music midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Direct
without alternating
polyphony
defines western music
Syllabic
one syllable per note
rebec
bowed string instrument (chordophone)
Lauda
Monophonic: sung in lay confraternities and by processions of penitents, with music of a vigorous, popular character, similar in form to the ballata.
 
Polyphonic: popular nonliturgical devotional four-part song, in Latin or Italina.  Similar to Frottola, generally syllabic, homophonic and regularly rhythmic, with melody on top.
 
Usually did not use chant themes or Franco-Flemish church style
homophony
harmonic texture, polyphonic, but voices move together and form chords
Chants
biblical and nonbiblical texts, prose and poetic, manner in which they are sung: antiphonal, responsorial, and direct
refrain
Short popular melodies quoted in French motets, found in the triplum or motetus.
 
Developed mid-13th c
Psalmody
the practice of monophonic (often antiphonal) psalm singing.
 
This is the oldest western musical tradition and evolved in three phase.
 
Psalmody in the Jewish temple was often loud and boisterous, accomp by loud instruments and dancing.
 
After the Roman destruction of the temple (70AD) psalmody in the synagogue was quite and introspective with no instruments or dancing.
 
Fianlly, Christian psalmody borrowed many of its characteristics from synagogue psalmody(no instruments or dancing) and may have even borrowed a number of the psalm melodies (this point is disputed)
Gradual
A responsorial chant which used formulaic melodic construction.
 
It was performed from the steps in front of the alter during the Catholic mass after the Epistle but before the Gospel.
 
The Gradual uses only a single psalm verse without Doxology so the resultant form is: solo intonation and choral respond - solo verse - choral respond.
 
An example of Gradual is the Easter Gradual, Haec Dies
chant
Plainsong.  liited range of pitches repetitively
chansons
simpler styles of polyphonic songs often used for sacred texts
Viderunt Omnes
written by Perotin, most famous written for Cathedral of Notre Dame, chant sung in the middle of Mass on Christmas, has alternating performing forces and alternating texture
Middle Ages
400-1400, official start of western music, music theory evolves, write words & music, musical dictionaries that explain everything
Eleanor of Aquitaine
an important medieval political figure, her marriage to Louis VII of France in 1137 brought southern troubadours to Paris, admitting a southern element into the northern French trouvere style music.
 
Her later marriage to Henry of Normandy provided England with Eleanor's vast French holdings when Henry later succeeded to English throne.
 
Eleanor was also an early player in the developing aristocratic game of courtly love and had many prominent affairs
conductus
11th to 13th c monophonic song featuring a newly composed melody.
 
May have originated as sacred songs used during the Mass when people were being conducted from one place to another, but they quickly became popular in secular circles.
 
The lines are metrical and often paired by syllable length, beginning and ending with an unpaired line (ABBCCDDEE....N).
 
By the end of the 12thc the term conductus came to mean any Latin song (sacred or secular) of a serious character and with a metrical text.
 
Polyphonic conductus were written by Perotin and other ocmposers of the Notre Dame era.
 
Two, three or four voices were used and the musical style was less complex than that of organum.
 
Voices tended to remain in a narrow range and they all moved together in similar rhythm (discant style = homorhythnic texture). 
 
Voice crossings were frequent and texts were set syllabically (except for cauda)
Mass
the principal service of the Catholic church.  (the word is derived from the closing phrase, "Ite missa est")
 
The full ceremonial form is the High Mass (Missa solemnis), which includes considerable chanting by a Celebrant, a Deacon, and Subdeacon, along with chanting or polyphonic singing by the choir and/or the congregation.
 
The Low Mass is a shortened form which is spoken rather than sung.
 
The Mass is three-art, consisting of the Introductory, the Liturgy of the Word, and the Liturgy of the Eucharist.
 
The parts which are variable are called the Proper, while those that stay the same are called the Ordinary
rondellus
a type of conductus involving voice exchange between all three voices.
 
Related to the voice-exchange motet, which uses the rondellus technique, either on a simple level, or on a large scale.
substitute clausula
discant clausulae written to replace sections in discant style in organa.
 
At first, no words were added, but later, words were fitted to them.  Eventually, these sections separated from the organa genre and developed into the motet
Leonin
1159-1201.  With Perotin, part of the Notre Dame school.
 
One of the first known composers of polyphony.
 
Wrote Magnus liber organi.  In his organum, he juxtaposed old (florid organum) and new (discant clausulae) elements.
La Dousa Votz
Artist: Bernart de Ventadorn (1135-1194) - troubadour song -written in Provencal - in G mode-string instruments, single singer-fast tempo
ballata
an italian poetic and musical form that originated as a dance form.
Notre Dame School
First polyphonic music composed with measured rhythem = Leonin and Perotin are composers
Strophic
the same music is repeated for all stanzas of the poem
contrafactum
the practice of replacing a given text with another in a different language.
 
This often took place between French and Latin in the medieval motet
Mood (modus)
This was the principle that described the relationship of the long to the breve (perfect -3, imperfect - 2) in the 14th century expansion of Franconian rhythms and notions of perfection v.s. imperfection
madrigal
one stanza poem with rapid turnover of ideas an images
Secular Song and Polyphony
oldest preserved secular songs have Latin text, earliest for the repertoire of the Goliard songs
Petronian motet
late 13th c Petrus de Cruce wrote motets in which the triplum attained an unprecedented speed, through division of the breve into more than 3 semibreves.
 
This effectively resulted in a patter song where the top voice sings quite fast, the motetus moves somewhat slower, and the tenor seems to move in slow motion
Votive antiphon
Any of the 4 important antiphons for the Blessed Virgin Mary (Marian antiphons) sung at the end of Compline, or a polyphonic setting of one of these.
 
The 4 Marian antiphons are "Alma Redemptoris Mater", "Ave Regina caelorum" "Regina caeli laetare" and "Salve Regina".
 
These date from the 11th C and after.
 
They are rather more elaborate than the antiphones of the Psalms and canticles, and have been set polyphonically by numerous composers, esp in the 15th and 16th C
Roman Chant & Liturgy: 2 principle classes of services
office (canonical hours), mass
Ars nova
title of a treatise by Philip de Vitry (written about 1322-23).  Also mentioned in the title of Jehan de Murs' Ars novae musicae.
 
This term came to denote the style which prevailed throughout France in the first half of the fourteenth century.
 
Ars nova princiales included: acceptance of the duple division of the beat and the use of four or more semibreves as equivalent to the breve (already featured in the motets of Pierre de la Croix).
 
Jacob of Liege vigorously defended the "ars antiqua" of the thirteenth century against these "modern" trends in music.
What were the two types of services the Chants were sung at?
Office and Mass
Isorhythmic motet
At the end of the 13th c, the motet increased in scale, and so a large scale organizing technique was needed to keep pieces cohesive.
 
As an outgrowth of the rhythmic modes, which were a fixed short patterns throughout a piece, isorhythm referred to esp the tenor, and had two components: the color or melodic pattern, and the talea, or rhythmic pattern.
 
The patterns were typically of different lengths, or in uneven ratios, and this allowed for overlapping.
 
The system is artificial and elaborate but makes for interesting variations in texture.
 
It is a development of the ars nova period of the 14th C and can be found in the works of Machaut and Dufay
why did the beat for medival music always have to be divided in threes?
sign of the trinity
first secular songs surviving in decipherable notations were composed by whom?
French nobles known as toubadours and trouveres
Jeu de Robin et de Marion
A musical play written by Adam de la Halle in about 1284.
 
Contains a number of popular chansons (rondeau, ballade, virelai), some of which are polyphonic
cantanso
singing
leggiero
lightly
etude
study
Stringendo
pressing forward
Nannerl
Mozart's sister
Vivace
vivacious, lively
consonance
stable, restful
The Coasters
"Yakity Yak"
Vater unser (Schutz)
1650
Final Solution
Pere Ubu
ryan clark
demon hunter
bar line
seperates each measure
Octave
The distance of A-G
Bye Bye Birdie
Charles Strouse
Movies:
—Modern Times and City Lights
Found Art
Theme
longer peice of msic
Baroque Suite
instrumental, multi-movement work; written for listening, based on dance; binary; often began w/ French overture
vedrò il mio sol
Caccini, 1602
gagaku
A Confucian-derived ritual court ensemble from japan;
literally "elegant music"
Relative speed of the pulse.
Tempo
Missa Pange lingua, Kyrie
Josquin, 1510
classical era golden age of
chamber music
Minuet-trio-Minuet created a _______ form (___)
ternary; Aba
ostinato
A persistently repeated melodic or rhythmic pattern.
What individual influenced the career choices of Chopin, Liszt and Schumann?
Paganini
mute
a device that softens the tone
What Does \"Kyria\" mean?
Lord Have Mercy
How many major scales are there?
12
Ring of the Nibelung
Wagner (Epic Music Drama)
The jazz technique of playing short melodic ostinatos, or riffs, derives from African call-and-response patterns.
True
ragtime
Before jazz but similar to march; showed that European music was not so squarish
Musica Ricercata
piano cycle; Ligeti's set comprises eleven pieces in all. The first uses almost exclusively just one pitch A, heard in multiple octaves. Only at the very end of the piece is a second note, D, heard. The second piece then uses three notes (E♯, F♯, and G), the third piece uses four, and so on, so that in the eleventh piece all twelve notes of the chromatic scale are present.
FORM of "Dream of a Witchs' Sabbath"
fantasia
organum
early polyphony of church from ninth to thirteenth century
The medieval modes were traced back to ancient?
Greece
what instrument does mick play for eighteen visions
bass
What instrument did Paul McCartney play during his career with The Beatles?
Bass Guitar
leitmotif
a motif or theme associated throughout a music drama with a particular person, situation, or idea.
A song that is composed from beginning to end without repetitions of whole sections is in strophic form
False
clef sign
identifies where a specific pitch is on the staff


treble clef = G above middle C
bass clef = F below middle C
Alto and tenor clefs = middle C
lied/lieder
a German song from the romantic time period, nearly always accompanied by a piano alone, usually a romantic poem
it never would worked out anyway
brad paisley (1999)
Bach wrote over 300 sacred versions of these for the Lutheran worship-
Cantatas
Rhythm
the lengths, or durations of sounds as patterns in time
Idée Fixe
A melody that symbolizes a specific character and serves as a unifying musical element appearing in every movement
fine
the end of a repeated section, whether da capo or dal segno.
Selena Gomez
I like how Selena Gomez sings falling downand more songs.
modal system
basis of music during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Berlioz Symphonie fantastique is an example of
a. a tone poem
b. a symphonic poem
c. a program symphony
d. a concert overture
c. a program symphony
 
Mozart's Play (4 points)
1. called "Don Giovanni"2. More realistic plots and charasters3. Better flow between recit. and aria4. Music changes to reflect actions of characters
According to the lecture on The Beatles, "skiffle" was a result of what types of American music?
Jazz and Folk
hybrid groups of the 60s
Blood sweat and tears, spinning wheels, chicago, weather report
Tenuto (ten)
direction that a note is to be fully sustained, held up to its full written time value
According to section, who was one of the people who originally wrote the song "land of 1,000 dances" which was later made popular by Cannibal and The Headhunters?
Chris Kinner/Fats Domino
What 3 kinds of music did Romantic composers write for middle class?
Virtuoso; amateur; orchestral transcriptions
If You Ever Been Down Blues
piece composed by G.W. Thomas and performed by Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong
What was Charles Ives’ career and why?
insurance – felt his music could be better if he didn’t make a living from it & did not want his family to be broke
Lacrimosa
Mozart
animato
spirited
glisando
rolling
Don Giovanni
Mozart
Feroce
Wildly, fiercely
moto
motion; movement
Rome Falls
476 (CE)
Concerto for Orchestra
Bartok
crescendo (cres.)
gradually louder
crescendo
gradually louder (<)
Hildegard of Bingen
1098-1129
Pitch
frequency of sound waves
Giusto
Keeping a strict beat
Saraod
plucked lute w/o frets
accelerando
gradually increasing in speed.
Simultaneous contrasting of rhythms involving conflict of meter or accent
polyrhythm
Crescendo
a gradual increase in volume
rubato
temporary irregualrity of time, lengthening certain notes at the expense of others
tambura
plucked drone chordaphonic, North India
duple
grouping of beats in 2
Pictures at an Exhibition
Mussorgsky (piano pieces)
melismatic
melodic style characterized by many notes sung to a single text syllable
Triad
Three-note chord formed by two intervals of a 3rd
Siam
Thailands former name. Origin of Siamese twins.
sprechstimme
technique of singing halfway between speech and song
Diaphragm
We breathe using our diaphragm muscle, not our shoulders
Who wrote the Play of Virtues?
Hildegard.
diminuendo
gradually reducing in force or loudness
mode
an arrangement or pattern of intervals which is used to produce a scale
Dynamics
degrees of loudness or softness in music
Relative
Describes major and minor scales that share the same key signature
Frank Zappa
Unconventional rock and roll musician. Heavy doses of Jazz twentieth century.made use of classical elements in his stage performances and also composed original classical compositions
Recitative
Vocal declamations, free in tempo and rhythm
Basso Continuo
Italian for continuous bass, also refers to performance group with a bass, chordal instrument(harpsichord, organ),and one bass melody instrument(cello, bassoon)
Frequency
number of sound waves per second; higher frequency produces a higher note and a lower frequency produces a lower note
The vocal music for church services from the middle ages is known as?
PLAINCHANT
tempo
relative rapidity or rate of movement, usually indicated by such terms as adagio, allegro, etc., or by reference to the metronome.
Step
to move from one note to another without skipping any in between
Singspiel
It is German comic opera with spoken dialogue
Joplin
born in 1868got job as pianist in Maple Leaf saloon and became Maple Leaf Ragdied in 1917 completely unrecognized during lifetime
air de cour
french secular song, secular, solo voice and lute
melodic contour/motion
general direction of melody; shape of sequence of adjacent intervals
recitative
part of an opera with little music but much text
his evenings were often spent at the homes of friends performing his music. These evenings became known as
Schubertiads
bridge
a thin, fixed wedge or support raising the strings of a musical instrument above the sounding board.
14. The most successful of the country rock groups of the 70s was
The Eagles
Combing jazz and popular music was part of which era:
a. Fusion
b. Neobop
c. Smooth Jazz
d. Straight Ahead Jazz
c. Smooth Jazz
  1.  Steve Reich developed a new rhythmic technique called pulse music.
 
  2.  Composer Ellen Taaffe Zwillich was the first woman to win the Pulitzer prize for Music.
 
 3.  Recently, a new opera appeared on the classical music scene based o
1. true
2.true
3.true
Felix Mendelsohn
Was responsible for finding a lot of bach's works, especially the B Minor Mass.
has realized that she is in love with Alfredo, but is calling it follie and that she needs to be free.Alfredo can be heard singing his love from afar, at this time she proclaims that she must always be free. Hence, the title “Sempre Libera” Always Fre
Violetta
sixteenth rest
rest equal in time value to a sixteenth note
Vocal Ranges of Women (lowest to highest)
Alto, Mezzo Soprano, Soprano
What is the archetype for the 1990's?
Strength/Lillith &quot;Strength and sense of self&quot;
The only time jazz and popular music are the same is:
a. 1920's - 1930's
b. 1930's - 1940's
c. 1940's - 1950's
d. 1950's - 1960's
b. 1930's - 1940's
According to lecture, what song did Sam Cooke release as a response to Bob Dylan’s “Blowing in the Wind”?
A Change is Gonna Come
According to lecture, which singer performed "A Change Is Gonna Come," and what song was the artist responding to?
Sam Cooke, responding to “Blowing in the Wind” by Bob Dylan
First line of a staff starts with what note?
Starting from bottom, the very first line should be E. The following space note is F, the next line note is G, the next space note is A, and so on.
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