Music History Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Franz Liszt
luisa miller
Centers of education
Who developed isorhythm?
Spanish villancico
spanish frottola
(late renaissance)
opera buffa
Italian comic opera
geometry, astronomy, music, arithmetic
a moderate or medium tempo
The Classic Masters
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
symphonie fantastique recurring melody
idee fixe
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
wrote the vollage soothsayer, including 2 measure phrases, simple harmonies, subordinate accompaniment
a compositional technique where the theme or melody is reversed, so that the first note becomes the last, the second note becomes second to last, etc.
low, continuous sound that lasts throughout piece of music
Beethoven, age 22 arrives in Vienna
character pieces
Romantic short programmatic works usually for solo piano
His epic poem Geirusalemme liberate (Jerusalem Delivered) served as the basis for musical setting of Monteverdi's Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, Lully's opera Armide, as well as works by Haydn, Brahms and Dvořák.
Ottaviano Petrucci
(1466–1539)1501, Venice. First music printed with movable typeHarmonice musices odhecaton Triple impression printing
Liturgical Drama
Medieval Plays (12th-13th centuries) representing biblical stories with action and occasionally monophonic music, not part of the official liturgy.
Benjamin Britten
Tempered modernism with simplicity and created a widely appealing idiom, homosexual.
Church Calendar
Schedule of days commemorating special events, individuals, or times of year
What format were Motets formatted in?
choirbook format
Toccata No. 3
Girolamo Frescobaldi, 1615, toccata, improvisatory but accessible to amateurs.
A composition based on the gospel account of the last days of Jesus
Beginning in the 9th century, the monastery at _________________ became a center for editing Gregorian chant.
Avante Garde music society
The New German School
George Crumb - America
Black Angels: Danse macabre
Le nuove musiche
"New music"Caccino wrote numerous songs for solo voice with continuo in 1580s and 1590s and published them under this titlecalled the songs with strophic texts arias and all the other were called madrigalsforeword in here includes descriptions of vocal ornaments then in use, providing a valuable resources for scholars and singers
substitute clausula
substitute sections of polyphony added to books at the end
Which Independent Record Label first discovered and developed, Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, and Jerry Lee Lewis?
Sun Records
Heitor Villa Lobos
Was the most important Brazilian composer
Liber usualis
(Book of Common Use)- collection of commonly-used gregorian chants compiled by Monks of Solesmes in France
Walking Bass
a bass line that uses continuous eighth-notes in a predominantly step-wise motion.
verse anthem
anthem in which passages for solo voices with accompaniment alternate with passages for full choir doubled by instruments
England in 1822
Established the first boarding school for young students
chamber music
classical music designed to be played in smaller rooms
Idée Fixe
term that Berlioz coined that denotes a repeated theme used in all five of the movements of his Symphonie Fantastique, as well as other compositions, such as Harold en Italie. It has an extra-musical association, and can stand for a person, thing, or idea, transforming to suit the mood or situation, as it does from its idealized form (the object of Berlioz's desire/love) in the first movement to the grotesque one in the fifth.
texts that are the same in every mass
twelve-tone method
A form of atonality based on systematic orderings of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
What band is touted as "The Greatest Rock & Roll Band" from the 1970s through today?
Who created Aldon Music and often crafted the "girl group" sound of the early 60's?
Al Nevins
what was the main point of every Requiem Mass?
Dies Irae
England 1534
-Henry VIII split with Rome after pope told him to stop being a whore, and established Church of England
-By 1549, English Book of Common Prayer completed the gradual transition from Latin to English as liturgical language
The English Madrigal
Style of Italian madrigal, only with Italian text.
**Thomas Morley
**Thomas Weelkes
**John Wilbye
Issues of the Enlightenment
Human over the Divine
Reason over Religion
Clarity over Complexity
second practice
also referred to as the stile moderno; composer follows rules of text rather than focussing on only the musical harmony
Through - Composed
Containing new music for every stanza of text
Which of Mozart's symphonies make use of a slow introduction?
36 38 39
point of imitation
the introduction of a new phrase in imitative polyphony
Fugue Subject
appears again and again in each of the instrumental or vocal lines
Don Giovanni was based on...
Don Juan and the Stone Guest
Appalachian music tradition gets most of it's Celtic tradition from what countries?
England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales (British Isles)
Bel Canto Style Era was characterized by
impeccable legato, light tone, flexible technique, execution of fast passages, the expectation of improvisation.
The Belleville Three (Juan Atkins, Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson)
Detroit electro group. First electro band
Which two record labels played the biggest roles in producing the raw, emotional grooves known as "Southern Soul?"
Stax Records and Atlantic Records
• Electric SQ w chant and moan
1970 Crumb, Black Angels string quartet NAWM 163
• 5 "images" aka mvts
• 4th one is Devil Music
o Paganini sold soul to Devil to be able to create music
o Left hand pizz
o Quotes dies irae
o Violin associated to devil
• 5th is Danse Macabre
o tritones
• Electric SQ - amplifying and modification of traditional instruments
• Chant and moan
• Visually expressive (staffs)
• 1970 end of Vietnam. Crumb thinks it was pointless martyrdom
• Post Modern approach - not creating new, creating new spin on things that are old
Second change that comes about in the Gothic period
Invention of a precise musical notation becomes a way of writing music in a definitive form.
8. What new policies came about regarding the selection of music for radio programming in 1947-48 that marked the beginning of rock and roll, and the short reign of the radio DeeJay?
Radio stations could play records on the air for the first time
Coexistence of Old and New Styles in Baroque
Palestrina = old.
This is the first time when two styles have coexisted
gradually slower
German chorale
the prince, Renaissance
Spoken dialogue alone
Established in the 1910's
classical period
1750 to 1830
Cry to Me
Solomon Burke
where did the symphony originate?
where was Mozart born?
Salzburg, Austria
- electronic synthesizers enabled composers to call on pitches from a music keyboard.
singing alone with accompaniment; opera
Guillaume Dufay
1400-1474Most important Burgundian Composer
pythagoras discovered relationships between - and musical -
frequencies and intervals
What does goofer dust stand for?
A __________ is a German hymn
Most significant contribution of Chopin
Piano Music
instrumental work designed to show off the creative spirit of the composer as well as the technical skill of the performer
circular horns used for military functions in ancient Rome
13th century consonances
P8, unison, P5, P4
Empfindsamer Stil
"The sensitive style" associated with C.P.E. Bach, 18th century Germany, intended to express true and natural feelings, sudden contrasts of mood
a composition made up of several different but related pieces
Who claimed that the state should govern music?
in twelve-tone music, an ordering of all twelve pitch-classes that is used to generate the musical content
Giovanni Gabrieli
Exploited polychoral music in venice and noted for his use of instruments in his sacred music.
- a new electronic instrument invented by Lev Terman in 1920.
sharps, flats, or neutrals that go against the key signature
chant that accompanies the entry of the priests and abbot or bishop into the church and up the high altar
What great composer did Beethoven meet and possibly have a few lessons with during his first visit to Vienna
Which Jamaican engineer recorded the first hit singles by a toasting DJ and made significant engineering and remixing contributions to the dub style?
Ruddy Redwood
Mass of Notre Dame
section: Agnes DeiComposer: Machautdate: 1360Genre: mass
Idee fixe
A recurring melody/theme that is used throughout all movements & is associated with a specific character or idea; Hector Berlioz
the use of several different keys at the same time
Type of medieval French epic recounting the deeds of national heros, sung to MELODIC formulas
Polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass; one of two main forms of sacred Renaissance music.
Les Six
group of French composers who varied between neoclassical and avant-garde; influenced by Satie including two Americans, Virgil Thomson and John Cage
Aquitanian Polyphony
Ornate type of polyphony developed in France in early 12th cent.
instrument in which the double reed is enclosed in a cap so that the player's lips don't touch it, producing a sound like a soft bagpipe.
Guido of Arezzo
Developed solmization, and a system which each joint on one’s hand stood for one of the 20 notes of the system.
Which gospel singer was influenced by the blues vocals of Bessie Smith, and was dubbed "The Queen of Gospel Music?"
Mahalia Jackson
What country artist first made Honky Tonk famous, who in his early days idolized Jimmie Rodgers?
Earnest Tubb
Thomas Tallis, William Byrd
first noted composers of english anthems, also composed latin music for the Catholic Church, both held exclusive rights to publish polyphonic music, granted by the Queen (Byrd known for keyboard music)
White Big Bands
Benny Goodman (1 of the first integrated band leaders)
Glen Miller
Agnus Dei
Fifth section of a mass; a simple prayer
Octatonic Scale
a scale that alternates whole and half steps; based on m3rd's
Sliding from one note to another on an instrument such as a trombone or violin
Josquin des Prez
1450 - 1521; high-renaissance style of composing, and a master of it; used sogetto cavato in Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae
20. What 1967 concert introduced the Jimi Hendrix Experience to America at large; the same concert where he burned and smashed his guitar?
Monterey Pop Festival
16th centure franco-flemish composers qualities
text determined music, bass foundation, aimed for full triadic form, favored duple, borrowing melodies standard, trying to appeal to a wider audience.
a type of music in which two or more groups of voices or instruments alternate with one another
Third-related harmonies/keys
explored a lot by Liszt and common for the Romantic era; used instead of dominant-tonic relationships.
Tuotilo of St Gall
composed the trope Hodie Cantandus est nobis in 900. Monk
What 5 instruments usually comprise the average Bluegrass band?
Fiddle, mandolin, guitar, banjo, bass
Babylonian musicians came up with instructions for tuning a string instrument using a __________ ________ _____.
seven-note diatonic scale (playable on the white keys of a piano)
Charlemagne is credited with __________.
a. attempting to bring chant practices in the Frankish kingdom into line with Roman chant practice
b. suppressing Ambrosian chant
c. developing the theory of eight Byzantine modes
d. introducing psalm-singing into
a. attempting to bring chant practices in the Frankish kingdom into line with Roman chant practice
King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
Band formed in Chicago by King Oliver; Louis Armstrong was invited to it; early jazz band
What is unusual about the opening harmony in the first movement in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony
This first subject later returns fortissimo at the outset of the recapitulation section, in D major, rather than the opening's D minor. The coda employs the chromatic fourth interval.?
Where does the word music come from?
The word "music" is derived from "muses," demigoddess practitioners of all the arts.
6. Which areas in North America did which European groups control? [see Class 13 notes]
French - South Lousiana, Canada - Quebec
Spanish - Florida, Gulf area and Southwest
USA - British, NY - Dutch
Monastic life
Dmitri Kabalevski
repeated melodic pattern
Jerry Lee Lewis
a cappella
without musical accompaniment
Palestrina - Pope Marcellus Mass: Gloria
Jerome Kern's Showboat
important musical
Female troubadours; More realistic than troubadours
Following longtime practices and opposing many modern technologies and ideas
Schumnann was also a...
music journalist
First microphone invented by
Emile Berliner
Jazz Features
Syncopation, Novel vocal and instrumental sounds, unbridled spirit that seemingly mocks social and musical properties, improv.
plot of the opera always sung
Wrote Treat-us - "De institution musica"
Abstract Instrumental Works
*Introductory and Improvisatory (prelude, fantasia, intonazione, tocatta (((((all of theses fancy to show off flashy fingering))))
**Ricercare "to seek out or to attempt" try out a concept, to explore
(Influenced by imitative motet, forerunner of fugue)
**Canzona--"chanson" light, fastmoving, strongly rhythmic, fairly simple, contrapuntal texture, contrasting sections, long-short-short opening
(Influenced by French chanson, forerunner of Sonata (sections))
itinerant medieval musician or street entertainer
Schubert Winterreise song cycle: "Gute Nacht," "Der Lindenbaum" and "Der Leiermann"
call and response chant between soloist and choir
Hillbilly music's first multi-million seller, The Prisoner's Song, was recorded on many record labels by the same artist. What was his name used on his first recording with Victor?
Vernon Dalhart
First published book for the virginal. Contains music by William Byrd (see chapter 10), John Bull (ca. 1562-1628), and Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625). In addition to variations, the collection has dances, preludes, and fantasias. p. 276
formes fixes
schemes of poetic and musical repetiotion each featureing a refarina used in late medieval and 15th centruy french chansons in particular the ballade rondeau and virelai
style of three-voice writing found in some English music of the 15th and 16th centuries, featuring one notated and two unnotated lines. The uppermost voice moves parallel to the notated voice at the interval of a fourth above; the lowermost voice moves in thirds and fifths below the notated line
Alberti bass
a pattern of accompaniment whereby, instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
a collection of psalms in rhymed, metered verse
A singing style between recitative and aria
Drop outs from religious life who wrote poems and songs in the tradition of gambling & drinking.
The earliest known system for musical notation is credited to the:
a hymn that celebrated deeds of primary gods
symphony of psalms
Stravinsky- no vlns or violas
attempts by Europe to obtain Holy Lands
term coined by Richard Wagner for a dramatic work in which poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music all work together toward one artistic expression
Cantilena style
three voice secular song style. two lower voices meant to be played on instruments
Secular Music
focused on idealized love and values of chivalry; everyday people
Sonata da Chiesa
Church Sonata. Typically in four movements. Adagio-Allegro-Adagio-Allegro.
Word Painting
The technique of depicting the meaning of words through music
repetition in a voice part of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or an entire composition
4th MVMT deveopment
expansion on both themes, modulation to create tension, repeated
Integral serialism
System of serial composition in which elements beyond pitch, such as rhythm and dynamics are also subjected to serial treatment.  Also known as total serialism. Oliver Messiaen and Milton Babbitt. Babbitts Three Compositions for Piano (1947)
Sectional Binary vs. Continuous Binary
• Sectional stops, Continuous doesn’t (notes)
What Texas blues artist injected jazz progressions into his blues, influencing blues artists since?
T-Bone Walker
True or False: It was common practice for small labels to pay their artists at the sessions and not pay them royalties.
Which technological advances impacted the music world most?
Mass paper-making and printing; instrumental structure improvements
Compound Meter
where each beat would be divided by three (sextuple)
What poet wrote " while melinda sings"
Paul Laurance Dunbar
Romantic ballet
a style of [dance] that was produced in the early 19th century. The goal was to convey a mood and tell a story. Dancing en pointe was developed more during this era, and the tutu was also a product. Ballerinas were prominent.
2 or more melodies of roughly the same importance
Messe de Nostre Dame
Written by Machaut, first complete polyphonic setting of the ordinary of the mass by a known composer
Which production team popularized bubblegum music by producing the songs and hiring out the musicians for bands such as 1910 Fruitgum Company and Ohio Express? (2)
Jeff Katz and Jerry Kasanetz
John Cage
His goal was to bring to music sounds that had been traditionally excluded.
A set of syllables used for sight singing chant was introduced by:
Guido of Arezzo
Seven things to listen for
Rhythm Melody Harmony Texture Timbre Articulation Form (Remind Me How To Track Auditory Features or Rice Makes History Total Torture For All)
Beatriz de Dia
Composed the only surviving song by a trobairitz
What city was the home of FAME studios?
Muscle Shoals, Alabama
Music of the spheres
music that was produced by the planets and stars rotating in their spheres around Earth
What is key point in Beethoven’s Heligenstadt Testament
that he was going deaf
Although each branch of the Roman empire Churches had a different rite, all rites had the same components, such as....
A church calendar including special events and times of year. A liturgy (body of texts and ritual actions assigned to each service). A repertory of plainchant or chant (unison song for prescribed texts).
Who developed three and four-voice organum?
Wrote “opera” about Robin Hood and Marion
What was the basse dance/low dance?
most popular dance of the late 15th and early 16th centuries,
a stately couple dance marked by gracefully raising and lowering the body, featured 5 different kinds of steps in various combinations
List three programmatic symphonies by Haydn.
6,7,8 : Le Matin, Le Midi, Le Soir (morning, noon, night)
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