music test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
heureux
happy
Holz
Woodwinds
bewegt
agitated
Hallelujah Chorus
Handel
Baroque
Libretto
Opera Text
Crescendo
Gradually Louder
Gregorio Cortez
Turn
larghissimo
extremely slow 1
Johann Sebastien Bach
Baroque
Bayin
chinese organological system
-wood,bamboo,silk,clay,skin,gourd,metal,stone
\"Istanpitta Ghaetta\" composer?
Ananymous
a cappella
unaccompanied vocal music
Aug 5 half steps
8
Colla voce
with the voice
non troppo
not too much
fortepiano
loud and immediately soft.
Inversion retrograde
backward and upside down
Schuberts preconcieved formal structure is                          
no real discernable structure
Through composed
Lady in the Dark
Kurt Weill
Eboka.
Performance or event of Makala.
Tabla
Principle North Indiandrum comprising a set of two small drums one metal and pot shaped, the other wood and cylindrical, played with fingers and palms
Ralph Vaughan Williams 3
Greensleaves, English, nationalistic
Stamitz
His orchestra in Mannhiem experimented with crescendo and decrescendo
Orientalism
The western representation of the orient (writing, art) steortyping them as exotic
Cinquillo 
Little group of 5
More complicated rhythm out of Tresillo and Cinquilo  
repetition
validates the statement by repeating it
To start a note. Different shapes.
Attack
A special effect involving dynamic contrast in which the exact repetition of a phrase at a lower volume suggest distance?
ECHO
bow
an instrument resembling this, used for various purposes, as rotating a drill or spindle, or loosening entangled or matted fibers.
Tempo Rubato
Lengthening of time; pauses and quickening. Associated with Chopin.
Purcell: Suite in D Major, Almand
sound:..opening: 1-3-2-1-5-5..harpsichord in slow 2..running 8ths ..much symcopation in middle voice..AABB form..opens with built chord..fluttering descension
Enharmonic
terms used to designate two pitches having the same sound but different letter names.
Refers to the harmonic or melodic conception of music
Texture
theme
an entire melody recognizable as a discrete entity
Dynamics
How loud or soft a sound is
downbeat
the first accented beat of each pattern, refers to the downward stroke of a conductor's hand
Fifth Symphony
Ta-Ta-Ta-Taaa. "V for Victory" or "Fate Knocking at the Door". Third movement is called a Scherzto
minor
interval smaller by a chromatic half step than the corresponding major interval
chord
harmony of two or more tones sounded together
Topic Roll Cue
System of archiving field recording typically used for analog recording archival.
Isicathamiya (Mbube)
Originally sung by migrant workers in South African minesused in choir competitions in Durban & JohannesburgRich harmonies, call and response, choreography"The Lion Sleeps Tonight"
Ignaz Holzbauer, Luigi Boccherini
Instrumental composer of 18th cent.
The Black Crook
1886
regarded to be the first musical
combined a ballet troupe with a production of Dr. Faust
compound meter
either duple or triple meter combined with itself6:8
triad
lowest tone=root up a 3rd, then up another 3rd which =5th
chance
the absence of any cause of events that can be predicted, understood, or controlled: often personified or treated as a positive agency:
the beats follow groups of two or four
Duple Meter
scale
pattern of notes going up & down in regular order
Measure
The unit of time in Western music and musical notation in which one cycle of the meter takes place.
Which of the following is NOT part of a sonata form movement?
rondo
What two things are important to remain distinguished between?
facts and opinons.
Describe Aristotle's view on music education.
Aristotle thought too much professional training was not good. He thought the best was to practice was to feel delight in the music.
Tone cluster
chord made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart, used in music after 1900
What three ways can intervals be catagorized?
minor, major, or perfect
Benny Goodmans Carnegie Hall concert was the first major jazz show ever performed in this historically classical hall. T/F
true Benny Goodmans Carnegie Hall concert was the first major jazz show ever performed in this historically classical hall.
Half notes & Rests
A Half-note lasts half as long as a whole note and looks like a hollow oval with a stem.
 
A half-note rest looks like a top hat resting on the third line of the staff.
 
suppose tonight would be our last
tiff merritt and john howie jr with two dollar pistols (1999) non commericial country bands
triste
sad
petit
little
fiero
fiercely
La Primavera
Vivaldi
Baroque
Allegro
fast pace
Candide
Leonard Bernstein
andrew loves
julia
vivo
very fast 2
George Frideric Handel
Baroque
She's In Parties
Bauhuas
Movie: Sergio Leone
Canon/Canonical
Rome Conquers Greece
146 BCE
chordophone
music played via chords
Calando
growing slower and softer
forte-piano
loudly, then immediately softly
accelerando
gradually increasing in speed.
Cantate domino
late 20th century; psalm
Duke Ellington
Jazz/Dixieland,trumpet player and singer composer Duke Ellington orchestra many of his men stayed win band through the entire swing era and beyond because he treated them with great respect. Billy Strayhorn
Annie Get Your Gun
Irving Berlin
Henry Russell
Woodman spare that tree
Kempul
smaller hanging knobbed gong (java)
Muriendo (mur.)
die away (softer and slower)
what instrument did WC handy play
cornet
Raqs sharqi
Professional entertainment medium of women's dance, associated with weddings, clubs, films and media
Gestopft
Muted French horn, with the hand
homophony
same soundingvoices all move together to new pitches at roughly the same time
Introductory section of a popular song or ballad, as distinguished from the chorus. Irregular number of bars. See CHORUS.
Verse
How long is a shaku?
A FOOT
cantata
a choral composition, either sacred and resembling a short oratorio or secular, as a lyric drama set to music but not to be acted.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
1756-1791. "Wunderkind." Tried to succeed as free-lance composer but died very early. Supported himself with fortepiano concertos, concert performances, taught and gave lessons. His comic Italian operas were some of the most popular operas of all time i.e. 'Don Giovanni'. His Piano Concerto No. 23 was made in a productive time in his life and he thought very highly of it himself.
Corelli: Concerto grosso, Op.6 #10: Allemanda (Allegro)
sound:..strings..wedding march/distinguished/simple other: ..rounded binary form (repeated material)..Genre: dance movement ..Italian style ..contains non-essential 7ths (moving bass)
Bar line
The vertical lines that separate measures.
Metronome
Instrument used to measure time and tempo
cadential motive
a recurring melodic fragment that signals a cadence
Plains style singing
singing style used at powwows
countermelody
a secondary melody that accompanies a melody
Leitmotif
Short musical idea associated with a person or an object
the noble bebop artists
Monk, Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Clarae
 
 
 
Church Calendar
dates throughout the year, which are chosen to commemorate saints and feasts
i.e. Christmas, Easter (Advent, Lent)
The Well-Tuned Piano
The Well Tuned Piano—a permuting composition of themes and improvisations for just-intuned solo piano
Domenico Cimarosa, Antonio Salieri, Georg Benda,
opera composer 18th cent.
ban
small wooden slats tied together on a string
Melisma
term for a text-setting style in which more than one pitch is sung per syllable
Dracula MusicOrgans
Toccata and Fugue in D Minor
Johann Sebastian Bach
tango
- (1) argentine music and dance of nostalgia and melancholy that originated and is centered around Buenos Aires; (2) tango cancion, argentine sung tango genre; (3) tango caracteristico, argentine characteristic sung tango genre; (4) tango romanza, argenti
Bel canto Singing
Italian opera, frank Sinatra used this style
The tempo in Ska was much faster as opposed to the other forms of Jamaican music. True/False
True
conjunct melody
a melody that moves in gradual or stepwise motion
The second movement of Haydn's "Surprise Symphony" is in
themes and variations form
Harmonium
a portable reed organ the size of a small trunk with bellows and western keyboard
Describe the characteristics (textures) of music.
Music in early Middle Ages were primarily monophonic- melody without harmony (unison) or octave singing. Sometimes there were heterophony- complex form of monophony where instruments embellished melody in same key but different speeds or rhythms.
FORM of "I am the very model of a modern major general"
Strophic
Aint nobody here but us chickens
Louis Jordan and BB King
Violinist              revolutionized the world of the solo musician.
Paganini for the violin
Popular "swing" musicians include in the 1930's-1940's all except:
a. Duke Ellington
b. Glenn Miller
c. Count Basie
d. Tommy Dorsey
e. All of the above are correct
e. All of the above are correct
Piano Keys (Black and white keys)
C D EF G A B_!_!__!_!_!_!After every cluster of two black keys, the white key directly following the second black key is E, and then FBABCD.
vado
io
Meno
less
ancora
again
Piu mosso
faster
Dizzy Gillespie
-american
Chicago
John Kander
‘tit fer
triangle
Ellington played the
piano
fugue
Imitative polyphonic composition
Sonic Reducer
Dead Boys
Armstrong
Twenty/Twenty First (T)
Fugue in C Minor
Bach
Baroque
Parker
Charlie Parkerbebop playerplayed independentlyself-destructive saxophonistdied of alcoholism and drug addiction
Marcato
with distinctness and emphasis
hocket
like a musical hiccup
1000 BC
bone flutes, wind music
Turkey
-poised between Europe and Asia
-often considered part of the Middle East
-Black Sea lies to north, Aegean Sea to west, and Mediterranean Sea to north
-Once called Anatolia
11th century: Muslims captured Anatolia and began building Ottoman Empire
-Reached its high point in 16th century but continued until 20th century
Balcony Scene
emotional culmination
transferred to fire escape from R & J
traditional Broadway Love duet
previewed earlier in Tonight
Maria expresses her feelings in a balance to Tony's
They trade verses in the duet
each sing love motive
duet song ends in unity (traditional sense of unity of mind)
 
 
wonderous love
alabama singin harp copnvention
Grieg
Romantic
Norwegian. Interest in Norwegian Folk Music
Peer Gynt Suites
Paul Whiteman (1890-1967)
"classical orchestra"
major music background
led navy band in WWII
1st to make jazz reputable
"japanese sandman"
"whispering" (classical sound)
1924 performs 1st jazz concert
-"Rhapsody and Blues" ->George Gershwin
"The King of Jazz" (white)
paid highest salaries
describe the tempos
fast slow dancelike fast
Miles Davis
-american trumpeter-"miles runs the voodoo down"-fusion
Hemiola
The rhythmic relationship of three notes in the time of two, or two notes in the time of three. It is usually the alteration of 6/8 and 3/4 time.
clarinet
single reed fitted to the mouthpiece
open, hollow sound
rhythm- meter
accented beats and unaccented beatsduple meter, triple meter, compound meter, irregular meter
tonality
home base-single pitch, single scale (C scale, triads starting in C)
diminuendo
gradually reducing in force or loudness; decrescendo (
retransition
in sonata form, the passage leading from the end of the development section into the beginning of the recapitulation
Exposition
Opening section of fugue during which each voice presents the subject for the first time
Young People's Guide to the Orchestra
Benjamin Britten
Who discovered the science of sound (acoustics) in the 6th century?
Pythagoras
Joy Division
Ian Curtis-vox/songs hung himself in kitchen band formed new order
At what Navaho ceremony do the Yei appear?
Nightway
Three styles of Tango Dance
International, American, Argentinian
Etude
A study to help performer master technical difficulties
accidental
happening by chance or accident; not planned; unexpected:
the two all black big bands
Ellington and Basie
programmatic music
Music should reflect something. Can be a story or impression of something real (two birds fighting in the air, etc.) It does not have to deal with nature only.
Alvin Lucier
One of Lucier's most important and best-known works is I am sitting in a room (1969), in which Lucier records himself narrating a text, and then plays the recording back into the room, re-recording it. The new recording is then played back and re-recorded, and this process is repeated. Since all rooms have a characteristic resonance (e.g., between a large hall and a small room), the effect is that certain frequencies are gradually emphasised as they resonate in the room, until eventually the words become unintelligible, replaced by the pure resonant harmonies and tones of the room itself.
Meter
A term describing the regular puls of much of western calssical music and its divisios into regular groupingof two, three, four or six beats
allegretto
on the fast side, but not too fast
Call and Response
format of performance where one performer calls and another repsonds
classical periodjoke quartetsounds like its going to stop, but it continues
String Quartet No. 33
Joseph Haydn
loure
two or more notes played smoothly but separately in one bow direction
Janis Joplin
a. Born in Port Arthur, TX
b. 1967, Monterey Pop Festival led to contract with Columbia Records
c. Influence of Bessie Smith and Big Mama Thornton
d. Distinct and powerful vocal quality
e. "Summertime" (1968)
i. Composed by George Gershwin
Major Influences on 20th century music
radio
electronic instrus. and synthesizers
amplification/mics and amplifers
fuging tunes
psalm or hymn melodies that are sung as canons or written to contain imitation, popular in britain and the u.s. during the 1700s
It is a piece for solo instrument and orchestra in 3 movements, the first in sonata-allegro form.
concerto
Ground Bass
variation form in which a musical idea in the bass is repeated over and over while the melodies above it continually change; common in baroque music.
6. Which of the Beatles came from the British Art School scene?
John Lennon
scat singing
a jazz vocal style in which the singer uses nonsense syllables in the place of words
Jimmy Cliff
-----"The Harder They Come"
-Cliff helped popularize reggae outside of Jamaica
-The rebellious spirit of the music and its associations with Rastafarianism and ganja smoking -appealed to college students
-starred in The Harder They Come
Guru and shishya relationship
guru is an expert that teaches the shishya
What is the story of The Erkling about?
a man whose child dies
Why are lullabies important for the Mosuo people?
Lullabies express a mother's love and they will stay deep in the babies' heart. Lullabies are sung to babies when they cry.
SCARLATTI
(1685-1750)
moderato
moderately
Legato
smooth/connected
La Cenerentola
Rossini
Zart
soft, tender
netori
gagaku prelude
Iqa'
rhythmic mode
Oratio performance location
theatre
Arco
with the bow
alto
women's vocal parts
sforzando
with force; emphatically.
Dizzy Gillespie Quintet
Shaw 'Nuff
Pitch
The highness of lowness
cadenza
improvised by instrumental soloist
___________ is stable, restful
Consonance
George D. Hay
Grand Ole Opry
Ensemble
Group of musicians playing together
The Grand Tour
George Jones (1974)Traditionalists
Ragtime
Director Frank Galati
Flaherty and Ahrens 
chordophones in indian music
string instrumentstaraf
blues singer known for improvising
Ella Fitzgerald
The --- was invented in 1816
Metronome
Makam
basic pitch set in Turkish music
-100s of them
-somewhat similar to ragas in India
-include idea of scale and a set of forms from which melodies are derived
west side choreography
jerome Robbins
choreography emulated music
five major dance scenes
Idiophone
Sound produced by vibration of instrument itself, such as a rattle.
that
32 possible heptatonic (7 tone) sclaes
Robert Schumann
Romantic. Piano virtuoso, piano concerto in A, literary or autobiographical meanings to pieces, lyrical melodies, rich rhythms
Trope
-set of symbols for how to sing
Exoticism
Evoking the idea of foreign cultures in music. The way cultures were referenced were not always accurate to that culture's actual music, but more the way that the audience perceived it. For example, the music of most asian cultures is not pentatonic, however pentatonicness is not actually that big in asian music.
Recapitulation
In sonata-form, the repetition of the exposition elements but in the tonic key
oratorio
an opera on a religious subject presented in concert form
oricha


dieties of santeria believed to be kings, ancestors, etc.o
also a religion of yoruba where santeria comes from each oricha has specific powers and personalities linked to nature
they have a specific repretory of songs (cantos), toques (rhythms), and dance moves
approx. 24 main ones
canon
followers copy exactly what the leader plays or sings
Vocables
considered only with regards to sound, not in terms of meaning.
have beautiful melodies, but push the singer to the outer reaches of his or her range
Arias
remix culture
global movement to promote the creation of new forms remixed from former creative recordings and other products
Jelly Roll Morton
1st person to write down jazz
Horn fifths
The instruments slide back and forth through sixths, fifths, and thirds, sometimes ornamenting along the way.
In what year was "Choo Choo Ch'Boogie" recorded?
1946
Drum group
(a drum) large northern plains style of music making, everyone has single drum stick around huge drum
Character piece:
A short keyboard work expressing a mood or idea
Beer Barrel Polka
song: Valeria Longoria, composed by Vejvoda, strphic w/ duple meter, performed by conjunto
Jinshan
means Gold Mountain. The basis of many immigrant songs from China
What ragtime artist was John Stark associated with?
Scott Joplin
Falsetto
a male voice / artificial soprano - a 'head' voice
who in 1891, formed an orchestra which later became the chicago symphony?
theodore thomas
word painting
matching the music to the meaning of the word heaven=twinkling or a rise in the music etc
Pore Jud is Daid
provides perfect vehicle to contrast to curly's romantic nature 
speech underlines station in life, uneducated & lower social class
melody is a funeral dirge
bad guy doesnt have good lyrical expression
tells Jud he's worthless and should commit suicide
ancient and venerated plucked stick-zither with fretssouth indian equivalent is the vina
plucked chordophone whose only function is to provide a dronehybrid lute - zither
syncopated beat
stresses a beat that is normally weak. important in african and african-american music traditions, root of most pop music
We never fade ambiences we've recorded as they will be looped later, and adding fades simply reduces the amount of usable audio we have per loop.
Do we fade ambiences?
Da capo Aria
and aria in two sections with an obligatory return to and repeat of the first (hence ABA); the reprise was not written out but signaled by the inscription "da capo" meaning, "take it from the top"
West End Blues
Known as one of the greates songs ever recorded
What does the top number on a meter signature mean?
Beats per measure. 
It is the second part of the sonata-allegro.
The parts are exposition, development, recapitulation. I might give you either of them.
composers             who dad had their family converted to christains
Felix Mendelssohn and Fanny Mendelssohn
Subito
Suddenly
la radio
radio
Revolutionary Etude
Chopin
ritenuto
suddenly slower






B. Returns a note to normal










A
natural sign (♮):




Mozart
small graceful orchestra
Evita
Andrew Lloyd Webber
Romantic Musical Period
1825-1900
il nostro
our (masc. sing.)
Ospedale de la Pieta
Vivaldi
crescendo subito
immediately becoming louder
sometimes incorporated secret number-symbolism in his compositions
Bach
presto
quickly, rapidly, or immediately.
ritornello
recurring passage of the orchestra
Leonard Bernstein
one of Copland's students
Simplice
undeveloped; with simplicity; not varied
Ud
plucked chordaphones, fretless pear shape (precurser to Renn. Lute, European)
True/False
Music is a univeral language?
TRUE
The double bass's sloping ________ make it easier for the left hand to reach the lower part of the fingerboard.
shoulders
beats
basic unit of measurement of time
Classical style
Simpler melody, major dynamics, orchestra includes much more
One's on my way
Lorette Lynn (1971)
sizhu
ensembles for teahouses and people's homes
4 main properties of music
pitchdynamicstone colorduration
_____________ traditional modernist” a modernist working within the European Classical Tradition
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
decrescendo
gradually reducing force or loudness; diminuendo (
Size Types
pentatonic (five notes) / hexatonic (six notes) / septatonic (seven notes) / octatonic (eight notes)
1996, Whiskeytown, Roots Rock/Punk/Alt Country
Hard Luck Story
Sonata form
A (exposition) B (development) A’ (recapitulation – recap of exposition); 1st movement in symphony in this form of classical era
courante
fast triple meter dance from a suite
success of Oklahoma!
2212 performances
first musical to produce a soundtrack
sold in the millions
numerous revivals
R&H maintained artistic control
public transcripts
open musical displays that perpetuate an existing power structure
may include more harmoniums, a dholak (small hand-held drum), and instruments such as the bansuri, tabla, and tambura
dhrupad
Gendhing
for Gamelan, with regular beat & punctuation
Concerto Grosso
Composition for a small group of soloists alternating with the larger tutti.
Johann Sebastian Bach
late Baroque; organist & violinist; wrote everything but opera
Dance Suites
Groups of dance-In two part form (binary)
Border Radio
During 1930's; Radio operators went to the Mexican and Texas border broadcasting music in North America;
avant-garde
the advance group in any field, esp. in the visual, literary, or musical arts, whose works are characterized chiefly by unorthodox and experimental methods.
Pow Wow
A pan tribal American Indian event celebrating Native American identity and culture. Generally also open to non Native Americans.
was a main instrument of the Baroque and Bach was considered a virtuoso organist
organ
composing
to make or form by combining things, parts, or elements:
Sonata Allegro Form
A consistent set of formal principles for a single movement. Includes the exposition, development, and recapitulation. Begins in stability, into instability, then back into stability. Exposition: theme 1 in tonic, bridge, then theme 2 in new key; repeat. Development: new keys introduced. Recapitulation: both themes in tonic. Coda.
Vocalists used all the following techniques to differentiate between characters in an art song EXCEPT:
a.  voice inflection
b.  volume
c.  voice range
d.  masks and other props
allemande
type of dance in a suite, french for "German" duple meter moderate tempo
Music for the mass was?Music for the daily Office was?
Complex; simpler
Music that is designed to tell a story?
PROGRAM MUSIC
Moving a finger up the strings ________ the length that vibrates, and the note gets _________. Moving it ______ the string makes the note _______.
shortens, higher, down, lower
Autsria, Germany and Russia style Romantic Operas.
Austria and GermanyMozart and BeethovenOperetta Sphor, von Weber, Wagner
Russia
Blends together elements from many different styles but rarely fits into any one category.Russian history and nationalismTchaikovsky, Glinka, Borodin, Mussorgsky
Zwilich bases her Concerto Grosso 1985 on Baroque ideas such as (5 ideas)
1. regular rhythmic pulse

2. pedal point

3. walking bass

4. harpsichord

5. uses a melody of Handel’s
Messiaen approach to rhythm pitch
His music is rhythmically complex (he was interested in rhythms from ancient Greek and from Hindu sources); harmonically and melodically it is based on modes of limited transposition, which he abstracted from his early compositions and improvisations.
What were the genres in ancient Greek music?
Sacred music, secular, instrumental, vocal music
What best describes the rhythm in Debussy's music?
vague and unmetered with no strong sense of pulse
he was the head of the english army which was going to put down uprising
why did the Duke of Bedford go to France?
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