Music History Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gracioso
Gracefully
Drone
Guillaume DuFay
1400-1474
estampes, images
Debussy
Bass
low male voice
glissando
Sliding between notes
romantic
melodies: lyrical, irregular phrasing,
motet
sacred vocal music- polyphonic
Guillaume de Machaut
Medieval Composer
Blues
African-American genre which likely sprung from rural work songs and other oral traditions; lyrics typically speak of disappointments, mistreatment, etc. Music features "blue notes" (flattened) on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th scale degrees
Boris Godunov was written by...
Mussorgsky
Artusi
Italian theorist, composer, and writer. When Vincenzo Galilei first attacked Zarlino in the Dialogo of 1581, it provoked ______ to defend his teacher and the style he represented.
goliard
wandering scholar/poets who created satirical secular songs
Intermezzo
scene change entertainment in an opera
NBC Orchestra
Orchestra sponsored by the radiostation NBC
Two forms of Monody
Recitativo and Aria
Scholae Cantorum
schools organized to educate Christians, expanded under Pope Gregory to include facets of music.
postmodernism
Postmodernism is a tendency in contemporary culture characterized by the rejection of objective truth and global cultural narrative. It emphasizes the role of language, power relations, and motivations; in particular it attacks the use of sharp classifications such as male versus female, straight versus gay, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial. Postmodernism has influenced many cultural fields, including literary criticism, linguistics, architecture, visual arts, and music.
Metrical Psalms
Metric, rhymed, and Strophic vernacular translation of a Psalm, sung to a relatively simple melody that repeats for each Strophe.
Clavichord
valued as expressive because of control player had over contact between stangent and string. Tangent is attached directly to key, so performers can creat vibrato.
Musical Plays
plays not about the Bible
What type of composition did Liszt write?
Etudes
Jacopo Peri proposed that this medium was similar to the diastematic style that the Greeks used for reciting heroic poems:
a) monody
b) recitative
c) aria
d) chant
b
cantata
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
Keyboard Music
Except for Frescobaldi, very little _____ music was published in the late 1600's. It circulated in manuscript form within professional circles.
The first complete theoretical formulation of the tonal system was introduced by:
a) Charles Le Brun
b) Johann Sebastian Bach
c) Jean-Philippe Rameau
d) Claudio Monteverdi
c) Jean-Philippe Rameau
modified strophic form
a song ballad with words
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
Layered textures
different layers of rhythm and tonality.
guild
club of artisans possessing the same skill
Emile Berliner created 3 label manufacturers for his 78 rpm disc invention. What was the name of his label in the U.S.?
Victor Records
Which songwriter was a Russian immigrant and starting in 1911, wrote a series of smash hits including God Bless America?
Irving Berlin
Charles Ives
Was recognized as the first American composer to create a distinctly Anerican body of art music.
Instrumental Music at Midcentury Background
-vocal influence!!!
*periodic phrasing (shorter, with rests)
*songlike melodies
*diverse material
*contrasts in texture/style
*touches of drama
Mass Styles
-in 15C became common for single composer to set 5 principal sections of Mass Ordinary
How they were unified:
-plainsong mass, motto mass cantus firmus mass
Key/Mode/Tonality
major mode and minor mode; major felt as happy, minor felt as sad
reeds
one of the sections in a Big Band
Basso Continuo
A basso continuo (through bass or thoroughbass; Fr. basse continue; Ger. Generalbass) is an instrumental bass line which runs throughout a piece, over which the player improvises ('realizes') a chordal accompaniment. The bass may be figured, with accidentals and numerals ('figures') placed over or under it to indicate the harmonies required. Continuo realization is essentially an improvised art, and much remains undocumented and ambiguous
Willie Dixon
Wrote for Chess Records, wrote "Back Door Man."
musica secreta (musica reservata)
concerts performed for duke/duchess; small number of guests; concerto delle donne; exclusive chamber music
Keyboard Sontata
FORM typically used in first MOVEMENTS of SONATAS, instrumental chamber works, and SYMPHONIES during the CLASSICAL and ROMANTIC PERIODS. An expansion of ROUNDED BINARY FORM, it was described in the nineteenth century as consisting of an EXPOSITION, DEVELOPMENT, and RECAPITULATION based on a limited number of THEMES.
Who originally led the English art rock band Genesis?
Peter Gabriel
what california vocal group combined surfer themes with jazzy doo-wop vocals and chuck berry style guitar and developed one of the most successful pop groups in the 1960s
The Beach Boys
Programmatic music
music created to tell a story (Hector Berlioz 'Symphonie Fantastique')
The Banshee (1925)
• a female spirit in Irish mythology
• Scored for PNO
o 2 players: one holds the pedals, the other plays the open strings
o sounds like death
melody
the line or tune, in music, a concept that is shared by most cultures. Each is unique in its contour and in its range.
call and response
alternation of short phrases between a leader and a group used espeicially for music in african american tradition
Hank Williams and the Drifting Cowboys - America
Your Cheatin' Heart
Mensuration Canon
derived more than one voice from a single line of notated music, as when several voices sing the same melody, entering at certain intervals of time or singing at different speeds simultaneously.
The council of Trent
18 year meeting
-corruption of chant by embellishment
-use of certain instruments in religious services
-incorporation of popular music in masses
-secularization of music
-irreverent attitude of church musicians
Describe des Prez's "Mille regretz."
representative of his style circa 1520, each new phrase of text receives its own particular treatment- sets one phrase in paired imitation and the next in four-voice imitation
twelve-tone series (row)
puts notes of chromatic scale in a fixed order, notes must be used in the order prescribed by the row in any octave or rhythm
Doctrine of Affections
a theory that arose during the Baroque period that prescribed certain musical methods and figures for summoning or portraying individual emotions, i.e. happiness would be aroused through the use of faster notes and major sonorities, sadness through minor keys and slower movement, anger through loudness and harsh discordant harmonies
Utilizing laid back arragements of bebop styled tunes. Miles Davis made a 1949 recording for nine players inspired the "Cool Jazz" era. What was the name of this famous album?
The Birth of the Cool
describe arias in opera seria
were soliloquies in which a principal actor reacted to events
What is the relationship between music and other arts in ancient Greece?
Music considered inseparable from words and/or dance
Who prepared the thematic catalogue of Haydn's music? Mozart's?
Haydn - HobokenMozart - Koechel
two definitions of rhythm, broad then specific
Broad sense: rhythm = temporal organization of the music; relates to duration. Beat = a regularly occurring, underlying pulse that organizes most music
Specific sense: rhythm = the relative long and short durations a specific passage of music.
name all 5 of the composers that influenced Mozart
J.S. Bach, Handel, Johann Schobert, Johann Christian Bach
What is the biggest selling recording in history?
White Christmas by Irving Berlin sung by Bing Crosby
21. What is a ballad? [see Class 14 notes]
narrative song that tells a story, usually
performed, in traditional music, by one singer
lento
slowly
Passacaglia
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741
liebeslieder waltzes
Brahms
Tenor
high male voice
Les Preludes
(Symphonic Poem)Liszt
baroque
mono-thematic melodies, elaborate, ornamented, imitation
Leonin
wrote notre dame Organum
Giovanni da Firenze
Medieval Composer
Expressionism
an early twentieth-century art movement that emphasized the artist's personal, subjective expression of inner experiences
Who wrote "Frankenstein"?
Marry Wollstonecraft Shelley
Chorale
Strophic Hymn in theLutheran tradition, intended to be sung by the congregation.
termination
cadence ending on the final
Concerto
Piece for Solo instrument accompanied by orchestra. Usually in 3 movements (fast, slow, fast)
Retrograde
compositional practice in which notes of a melody are put into reverse order
Corelli
Published five outstanding books of sonatas. Lived and worked in Rome.
cabaletta
in the operatic scene structure devleped BY ROSSINI IN THE EARLY 19th century the last part of an aria or ensemble whcih was lively and brialliant and expressed activefeelings such as joy or despair
spirtual
african american type of religious song that originated among southern slaves and was passed down through oral tradition with texts often based on sotires or images from the bible.
Frottola
16th Century Genre of Italian polyphonic song in mock-popular style. It is Syllabic, Homophonic, and Diatonic, with the melody in the upper voice and marked rhythmic patterns.
John Dunstable
1390-1453widely given credit for changing the face of music between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance by introducing new, “sweeter” harmonies. In addition, he was probably the first English composer to have a substantial influence upon continental European music.
Harmonium
Us in relation to the spheres
Berlioz is the
"creator of the modern orchestra."
A musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, or mythological subject performed between acts of a play is a:
a) pastoral poem
b) intermedi
c) madrigal cycle
d) solo madrigal
b
Ritornello
A short recurring passage that unifies and instrumental or vocal work., short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
Monody
Music for one voice and basso continuo. Designed for musical theatre.
An extended embellishment added to create a free and elaborate paraphrase of the notated line is a/an:
a) ornament
b) cadenza
c) division
d) figure
c) division
Octatonic scale
An eight-note scale (used by Stravinsky and others) consisting of half and whole steps in alternation.
Collage
Taped or concrete music assembled with different elements into a single work.
What female composed chants that came from the Holy Spirit?
Hildegard
True or False: Because of manumission, by 1800, the number of free blacks outnumbered the number of slaves in the American Hemisphere.
True
Dmitri Shostakovich
was criticized in the newspaper Pravda for his dissonacnes and lack of melody.
Characteristics of Early Classical Music
*influence of rhetoric--certain phrases signaling openers, others for intermediate (leave you wanting more), others for ending.
*rhythm--
*melody--
*harmony--
*texture--
*form--
*emotional contrasts--
Catholic music post Josquin (1520-1570)
-Still dominated by Northerners
-Nicolas Gombert=worked for Emperor Charles V
-Adrian Willaert=maestro di capella at San Marco Basilica in Venice
1) Expanded standard number voices to 5-6
2) Continued smooth sound of controlled dissonances and imitative polyphony
3) Aldo wrote polyphonic secular music
Sonata during Wiener Klassik
consisted of 3 movements (fast--slow--fast
backbeat
emphasis on 2 and 4 in 4/4 time
Baroque (music era)
Expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera as a musical genre. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.
Al Benson
Chicago black DJ. Played blues (Muddy Waters) from the south in the north. Catered to black audience, especially those that moved there from south.
gallican chant
christian music of early medieval Gaul (France/Switzerland) - mostly improvised - some copied into books of gregorian chant. Longer, flowery, exuberant.
Recitative:
A passage or section in an OPERA, ORATORIO, CANTATA, or other vocal work in RECITATIVE STYLE. As part of an intermezzi. Exemplified in the The Maid as Mistress opening conversation is set in simple recitative ·
When did the big record retail chains appear?
1970s
Who was the Beatles Producer sometimes reffered to as the Fifth Beatle?
George Martin
Dramma giocoso
a kind of comic opera, bordering on tragedy; Mozart's Don Giovanni
Milton Babbitt (b.1916)
• Interest in electronic sound and tape music
• Studied both mathematics and music; Taught at Princeton, Yale, Julliard, Columbia
• Invented musical set theory to explain methods of Schoenberg et al.
• Famous article "Who cares if You Listen"
• Significant expansion of serialism: time-point serialism, dynamics, etc.
• Pulitzer "special citation"
theme
when a melodic idea is used as a building block in the construction of a larger musical work.
serial music
music that uses the 12 tone mehtod used especially for music that extends the same general approach to a series in parameters other than pitch
Arvo Pärt - Estonia
Seven Magnificat Antiphons: O König aller Völker
querelle des bouffons
War of the Buffooons- Argument over the best language for opera--French or Italian
syllabic
each syllable of text is matched to a single note.
Discuss the significance of the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon.
United north-central and eastern Spain
antiphon
a verse or song to be chanted or sung in response
theme and variations
A theme is played in original form, then played again a # of times in sequence, each time varied a different way
The St. Louis Style of ragtime that took america by storm at the turn of the century was led by what two black composers/publishers
Scott Joplin
W.C. Handy
List the 6 new prevailing musical values in the late 18th century.
composers should avoid contrapuntal complexity, melodies should contain short phrases and have simple accompaniments, the language of music should be international, music should appeal to all tastes, music should be natural and immediately pleasing, and emotions and music developed into baroque vs. classicism
What instruments did Rome add to traditional instrumentation?
Additional instruments included the cornu (horn) and hydraulic organ
What is mozart's most famous serenade?
Ein musicalischer Spass (a musical joke)
What do we know about Roman notation?
Though many descriptions and pictures of music-making survive, no notated examples do
what was the significance of the Essay on the True Art of Playing the Keyboard?
described performance practice for the keyboard including musical intervals, key signatures, figured bass realization, ornamentation, improvisation, accompaniment techniques, and fingering
Describe the Artist Stable system of the 1940's and 50's.
The record label chose songs and producers for their talent pool, who were compensated with a salary
30. What were John Calvin's ideas about singing during Christian worship? [see Class 14 notes]
~ only poems from The Bible should be sung: Psalms, canticles from New
Testament (The Song of Mary, The Song of Simeon, etc.)
~ hymns (i.e., poems written by humans in praise of a deity) should not be sung
~ there should be singing only; no instruments
Ballata
AbbaA
String Instruments
Veille/Fiedel
Rebec
Lute
Glittern/Citole
Psaltery
Harp
Hurdy Gurdy
bar form
.
ballad opera
burlesque opera
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1750
Liturgical Drama
Biblical Play
Schubert, "Gretchen am Spinnrade"
...
John Cage
Invented the prepared piano.
concertato style
combined voices and instruments
gamelan
traditional musical ensemble in Indonesia consisting of gongs, metallophones, and other instruments.
Existentialism
-Became entrenched in university curriculum by early 60's-Gave students language to question complacent assumptions of American Society
boethius
wrote 1st ook specifically about music
viola
robert keonig; traume; piano intro, then piano accompaniment and solo viola
Which of the following statements accurately reflects Bach's reputation after his death?
a. his compositions were not performed until the 19th century.
b. His sons kept his memory alive by continuing to compose in their father's style
c. There were annu
a
Text-melody relationships in Notre-Dame organum can always be described this way
What is melismatic
Grace Slick
-Lead singer of Jefferson Airplane-Great female rock voice-Repressed love-hate image of the 60's
duke ellington
American composer, pianist and bandleader. Regarded as one of the most influentel figures in jazz.
What was Dizzy Gilespie's instrument of expertise?
Trumpoet
Joseph II of Hapsburg, Emperor of Austria
1765-1790
As cantor at St.Thomas Church, Bach was required to compase a ______ each Sunday and religious holiday
Cantata
Dead Elvis (1993)
Bassoon solo plus chamber Ensmble
Dires Irae Theme
Symphony
a large orchestral piece in several movements
Quadrivium
Instituted in the middle ages and contained arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, and music
fortepiano
a new musical instrument that strikes strings instead of plucking them. This provides the performer with the opportunity to include dynamics.
transition
the passage between two movements or sections of a work
A Teenager In Love
Dion & The Belmonts
Claudin de Sermisy
1490-1562Notable composer of the Parisian chanson (lighter more chordally oriented)"Tant que vivray"
10. Which Atlantic Records employee convinced the label’s executives to adopt recording to tape, recording in stereo, and using 8-track tape machines as soon as the technology was made available in the 1950s?
Tom Dowd
Where did Elvis grow up?
EAST Memphis, TN
Opera buffa included what type(s) of characters?
Everyday/commedia dell'arte
21
Amy Marcy Beach
(1867-1944) The first major female composer from the US. She was a high class Bostonian woman. She took piano lessons as a girl and was mostly self-taught (did not study in Europe like other composers). She wrote fine compositions usually with late romantic German style.
The shawm was similar to what modern-day instrument?
a. flute
b. trumpet
c. oboe
d. violin
c. oboe
Neotonal
term for music since the early 1900s that establishes a single pitch as a tonal center, but does not follow the traditional rules of tonality
Marco Cara
Italian composer and singer in Mantua that raised the frottla to a level of sophistication
Liturgy
a body of texts and actions proscribed (def: forbid esp. by law) for a worship service
A(n) __________ chant is sung by a soloist in alternation with a choir
responsorial
oratory
prayer hall set aside just for praying preaching and devoational singing- where an oratorio was performed
Stephen Stills, Jim Messins and Neil Young formed what country rock group of the late 1960s?
Buffalo Springfield
Cumulative Form
Theme is stated in fragments that become progressively more whole until entire theme is played
Used in General William Booth with "Cleansing Fountain" theme.
Which composers’ music was the foundation of Beethoven’s works of the second period?
Mozart and Haydn
. What is the language of services in the Anglican Church?
English
Lutheran church cantata
a part of regular religious service. Evolved as a musical commentary on a given weeks particular bible passage
Nicene Councel
325 to deal with Arius a Libyan preacher who taught that God created the Son. Summoned by Emperor Constantine the Great
Rhythmic Modes
-A new system of notation to allow coordination of the voices in measured organum
-Groups of notes were written with one application of the pen to the page; these were known as ligatures
-Notes within the same ligature could be construed as short or breve (one beat) or long (two beats) within a standard system of three-beat units
-The context allowed the singers (eventually) to figure out the rhythmic mode of the piece and how to construe all the ligatures
1. Trochaic - Long Short
2. Iambic - Short Long
3. Dactylic - Long Short Short
4. Anapestic - Short Short Long
5. Spondaic - Long Long
6. Tribrachic - Short Short Short
Psychedelic music/ San Francisco Scene
-music had floating quality-eastern indian influence (sitar)
Point of imitiation
Exactly the same phrase being imitated in all four voices.
The first use of Heavy Metal was applied to what artist?
Jimi Hendrix
21
Tone poem
also known as a symphonic poem. It is a piece of orchestral music in a single continuous section (movement) in which the story, theme etc. is evoked. The tone poems were used by Strauss He wrote two types of tone poems: narrative and abstract/philosophical.
2 Primary Features of Classic Music
Balance and Proportion
Clarity and Accessibility
Who was Claudin de Sermisy?
composed Tant que vivray, wrote popular chansons which appeared in paintings
13. What was the name of the San Francisco area student writer who was part of the “Merry Pranksters” crew, introducing the public to LSD through the legendary “Acid Tests” events?
Ken Kesey
first and second ending
play the piece with the first ending (under the 1) then repeat the piece. The second time through, skip the first ending and play the second ending (under the 2)
Repertory Opera
an opera that is part of the canon of works performed each season either within a specific opera house or throughout the world. This phenomenon began in the middle of the 19th century. Examples include any of the operas from the 19th century we have studied.
Who is the composer of "Symphony No. 3, Op. 55, Mvt. 1 and 2" and what are the names of the movements we're studying?
Beethoven; Eroica and Marcia Funebre
95. What are some of the elements of the popular music industry we discussed in class? [see Class 21 notes]
performers, agents, venues, publishers
The four most important canonical hours
1. Vespers 2. Matins (12am) 3. Lauds (Before Dawn) 4. Compline (Before bed)
Was Handel English or German (or both)?
Born in Halle, Germany and has German born roots, but later became an English citizen and made most of his work and life in England
Du Fay, Gloria, Missa Se la face ay pale (ca. 1450?) (p. 180)
Employs the tenor melody of Du Fay's Se la face ay pale as a cantus firmus
Du Fay may have composed the mass for the same patrons for whom he composed the chanson
Voice functions: two upper voices are most active, tenor provides harmonic "scaffolding," bassus provides harmonic underpinnings
Tenor/cantus firmus presents the melody in three times the original note values, then twice, then at the original pace
The ballade's melody thus progresses from obscurity to recognizability
Sprechstimme
?
Columbus
rapist theif
Basse danse
...
Ludwig van Beethoven
Schubert died of...
syphilis
Back Water blues
Bessie Smith
Concertato medium
*Baroque
*liked variety/contrast...so mixed voice and instruments together
*In Renaissance, it was one or the other
Book of Love
The Monotones
Venice
-Republic because of voting
-Noble patronage and confraternities
-liberty: beyond reach of Roman Catholic censorship
Characteristics of Secular Music
1)mono,homo,polyphonic
2)strong rhythms dance -like
3)instruments
4)melodic leaps
5)text vernacular
6)courtly love, chivalry,new,propaganda
-unspecified instruments
Aulos
Most common greek wind instrument?
brandenberg concertos
6 of em- FFGGDBb
Lutheran chorale
-Monophonic, unaccompanied at first
-simple congregational music in German strophic hymn
first polyphonic musical form was known as
organum
1501
O Petrucci prints first polyphonic music
harmonia
(pl. harmoniai) Ancient Greek term with multiple meanings: 1) the union of parts in an orderly whole; 2) could include mathematical proportions, or philosophical ideas. Ptolemy was an astronomer who used astronomy proportions to help write music.
B
This reformer insisted that only Biblical texts were appropriate for singing in worship.
A) Martin Luther
B) John Calvin
C) Edward VI
D) Ulrich Zwingli
E) John Dowland
a movement in twentieth-century music that sought to return to the musical forms and aesthetics of the Baroque and Classical periods
Neo-classicism
chansonnier
book of songs in the north
Skiffle, a very popular "do-it-yourself" British music style that was a mix of folk music and ragtime was popularized in the 1950s by:
Lonnie Donegan
isorhythm
[means "the same rhythm"] A late-Medieval Ars Nova compositional technique that provides unity throughout a work or section by presenting a repeating rhythmic pattern ("talea") against a longer, fixed pattern of pitches ("color").
Singspiel
comic opera in Germany, used spoken dialogue
opus
a word used to indicate the chronological order in which a composer's music was written or published
texture
the way in which simultaneous meoldies relate to one another
Atonality
term or music that avoids establishing a central pitch or tonal center (such as the tonic in tonal music)
Harmony
is created when two different pitches sound simultaneously. Describing the harmony involves describing not just these simultaneities, or chords, but how they relate to one another in succession. Chords can be described as dissonant or consonant, major or minor; the harmony of a piece can be described in these terms as well.
VILLANELLA
type of 16th century italian song generally for 3 voices in a rustic homophonic style
ground bass
basso ostinato of purcell’s day- provided solid founation on which an entire composition could be built or grounded- repeating pattern- stubborn/pigheaded
Saul: Act II, scene 10
George Frideric Handel1738
etude
study piece that focuses on a particular technical problem
Motet
clasulae that were taken out of context from the organum purum and then text was added, Amors mi font
Symphonic poem
one movement orchestral work that is programmatic, Liszt
Cotton club
The club at which Duke Ellington played in his early years; crucial to the formation of his style; place at which he composed "Creole Rhapsody" and "Reminiscing in Tempo"
FRANCONIAN NOTATION
System explained by Franco of Cologne in his Ars cantus mensurabilis Noteshapes signified relative durations
Durations consisted long, breve, semibreve, and minium
Hildegard
only woman who wrote vocal music for woman in the Medieval era
Bebop
style of Jazz that emerged in 1940's, built around virtuosic soloists in combos, rooted in standards of the swing era
Syntagma Musicum
A systematic treatise of music that contains descriptions of instruments in use at the time, illustrated bu woodcuts.
Which 3 regions are considered important style centers in down-home country blues?
Piedmont, Texas, Delta
Who continued to sing protest songs into the seventies, largely unheard, his life ending in suicide?
Phil Ochs
Pavane
A dance step of the 16th century which was included in a pair or group of three dances. A stately dance in three repeated strains (AABBCC). p. 270
Inti Illimani
"The son of Illimani" (Mountain in the andes). Widespread popularity. Took steak in Italy during reign of Pinochet.
Franconian motet
Bottom line is the original chant with a single word in Latin; upper two lines are 2 different secular french texts; layering effect.
instrumental music free of a text or any preexisting program
absolute music
Feast of Fools
Youngest of adult clerics took charge of church. they would engage in mockery of liturgical service. New Years Day
What is folk process?
The collective changing of a song
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Wrote strict and smooth masses, closely followed Council of Trent's standards in his compositions. "King of Music"
arioso
a style of singing and a type of song midway between an aria and a recitative
Italian Madrigal Music
- voices play equal role
- earliest madrigals are for four voices, then five voices
the art of fugue
collection of fugues and canons, all derived from the same subject- intended for keyboard- has every contrapuntal technique EVER
What is a revue?
A song-and-dance show comprised of hit songs
We know about Greek thought through two kinds of writings:
Philosophical doctrines that describe the nature of music, its effects, and its proper uses. Systematic descriptions of the materials of music (music theory).
Rock Around the Clock
-Bill Haley and the Comets (Haley was originally member of country band. famous in england)-1950's-Soundtrack for blackboard jungle (delinquance)-First White rock song-represented music for teenagers -replaced racial gap with generation gap
How is a responsorial chant performed?
soloist alternates with the choir or congregation
The Age of Enlightenment, eighteenth century belief in rationalist and logical ideals was shaken by _____ in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
Events (reign of terror after French revolution, and war all over Europe)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098 - 1179) - Chorus In principio omnes from the Ordo virtutum (pp. 36-37)
Tropes evolved into liturgical dramas involving chant
These were performed in convents as well as monasteries and cathedrals
Hildegard was a highly successful abbess and composer active in southwestern Germany
Her melodies are much more disjunct than those of the Gregorian repertoire.
70. What are three musical traditions related to the singing of spirituals? [see Class 18 notes]
~ moaning
~ work songs
~ country blues
Mozart
Classical
Trouveres
1150 CE
Contemporary
Bela Bartok
Who wrote Politics
Aristotle
Mystery Train
Elvis (Sun)
Luys de Milan (dates)
1500-1560
musical categories: popular music
?
Bard
poet in celtic lands
Minstrel
Specialized musicians; Many were employed at a court or city; Had varied backgrounds
recitation
music spoken/sung to a text
1st University Based music program
Lepzig
Empress of the Blues
Bessie Smith
Maurice Ravel styles
Consummate craftsmanship, Traditional forms, Diatonic melodies, Complex harmonies
Baroque Sonata
One or more instruments, multi-movement
Accentucalist
Basic Rhythm is governed by text.
1637
first opera house opens in venice
minnesinger
a poet-composer of medieval germany who wrote monophonic songs, particularly about love, in middle high german
Schumann, Dichterliebe song cycle: "Im wunderschönen Monat Mai," "Ich grolle nicht" and "Die alte, böse Lieder"
...
opera
quintessential art of the 17th centuryItalian for "work"continuous or near continuous music staged with scenery, costumes, and actionunion of poetry, drama, music, and stagecraftan attempt to recreate a modern form of the ancient Greek tragedy and a blend of existing genres
1. Which previously established musical groups became the first jazz units in New Orleans?
Marching bands
Cori spezzati
Means in Italian "divided choirs," this technique was used by composers late 16th century such as Willaert and Gabrieli. p. 283
virelais
french forme fixe in the pattern AbbaAbbaAbbaA in which a refrain A althernates with stanzas with the musical form bba the a using the same music as the refrain
Paratactic
any structure that consists of a series of more or less discrete units unrelated to one another musically. Paratactic form can be represented schematically as A, B, C, D, E and so on
comic opera (opera buffa)
-championed middle-class values (opposite of grandiose Baroque operas)
-originated in 18th century and portrayed everyday characters and situations
-used spoken dialogue and simple songs
Psalter
a collection of psalms in rhymed, metered verse
mele pule
Hawai'ian prayer songs. By reciting these prayers, Hawai'ians sought to bring to life images of their gods fashioned of wood, stone, or feathers, animating them with divine powers. Almost monotonal except for one prominent pitch other than the central reciting tone.
Moserabic Liturgy
The Islamic influence on Christianity in Spain.
The capital (the center) of the Byzantine Empire and the seat of the Eastern Orthodox
Patriarch was in (name of the city) _
Constantinople
Diabolus in musica
devil in music- dissonant tritone
Bizet Operas
Carmen, Djamileh, Fair maid of Perth
Proper
things that don’t happen all the time
Aria
Solo in an opera expressing an emotional state.
What are chansons?
three voices, dominated by treble, used formes fixes, particularly rondeau
bassoon
edward greg; in the hall of the mountain king; switch between bass and bassoon
Giulio Caccini
Member of the Florentine Camerata. One of the first composers of opera.
Who was the teacher of both Beethoven and Mozart?
Haydn
4th MVMT recapitulation
same themes as expostition w/ different instrumentation
2001 A Space Odyssey
Ligity Lukeseterna Requiem process music chromatic filling through imitation, Composed by Alex North for Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film.
white mensural notation
Standard breves are left unfilled. Eliminated time required to fill note headsLess wear and tear on paperEssential elements of mensural notation remained same.
8. Who was the Harlem Renaissance pianist and bandleader that made jazz arranging and composition into a fine art, broadcasting his music across the country from the Cotton Club?
Duke Ellington
What was Colonel Tom Parker's background before becoming Elvis Presley's manager?
Traveling carnival worker
The Risorgimento was when
everyone wanted a piece of Italy.
In porgy and Bess who was origionally supposed to play " Spontin Life"
Cab Callaway
Rite of Spring
Stravinsky ballet that caused a riot in paris?
dominant
the chord of the 5th note of a scale
Roman de Fauvel
Narrative Poem about an idiot donkey who raises to power; includes 169 pieces of music, several which are monophonic, and 30 motets
What band is touted as "the greatest rock & roll band" from the 1970's through today?
Rolling Stones
Plato's Republic and Laws
Urges a balance between gymnastics and music. Argues that only certain types of music are suitable. The Dorian and Phrygian harmoniai fostered the virtues of temperance and courage. Music should not have complex scales or mixed genres, rhythms, or instruments. Changes in musical conventions could lead to lawlessness in art and anarchy in society.
Grand Ol' Opry
one of the venues that made Nashville the country center.
Cleofide: Act II, scene 9, Digli ch'io son fedele
Johann Adolf Hasse1731
whu was the jamaican DJ credited as the first at creating lyrics that were performed live over a record at sound systems
DJ Count Machuki
Phyrigian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Dorian
Names of the modes came from ethnic groups of ancient Greece
Did Beethoven seek a “court appointment” as a composer in Vienna, yes or noIf no to the previous question, how would Beethoven have supported himself
no-annual stipends or single gifts from members of the aristocracy; income from subscription concerts, concerts, and lessons; and proceeds from sales of his works.
In Ancient Greece, women were excluded from competition but could...
perform recitals, often to critical acclaim.
What are the 4 historical traces of music?
Physical remains, visual images, writings about music, music itself
Which of the following is true for music in ancient Rome?
Images, written descriptions, and some instruments are all that remain.
What are the strengths of Mozart's da ponte operas?
Aristocrats look dumb compared to the witty servants
/ 291
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online