist opera, three acts with continuous music between and changing scenes (five in each act) linked by orchestral interludes, 1920
Mazurka in B-flat Major, Op. 7, No 1
ca. 1831
Berlioz, Fantastic Symphony
Sounds like a movie score, farting tuba chorus, build up to man being hung, drastic change in volume, conversational (2 very different people)
Schoenberg, Pierrot Lunaire "Night"
Quieter but still evil girl sounding
La serva padronarecitative: "lo non so chi mi tier"
Composer: Pergolesi (1710-1736)Time/Place: 1733, NaplesForm: Recitative, b/w Serpina and Uberto (simple)Librettist: Gennaro Antonio FedericoLanguage: Italiacharacteristics: Opera Buffa, intended as 2-act intermezzo b/w the acts of opera seria
Stravinsky "The Rite of Spring, Part 1"
Dinosaur scene in Fantasia
In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum
Phillip de Vitry,
-does not use meter symbols but technically the piece is 6/8
-upper voices move in 8th notes, would essentially be a minnum
-letter refers to the pitch pattern
-sign of isorhythm
-whenever you see broken brackets, means there is coloration in the original manuscript.
Quintet No 6 in E Flat Major, Mvt 1
Johann Friedrich Peter
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77
Violins and timpani, more of a fiddle sound in the solo
Dark Ages
Three Dances
held out note
Sonettas del Petrarca
blended groups of instruments
The Art of Fugue
shorter values for notes
textures extremely dense or thin
American Civil War
1861-1865 Abraham Lincoln
Haydn String Quartet Op 33
What turn-of-the-century piano style was first popularized by Scott Joplin and used in minstrel shows, becoming crucial in the development of early jazz?
A 17th century french dance characterized by running and gliding steps to an accompaniment in triple time
Strict observance of the established rules, traditions and methods employed in the arts. It can also refer to the theory of art that relies heavily on the organization of forms in a work rather than on the content.
sections written in discant style voices using rhythmic modes
movement in which materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures are simplified; often characterized by a constant pulse and repetition of musical patterns
gangsta rap
- rap that celebrated lawlessness
series of 7 tones arranged horizontally
Second Viennese School
Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern
What composer brought the Classical keyboard concerto to a state of perfection?
What piece did Dvorak write?
"Symphony No. 9"
The Orchestra (Baroque)
When: Baroque (started its importance)
What: Mainly strings at this point (+harpsichord)
Who: Louis XIII (24 violins of the king)
*more than one player per part
*no conductor--if anything, directed from harpsichord or 1st violinist
*earned name "orchestra" by 1670
chamber sonata
consists of four movements with altering tempos
what are sections written in discant style voices using rhythmic modes?
Eduard Hanslick
Music critic who helped establish music as a highly regarded form of art. One of the first well known music critics
He composed the early sonatas where small sections differentiated by musical material, texture, mood, character and meter.
Rhythmic Motive
Example would be Bee-thov-ens-Fifth or bum bum bum bum
Who Will the Next Fool Be?
Charlie Rich
Octatonic scale
An 8-note scale consisting of alternating whole and half steps. It is possible to begin the scale using either a whole or semitone. (Eg. Bartok Bluebeard's Castle (1911)).
Who invented the first flat-disc record player (78 rpm) about 10 years later than Edison's invention?
Emile Berliner
Which of the Jazz styles featured large groups?
Andrew Lloyd Weber
Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, The Phantom of the Opera
Concerto Grosso
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (the concertino, polyphonic) and orchestra (the ripieno, homophonic).
Plainsong Mass
each mass movement based on separate chant
Early motet
early: add new sacred words
later: different text for duplum, secular
3rd or 4th voices added
adding parts of a text of their own
DBL motet=2 lines above tenor
TRPL motet= 3 above tenor
b. 1916 in USA; important composer of serialism
Music Concrete
Started in France. Natural sounds are altered by varying playback speed.
Lomax Brothers
Recorded Prison Farm songs and raw versions of Country Blues. Recorded John Hurt and Son House. Discovered Robert Johnson.
plagal mode
second move of the pair; "Derived" mode from authentic mode - a 4th below the authentic mode - but are the same sequence of notes, just different pitch levels
A concert given by a single performer or a small number of musicians
Whose production style was employed on Bruce Springsteen's breakthrough Born To Run album?
Phil Spector
What ex Harvard proffessor became the High Priest of the LSD movement?
Timothy Leary
liturgical drama
dialogue on a sacred subject set to music and usuallyperformed with action and linked to the liturgy
A _________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action
sextuple meter
has six beats to the measure, with accents on beats one and four.
British Invasion
- began with the Beatles—the idea of many British groups coming to the U.S. such as the Rolling Stones.
A religious play with music depicting stories from the Bible, known as
__________________, grew out of ____
liturgical drama, tropes
Church of England
Created by Henry VIII after separation from Rome in 1534 *The split was more political than religious. *The music retained Catholic traditions, except that English replaced Latin.
Which country and gospel group first brought blues harmonica and up-tempo boogie-woogie to their music in the late 1940's, in effect the beggining of Rockabilly?
The Delmore Brothers
Who was Jean de Ockeghem?
a Franco-Flemish composer who served Charles I, duke of Bourbon for a little while, then served the kings of France from 1450s on. He was a priest, chaplain, and chapel master. He knew Du Fay, Busnoys, and Binchois, as he traveled a lot.
Les Six
a name, inspired by The Five, given in 1923 by critic Henri Collet in an article,
to a group of six composers (Auric, Durey, Honegger, Poulenc, Tailleferren and Milhaud)
working in Montparnasse whose music is often seen as a reaction against the musical
style of Richard Wagner and impressionist music
Common texts for fourteenth century Madrigals
Pastoral, satirical, or love poems
9. What East Coast folk artist openly opposed the Vietnam War by organizing the Institute of for the Study of Non-Violence, and also made the song We Shall Overcome, co-written by Pete Seeger, the 1960s anti-war anthem?
b. Joan Baez
what were the three main genres of instrumental music of the classical period?
symphony, concerto, and sonata
Plainchant: Mode and Structure
Mode = scale type with a specific pattern of whole steps and half steps
Medieval system admits only the white notes of the piano and B-flat
Using these notes, each ascent through an octave (C-c, D-d, E-e, etc.) leaves us seven possible combinations of half-steps and whole steps or seven modes
Who were the main Peidmont blues artists?
Blind Willie Mctell, BBQ Bob
Substitute Clausulae (p. 69, 76)
A clausula is a self-contained bit of organum ending with a cadence; e.g. "dominus" in Leonin's Viderunt
Composers composed many "substitute" clausulae that were designed to fit within the organum as a subsitute for the original
Our examples substitute for the discant section on the word "dominus"
theories as to why polyphony started
people looked for new ways to mark litrugical works, all linked to gregorian chant, underscore important days of year, history of architecture the space in which they sang ---> will hear the overtone series
What are three reasons the Beatles stopped touring by 1966?
The band was weary of Beatlemania, They were fed up with the rigors of travel, and their disgust with the press after being misrepresented after John Lennon's "Jesus Statement
The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (67)
-Pink Floyd's debut album (only one made under syd barrett's leadership)
480-524 AD
Franz Schubert
Natural Hexachord
C-A, natural
chorus (in jazz)
1 Melody Line
Music and Soul
Musica Humana
Jefferson Airplane
pioneered psychedelic rock.
Benjamin Britten
War Requiem, Peter Grimes.
word painting
representing text in music
Italian Madrigal Composers
Philippe Verdelot
Jacques Arcadelt
Think (1973 Polydor Records)
James Brown
lower class itinerant traveling musicians
a place for religious seclusion; people devoted themselves in prayer, scholarship, preaching, charity, or healing the sick here. Monasteris-men Convents- women
Wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women.
Traite de l'harmonie describes the theoretical methodology of?
a. vivaldi
b. couperin
c. rameau
d. handel
Dual Papacy
1378-1417 Italian and French pope
Rock Around with Ollie Vee
Buddy Holly
Mass: Sanctus
Combination of Melismatic and syllabic, scalar, occassionally left by arpeggiated figure down
Progressive rock has a strong influence from what other type of music?
Book that contains music for the Mass
This early 16th century type of Italian secular song is strophic with refrains, in four-part homophonic texture with melody in the upper voice, has simple diatonic harmonies, syllabic setting of text and catchy rhythmic patterns.
In Italy, music schools were often connected with
music written for the Roman Catholic service; Latin text of the mass set to music (liturgy)
Tanglewood Symposium
A conference established through MENC, Berkshire Music Center, and others in 1967. It included music educators, performers, sociologists, labor leaders, scientists, educators, and representatives from corporations,foundations and government. The symposium focused on the problems and potentials for music activities and musical development in American Society.
House music
from chicago; based on four-by-four dance structure, popularized by disco, frequent use of a prominent bass drum on every beat, and may feature a prominent synthesizer bassline, electronic drums, electronic effects, funk and pop samples, often with reverb- or delay-enhanced vocals
the closing section of a musical composition
absolute music
no specific pictoral or literary program
Cantilena Style
15th century motetfeatures a florid, lyrical top voice over slower moving low voices
14. What ex-Harvard professor became involved in LSD tests and became the “High Priest” of the LSD movement?
Timothy Leary
Because of manumission, by 1800 the number of free blacks outnumbered slaves in the American Hemishpere
What is another name for Beethoven's "Piano Sonata in C"?
"Walstein Sonata"
Steven Foster
Wrote "Oh Susanna"
Huge Tin Pan Alley Song Writer
Songs in oral traditon
The following idea about Renaissance music was not borrowed from Greek thought
a. chromaticism as an expressive device
b. music as a social accomplishment
c. influential power of the modes
d. mean-tone temperament
d. mean-tone temperament
These two German composers used folk themes.
Brahmsand shubert
Johannes Brahms
Symphony No 4 in E Minor IV
patterns of ligatures
six rhythmic modes are indicated how?
Ordinary chants are named according to their:
initial words
melismatic chant
chant that employs melismas; found in more important services such as matins, vespers, and the mass
What East Coast folk artist openly opposed the Vietnam War by organizing the Institute for the Study of Non-Violence, and also made the song "We Shall Overcome," co-written by Pete Seeger, the 1960s anti-war anthem?
Joan Baez
style of jazz originating in the 1930s that was characterized by large ensembles and hard-driving jazz rhythms.
vox organis
the upper voice in two-part organum that served as a commentary or gloss on the original chant. It is often melismatic. L&O, APN
The leading madrigal composer of the 16th century
Cipriano de Rore
2 or 3 voice parts, eventually 4 voice became standard
GO Project
The Go project was meant to implement the recommendation/philosophy from the Tangelwood Symposium and was held by 1,000 MENC members. This favored conceptual learning and ignited the creation of the MMCP Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project which provided a sequential music curriculum for primary grades through high school. Resulted in 5 goals and 35 objectives.
Florid Organum
Plain chant is the foundation but ever note is stretched above a stagnant tenor.
All I have to Do Is Dream
The Everly Brothers
What underclass groups were the predominant creative sources for the first major trends in American pop music?
Jews and African Americans
A&R man John Hammond DID NOT first sign which of the following artists?
Sly Stone
First Theme
Part of an exposition. May be a tune, a group of small phrases that sound as though they might grow into a tune, or just a motive or two with a memorable rhythmic character.
the Enlightenment & music
strong gov'ts that support the arts (France and England)
-unrest later in the century-->American and French revolutions; Italy and Germany still broken up into citystates/municipalities
economy goes up, middle class becomes more wealthy; population up; aristocracy down but still involved in culture
Industrial Revolution
Rondeau form
What regions are considered important style centers in down-home country blues?
Mississippi Delta, Piedmont Carolinas, and Texas
Diegetic music (source music)
In film, music that is heard or performed by the characters themselves.
Five broad categories of instrumental music:
Dance music, Arrangements of Vocal Music, Settings of existing melodies, Variations, Abstract instrumental works (ricercar, fantasia, toccata, canzona)
what did Carlo Goldoni do to comic opera?
introduced serious and sentimental elements into comic opera
71. When did African-American gospel music develop? [see Class 18 notes]
during the late 19th and 20th centuries.
Less evidence survives for music of ancient ____ than for ancient Greece.
Rome. No settings of texts survive. Images, written descriptions, and some instruments are all that remain.
What are the names of the three souls in her Ordo virtutm? What character had the only spoken part?
Happy, Unhappy, and Penitent. The DEVIL!!
32. How were they sung? [see Class 14 notes]
~ sang them to memorized tunes known by congregation; no notation
~ sang monophonically and heterophonically
/ 142

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