Carnaval, Op. 9
|Toccata No. 3||
Symphonie Fantastique, movement 5
Date: (ca. 1520)
Texture: more homophonic than most of josquin's chansons. Four-voice texture became the norm .
Genre: Chanson. After 1500, composers began writing chansons that were not in the formes fixes like this one.
Lyrics: Mille regretz de vous habadonner (a thousand regrets at deserting you.
Misc: Four-voice texture became the norm.More attention was paid to declamation and expression of the text — valuing sense over structure.
|Machaut:Misse Notre Dame:Agnus Dei||
|Flow my Tears||
Texture: Mostly homophonic
Genre: Air or Lute Song
Author: (The chief composer of lute songs in England) John Dowland (1563 - 1626)
Misc: The lute was the primary amateur instrument in the 16th century
|Communion Viderunt omnes||
Rhythm: no rhythm notated
Melody: no repeated motive but a variety of melodic patterns. conjuct
Timbre: soloist and chorus
Form: through composed
Genre: Gregorian Chant
Function: Part of Mass for Christmas day. closing music
Lyrics: Solo: viderunt Omnes Chorus: fines terrae saluta re dei nostri same as the beginning of the gradual.
|early organum from Musica Enchiriadis||
-parallel, free organum
Threnody: to the Victims of Hiroshima; 1960
|B-minor massCredo "Et resurrexit"||
Composer: J.S. Bach (1685-1750)Time/Place: 1749, LeipzigForm: Chorus, 2nd mvt of CredoLanguage: LatinKey: D majorcharacteristics: Last work, part of 5 mvt sacred word 2-hrs long represents a culmination of all that he had learned about writing sacred music for Church. Never heard entirety in his lifetime
|Christe redemptor omnium||
Genre: Hymn in fauxbourdon style
Author: Guillaume Du Fay (ca. 1397-1474)
Lyrics: Christe redemptor omnium (jesus, redeemer of the world!)
Misc: preexistent melody in top voice. is an example of a hymn composed with an added fauxbourdon. Fauxbourdon and Faburden: Terms for two techniques of improvising harmony to plainchant in a way that creates many thirds and sixths. This technique developed a sound that was used in notated music as well.
|Suite in A minor||
Jacquet de la Guerre, Elisabeth-Claude
|Motets on Tenor "Dominus"||
Date: thirteenth century.
Melody: All four are based on the same chant melody, the melisma on Dominus from the Gradual Viderunt Omnes. Direct adaptation of a discant clausula, as is common of many motets.
Form: Was created by adding words to the upper voice of the clausula on Dominus on track 65 of CD1
Articulation: none marked
Function: celebrating the birth of Jesus
Genre: Motet (gloss of a discant clausula. text added in upper voice, or take a fragment of a chant and add new tenor and add one or more voices above) Viderunt omnes is a Gradual.
Beginning Words:Factum est, salutare, conspectu
|Mass for Christmas Day: Alleluia||
-part of the proper
-meaning praise the lord.
-choir participates in melismatic material
-ending melisma, jubilis
-no alleluia during lent, sing tract instead
Slower Mass chant with a lot of people singing at once
|In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum||
Rhythm: isorhythm perfect minims (prolation of 1 semibreve), imperfect longs and breves
Melody: uses hocket
Harmony: use of double leadingtone cadence. musica ficta
Timbre: one singer per part (3 parts)
Form: Created by the tenor. Tenor melody consists of two statements (called colores) of the same phrase of chant. In the second color, the note values are diminished by half; here the melody moves mostly in breves (dotted half notes) rather than in longs (dotted whole notes) Each statement of the chant is divided into three segments, or talea (cuttings). this kind of organization is called isorhythm (equal rhythm), evolved from shorter repeating patterns in the tenors of thirteenth century motets.
Author: Philippe de Vitry (invented notation that allowed note values to be divided into either two or three equal parts. led to the label ars nova the treatise of the same name he also wrote)
begining words: In arboris empiro prospere
|"Io parto" e non più dissi||
Genre: Late Madrigal, sometimes called mannerist madrigal
Author: Carlo Gesualdo (1561-1613)
Misc: Contrasting diatonic and chromatic passages, again for the purposes of expressing the text
Surprises, both in the text and music (a hallmark of Gesualdo's style)
Symphony No 4 in E Minor, Op. 98, mov 4
|"Sequenza III" - Berio||
part of a series of 14 instrumental works, but III is the only one arranged for voice, requires the performer to mutter under the breath, laugh, and sing in the conventional manner 1970
|A chantar m'er de so (p.43)||
Dates: Second half of the twelfth century
Rhythm: free, unmeasured.
Melody: conjunct, doesn't span over an octave. Narrow ambitus (melodic range). Makes use of ouvert and clos candence structure
Timbre: just voice in this recording
Form: AAB (Musical Phrases=ababcdb, Rhyme Scheme=aaaabab)
Articulation: mf, slow, legato
Genre: Canso (troubadour song)
Author: Comtessa de Dia (beatriz de dia) ca. 1140 - Provence , 1175 (12th century)
Misc: Probably autobiographical - courtly love conflict is slightly different - from a woman's perspective.
|Four 13th century motets||
|Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21||
|La quarte estampie royal||
|Dido and Aeneas, conclusion||
|Vierlai, Foy porter||
Machaut - mid 1300s
|Clori vezzosa, e bella, excerpt||
|Meine Seele Erhebet Dem Herrn||
Riding horses, tremolo piano, male opera voice, only male voice and piano
La Creation Du Monde, Op. 81; 1923
|Rondeaue, Rose liz, printemps, verdure||
Machaut - mid 1300s
|Missa O magnum mysterium, Kyrie||
Form: compositional technique: imitation mass. difference paraphrase mass based on monophonic model/imitation mass based on polyphonic model. The mass based on O magnum is an imitation mass — it uses material from the motet, but also alters it
Imitation masses could also be composed on secular pieces, which the Council of Trent forbade
Author: Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 - 1611) was the most famous Spanish composer of the 16th century. He was primarily active in Rome
Page: p. 273
Misc: begins with imitation
|Machaut "Quant en moi"||
Medieval singing with two voices
, La Traviata, Act III, Scena and Duet
|Mass for Christmas Day: Kyrie||
part of the mass ordinary
|Bartok "Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta, II"||
Strings/percussion/piano. Sounds like a rushing wind or search or hunt. Very fast paced, switches back and forth like a conversation from intensity to anticipation.
|Orfeo ed Euridice Chorus: "Misero giovane"||
Composer: Gluck (1714-1787)Time/Place: 1762, ViennaForm: Chorus (of greater importance b/c of lessened virtuosity) of furies accompanied by wind instruments and d7 chordsLibrettist: Ranieri CalzabigiLanguage: Italiancharacteristics: 1st REFORM OPERA. composed after Calzabigi came to settle at Empress Maria Theresa's court with GluckRearrange for the French, renamed Orfee et Eurydice, added ballet and wrote the castrato part for tenor
|Purcell, "Thy hand"||
Slow sad sounding opera with a lady and low string accompaniment
from Jeu de Robin et Marion by Adam de la Halle
|Leoninus (1150s-1201) and Colleagues Viderunt omnes||
Date: second half of the twelfth century
Rhythm: possibly was originally free. uses poetic meter to dictate rhythms.
Texture: only the solo portions are in polyphony, as is typical of this period, with the choral portions remaining in plainchant. here, the first two words of the respond, and all but the last two words of the verse are set polyphonically. The notes of the chant appear in relatively long values in the lower voice and above the chant is a much more florid upper line sung by a soloist.
Timbre: sung by a small choir of about five voices
Form: The organum was only applied to the parts of the chant that soloists ordinarily sang: incipits and verses. Beginning or incipit sung by soloist - neumatic style. Verse sung by soloist - some portions melismatic. Opening passage is in organum..
Genre: Organum duplum.
Misc: this is the Gradual Viderunt omnes from the Mass for Christmas Day set to polyphony
Author:Leoninus (1150s-1201) was a canon (type of christian priest) at Notre Dame Cathedral. Compiled Magnus liber organi (Great Book of Polyphony) which contained two voice settings of the solo portions of the responsorial chants for major feasts.
|"Black Angels: Image 4 & 5" - Crumb||
a string quartet is electronically amplified to produce surrealistic dreamlike juxtapositions, used unusual means of bowing like striking the strings near the pegs with the bow and bowing between the left-hand fingers and the pegs 1970