Music History 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
rondo
ABACADA
Contemporary
1900-Present
Race music
African-Americans
Italian Symphony
Mendelssohn
Renaissance began where
italy
Kyrie
Christ have mercy
Kena
Andean vertical notched flute
passacaglia
regularly recurring eight-measured harmonic progression and variation form popular with baroque composers
modal cadence
Hindemith, Un Cygne.
corrente
Italian origin, quick triple meter
ostinato
a short musical pattern-melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic-that is repeated throughout a work or a major section of a composition.
ANTHEM, FULL ANTHEM, VERSE ANTHEM
...
Russian 5
Balakariev, musorgsky, rimsk-korsakof, Boradin, Cui
Humanitarianism
Promoting human welfare and social reform.
Polonaise
Polish origin, triple meter, moderate tempo
when was sonata in C written
1788
Payola scandal
Federal Trade Commission investigation (1959-60) / grand jury hearings in NYC (1959-62) / US House of Reps investigation
leitmotifs
recurring themes that represent a person, place or idea; unifies a music drama
Overdotting
French Baroque performance practice of elongating the dotted notes and shortening the short ones
Meistersingers
Tradesmen and artisans from German Colonies
Sprechstimme
A vocalstyle developed by Schoenberg in which the performer approximates the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech, while following the notated rhythm.
Philip Glass
Einstien on the Beach, The Voyage.
3 types of secular songs
ballade, rondeau, virelai
trouveres
Poet composer of Northern France who wrote monophonic songs in Old French in 12th or 13 century. Gave Formes Fixes
Historia di Jephte
Giacomo Carissimi, 1648, Oratorio, musical setting of sacred narrative or dialogue. Like opera without staging, costumes, or action, performed during lent
Renaissance
means rebirth
A revival of interest in the humanistic values of Classical Greece and Rome
squarcialupi codex
The ________________ is the primary collection of 14th century Italian secular music:
-Magnus liber organi
-winchester troper
-squarcialupi codex
-roman de fauvel
Who invented the solo recital and playing by memory?
Liszt
John Williams - America
Main Title/Rebel Blockade Runner
sinfonia
generic term used throughout the 17th century for an abstract ensemble piece, especially one that services as a preludealso used to facilitate scene changesintroduces Tirsi's aria in L'Euridice
Ad organum faciendum
treatise outlining rules for improvising/composing free organum
harmony
How chords are constructed and how they follow each other
Max Steiner
Became one of the foremost composers in Hollywood.
Martianus Capella
Treatise "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology", described 7 liberal arts: grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and harmonics (music)
Ornamentation
note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest
Second Viennese School
Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern; shared in innovations; comparable to Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven in Romanticism
Allen Britton
from the University of Michigan and agreed to publish the first JRME.
Major tonic
do, mi, so (root word of each....do)
Castrato
A male singer who was castrated before puberty to preserve their high vocal range. Castratos appear as characters in Monteverdi's L'Orfeo and in Handel's Giulio Caesare.
melody
a line of notes
a consequtive order of tones creating musical ideas
Robert Craft
American conductor and writer. Very good friends with Stravisnky, recorded a lot of his music.
Which "Southern Soul" studio struck a production deal with Jerry Wexler and Atlantic Records after the New York label broke their agreement with Stax Records?
FAME Studios
TRUE or FALSE : Until recent decades, musicians on small labels made most of their money working at shows, not from record proceeds
TRUE
when and where did the symphonie concertante develop?
France around 1770
concerto grosso
when a small group of soloists work together against the orchestra
Corelli's Sonata style
*violin--didn't want to show off like the voice kids
*seldom requires beyond 3rd position or low notes...or fast runs/difficult double stops
*2 violins treated equally/cross voices
****suspensions/sequences****
*unity of key and theme
*role of imporv (shows his ornamentation in publish)
idée fixe
"fixed idea"; term by Berlioz for a recurring Romantic musical idea that links different
movements of a work
2 German Poets (equivalents of Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley, Keats)
Their favorites and themes?
Goethe
Heine
All favored short, personal lyric poems
Favorite themes: love, longing, and the beauty of nature.
Gallant Style
A French term used to describe 18th century music. It is graceful, light in texture and generally symmetrical in melodic structure.
Council of Trent
church council that banned trope and sequence
define sturm und drang style
translated as storm and stress", characterized by a revolt against what the writers saw as the Enlightenment cult of rationalism and the sterile imitation of French literature, written in a minor key to convey difficult or depressing sentiments
hurdy gurdy
5 to 6 feet in length, required two people to play it. 3 strings, wheel rubs along strings, one octave range, with frets.
Symphony no.3 in E-flat Major
Written in 1803-04; Originally titled "Bonaparte" but was published as "Eroica" symphony and was composed to celebrate a great man. (Possible Napoleon)
What are the identifying characteristics of a "true" folk song?
Becomes changed over time. Tells story, usually about loved one.
What are some principles of order?
Music theory, 8 modes, consonance, dissonance
the triumphes of oriana (1601)
collection of 25 english madrigals by different composers published by thomas morley to honor Queen Elizabeth I, each song ends with the words "long live fair oriana"
11. What Kansas City swing band was known for its strong anchoring in the blues and often played their parts from memory instead of from charts?
The Count Basie Orchestra
"Rock Around the Clock" (July 1955)
first Rock record to hit Pop #1
What are the 5 types of instrumental music?
Dance Music
Arrangements of vocal music
Settings of existing melodies
Variations
Abstract instrumental works
9. How did the demographic of the record buyer change when white audiences began buying large amounts of R & B and rock and roll?
The target demographic moved from adults to teens
what is opus 33, number 3 nicknamed as?
THE BIRD! 1st theme of first movement is a chirping sound.
piano
soft
Boetheius
480-524
"rhythm changes"
?
concept art
voice with melody/tenor
tenor
Symphony "Winter Dreams'
Tschaikovsky
Mezzo Piano (mp)
moderately soft
Rota
Similar to a rondellus
How many string quartets?
16
baroque
scientific discoveries by Newton, Kepler, and Galileo
Morse Telegraph
1837 US Samuel Morse
Hieroglyphics
egyptian or mayan picture writing
What jazz saxophonist/composer released the highly influential free jazz album in 1960?
Ornette Coleman
allemande
german origin, simple binary form, usually in 4/4 time
What were the Motet texts in?
vernacular
heavy metal
form of rock and roll
Imitative polyphony
each successive entering voice repeats, if not literally than recognizably, the melodic figure stated by the first voice
Tito Puente - America
Ran Kan Kan
Great composer who Beethoven studied with for a few years in Vienna
Haydn
Chorale
Metric, rhymed, strophic poetry for unison, unaccompanied performance by the congregation
Cavatina
free passage; a mixture of recitative and arioso-style singing
Kochel
the catalog for Mozart's works: "k #s"--more than 600 works
monody
one melody BUT will add chordal support from an ensemble later known as the basso continuo
Caudae
long textless passages found at the beginning, end, or at cadences
French Suite
more flexible about how many dances/order
collections produced by clavecinists
lute influence (style brise--broken chord style; style luthe)
agrements (ornaments; sound decays quickly so needed to fill the space)
Genres of Mid-Romanticism
Works for Piano (Liszt)
Symphonic Program Music (based off literature)
Opera: -French "Lyric" opera - about tragic love, "Carmen" George Bizet's (1838-1875) greatest lyric opera
-Italian Opera= Verdi
-German Opera = Wagner
Exoticism
Composers made their music sound like it was from other countries
Buddy Holly
-Boy Next Door-Last of 50's giants-Mointed music toward first rock band with buddy Holly and the crickets-1st to write and produce his own music-popularized fender stratocaster-embraced rockability and imitated elvis
March
A Musical form developed for military groups. Most known for his marches is John Phillip Sousa.
What instrument designer cited the Theremin as the major influence for his own most popular product?
Robert Moog
What jazz artist introduced electric guitars with horn like single line solos with Benny Goodman's Orchestra?
Charlie Christian
Krzysztof Penderecki
Threnody: To the victims of Hiroshima, St. Luke Passion, The Devils of London.
Sonata da camera
Baroque chamber sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances
Lutheran Chorale performing times
-performed in homes, non-liturgical settings
-performed in church services, usually in alternation between congregation (monophonic) and choir (4 part)
-Seed for polyphonic pieces for Protestant composers (like Catholic chant repertoire)
-chorale used as cantus firmus
-variations
Palestrina's Style
- Melody is long breathed
- Easily singable
- Moves mostly by steps
- Clear phrasing
prepared piano
invention by John Cage; placement of objects inside a piano to create different sounds
indeterminincy
Any part of a musical work is indeterminate if it is chosen by chance, or if its performance is not precisely specified. The former case is called "indeterminacy of composition"; the latter is called "indeterminacy of performance" (Simms 1986, 357). John Cage and Charles IVes
Phil Spector
Produced Lavern Baker and Ruth Brown. Pioneered girl groups of the 1960s (produced the Crystals, The Ronnettes). Produced the Beatles "Let it Be" album. Produced specifically for radio play and jukeboxes. Brill Building.
absolutism
ultimate power in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right
Recapitulation
In sonata form, the return of the first theme and the tonic key following the development; although it may not be an exact repeat
The Grateful Dead made a shift away from psychedelia towards what style of rock music in the early 1970's?
Country/folk
what year did James Brown get his first US R&B hit Please, Please, Please
1956
music mundana
in boethius book world: music of the world
A short compostion, based on the hymn tune that reminded the congregation of the melody is called a
choral prelude
polyphony
means many voice, in which two or more different melodic lines are combined.
Tex-Mex .
- a Latino style that emanated from Texas and the southwestern U.S. combined Mexican mariachi music with American country music.
A(n) __________ chant is sung by a soloist in alternation with a choir
a) antiphonal b) direct c) responsorial d) melismatic e) proper
c) responsorial
What singer learned the blues as a railroad laborer, later combining it with hillbilly music?
Jimmie Rodgers
What is a Medicine Show?
A pre-radio concert performed throughout the south for selling "patent medicines"
What was the most famous Rota?
Sumerisicumen, a four voice rota
Whos band was added at the end of stormy night?
Cab Callaway
With the help of "Billboard" magazine in 1948, what was the new descriptive term for the black popular music, replacing the label "Race Records?"
Rhythm and Blues (R&B)
landidni cadence
the end of every line is makred by a cadence swhich is usually of a type now known as the under third or landini cadence the progression from the major sixth to the ovtave is ornamented by a lower neighbor leaping up a third in the top voice. a great appeal in landinis music
English Music in the 13th century
Most important characteristic of late medeval English music is the increased use of harmonic thirds and sixths. Sumer canon (oldest known canon in Western Music), p.116 is an example.
What was Robert Johnson's fabled connection with the devil?
He sold his soul for talent
Madrigal Non al suo amante by Jacopo da Bologna (p. 148)
Fourteenth-century madrigal as opposed to sixteenth-century one!
Derived from a poetic form of three lines plus a two-line refrain or ritornello; strophic
Ritornello set in contrasting meter
End and sometimes beginning of poetic lines set to long melismas; melismas on the last accent are characteristic of Italian style
Usually for two or three voices; voices relatively equal in importance, unlike French chansons
Text is usually an idyllic, pastoral, satirical, or love poem
Describe vocal ranges in this period.
four voices texture with a wide range, bassus voice is lower than in Du Fay's time, each voice sings a span of a 12th or 13th, passages in 2 or 3 voice texture contrast the dark, full texture resulting from the lower, increased ranges, phrases are long with few cadences and elision used to smooth them
how many seats is a typical Off Broadway theatre?
Fewer than 300, most under 150
How are the works of Goethe and Schubert related
shubert set 59 of Goethes poems to music
Sackbut
...
top voice/soprano
Superior
adagio
quite slow
Alban Berg
Humanized Serialism
Kansis City
Wilbert Harrison
Chansonnier
"Songbooks" with troubadour songs
interval
distane between each note
verdi opera- Suez Canal
Aida
liturgy
the words of the mass
salomon
emparraesario mangages stuff asked haydn to coem to london wrote them for london very famous in london 6 symphonies
Gretchen am Spinnrade, D.118
Franz Schubert1814
What piece did Grieg write?
"Lyrical Pieces"
21
Realism
A movement where destructive and violent aspects of the human condition were being portrayed. They took their topics from the life of the oppressed classes and depicted their characters as conditioned by the situations that lead them to unhappy ends they were powerless to escape
COLOR
repeating of melody in isorhythmic composition
Cantata
An unstaged opera; for instruments with one or two voices; and portrayed a scene or situation
waltz
the first dance that was naughty!
103. What were the basic characteristics minstrel shows? [see Class 21 notes]
---
Trope
Addition to an existing CHANT, consisting of (1) words and MELODY; (2) a MELISMA; or (3) words only, set to an existing melisma or other melody.
Ethnomusicology
Study of non-western music
Bartok was pioneer
Reich Music Chamber
Richard Stauss was president. Organization to which all the musicians had to belong under rule of the Nazi's.
John Dowland is known for his
lute songs
Offices
a series of services celebrated at various hours of the day in monasteries and convents
Late period
1815-1827 (deaf) symphoney 9, missa solemnis, piano sonatas 28-32 string quartets 12-16
Sonata pian'e forte
sonata= "sounded"
@@1 of first instrumental ensemble pieces to specify what instrumentation
@@1 of first instances of DYNAMIC markings
Wozzeck
most popular atonal opera written by Berg, based on a real event in which a man was executed for killing the woman he lived with, uses Sprechstimme and leitmotives
Plainchant
Vocal music for the church services from early middle ages
Impresario
A businessman who managed and oversaw the production of operas.
Post-Modernism
which treats all epochs and cultures as equally available as source material. Turns music back to being accessible, not bound to the having music progress
cantillation
chanting of Jewish sacred texts based on melodic formulas
Cantus Firmus Mass
a purely man-made order. (DuFay)
Anthem
- English equivalent of a motet
- Sung by choir
- Text comes from bible or book of prayer
program music
textual reference to a piece of music
Papal Schism
big division between two parties; this began between the King of France - Philip the Fair Fr. and the pope - Boniface VIII; they disagreed over who had the right to tax the clergy and appoint bishops
Where did Motet originate from?
clausulae passages in organum
Soft Rock
young Pop-oriented crooners / aimed at pre-teens & teens / wide commercial appeal
gospel music
Black gospel music is very rhythmic and involves frequent clapping to the beat of the song. Repetitious lyrics and rhythm patterns are often employed to make memorization of the lyrical content easier. One such song, says "Soon and very soon, we are going to see the King, Soon and very soon we are going to see the King" repeatedly and finishes with "Hallelujah, Hallelujah, we are going to see the King." This repetitious rhythm is both didactic and emotional.
orfeo ed euridice
dedication to local patrons and explain why it is different and why it is better than opera seria
God Save the Queen
-Sex Pistols
-Lyrics contain gleeful snotty name-calling
-Declares royalty ineffectual and irrelevant
La Traviata: Act III, Scene and Duet
Giuseppi Verdi1853
3. What instrument began to replace the tuba when jazz moved indoors?
Double Bass
Jimmy Webb is best known as a _______
Songwriter
Three Methods of Performing Chant
Responsorial, Direct, Antiphonal (2 halves alternating)
What was the prominent manuscript that contained an important collection of English sacred music?
Old Hall Manuscript
What is a character piece
short simple, unusually for piano
"hand jive" rhythm
Clave for first part, then two claps
also known as bo diddley
The liturgy is
The prescribed texts and rites that collectively constitute the religious services of the church
Symphony No.4 in E minor, op.98: Fourth movement, Allegro energico e passionato
Johannes Brahms 1884-85
 The Book of the Hanging Gardens
Schoenberg
Atonal
Cycle of 15 songs
Based on The Book of the Hanging Gardens by Stefan George.
describe simple binary form
generally 2 sections of roughly the same length, feature different musical material
What is a mode?
a way of thinking about scales that
includes both musical practice and
extramusical associations
Similar to the Greek Greater Perfect System, this shows all available notes
What is the gamut
The Four Seasons
- Vivaldi's Op. 8 entitled Il ciment dell'armonia e dell'inventione (the contest of harmony and invention).- Consists of four violin concertos with each being named after a season.- Each concerto consists of three movements (fast-slow-fast)- Composed by Antonion Vivaldi
Aesthetic ideals after 1430s
1. control of dissonance (uses 3rd, 6th, unison, 8ves)2. consonant sonorities3. equal importance in voices4. 4 part texture5. occasional use o imitation
Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project
Funded by the US office of education. The primary objective was to have children learn to hear and perceive music as a composer does. Students were encouraged to compose, conduct, perform and listen.
17. The West Coast style of country artists, whose roster includes Merle Haggard and Buck Owens, is best described as a blend of what two older country styles? (Two answers)
Rockabilly and e. Honky-Tonk
Haydn wrote what famous mass??
Mass in time of Peril (Lord Nelson Mass)- 1798 in D minor.
These two are credited as being RnB then rock songwriters who spawned the Sweet Soul style...
Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
By 1660, two types of sonatas emerged:
sonata da camera (chamber sonata) and sonata da chiesa (church sonata)
. What is a cadenza, as found in a typical instrumental concerto?
a section right before the final
orchestral section of the fast first movement, during which the soloist plays
a flashy elaboration of a 6-4 chord.
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