Mycology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rhizomucor
-zygomycosis-rhinocebrel infection-ketoacidotic, diabetic patients or luekemia-inhale straight to brain->dead-dark colored->black pus w/ sinusitus-90 degree, non septated hyphae "ribbon like"
Reproductive structures..
conidia
Spelunker's Disease
Hisoplamosis
Cladosporium carrionii
Chromoblastomycosis-rotting wood-->violet warts that resemble cauliflower
Opportunistic infectionBird droppings
Cryptococcosis
Athlete's foot
Tinea pedis
Steering wheel buds
Paracoccidioides
Mortality of systemic candidiasis
35-40%
Nocardia astroides
-bacteria, water/soil saprophyte-partially acid fast, branching rod-misdiagnosed as TB-abscesses in lung, cough, fever, dyspnea pneumonia w/ cavitation, blood borne, brain, etc.-AIDS -traumatic implantation->draining abscess
Septate Hyphae
cross walls. thinner
Where is Blastomyces dermatitidis found in the environment?
Soil
4th most prevalent bloodstream infection
Candidiasis
Pneumocystis jiroveci
-PCP pneumonia (AIDS)-dented helmets-condoms-ground-glass appearance on x-ray-H and E-foamy or honeycomb appearance-dyspnea, tachypnea, non-productive cough-can be extrapulmonary-Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
General superficial mycoses.
Malsezia furfur
Exophiala wernechii
Trichosporon beiglii
Piedraia hortae
Aspergillus spp.
Fungi can reproduce
asexually and sexually
Spores in dustPulmonary lesionsChronic pneumonia
Blastomycoses
Is Aspergillus a primary or opportunistic pathogen?
Both
Dermatophytoses
-Tinea->hair, skin, hair-KOH or Wood's test->green
Chronic infection.
Prolonged infection generally caused by T.rubrum.
Organisms that contain true nuclei (eurkaryotes) and have no chlorophyll
FUNGI
Yeast
oval/round. bud to form daughter cells
What are the opportunist fungal infections for T-cell deficiencies
MicrosporidiumCryptococcusPneumocystis
Diagnostic feature of blastomycosis
Broad-based bud under microscope
Fungal infection endemic to eastern US but also found in parts of Africa and Central/South America
Histoplasmosis
Aspergillus
A. flavus or A. funigatus-45 degree septate hyphae1)allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergilliasis (ABPA)2)preformed lung cavity-"ball of fungus"3)invasive infection->bloody sputum, fever, pneumonia, death-opputunistic, graft vs host disease-can also produce toxin and get on food
T.schoenleinii
Causes Favus (generally in the scalp) -- favus refers to honeycomb.
Favus is a pus bag formation, very smelly, and may lead to permanent hair loss -- can lead to hypertrophy of the skin and appears as brain like formations on the scalp.
Widespread in Eurasia and Africa.
Telomorph unknown.
Endothrix infections.
No macro- or microcinidia.
Forma a favis chandelier (antler like formations in culture).
Nonselective media
most common is SDA. Sabourarud dextrose agar. ph 5.6 nutritionally poor (only has dectrose, peptone agar and water)inhibits bacteria growth but allows fungi to grow!
SPUTUM
can be used for fungus cultures. another early morning specimen following teeth brushing. specimen from the lung, not saliva. you can crush the granules to see fungi.
Rare disease found most in farm workers in endemic areas
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Infection with this fungal species is diagnostic for AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci
Treatment of refractory lesions associated with dermatophytic mycosis
Oral griseofulvin and itraconazole
This fungus grows as a budding yeast, has an antiphagocytic capsule, and can cause meningitis in AIDS patients
Cryptococcus
Tinea Imbricata
A form of Tinea Corporis
Caused by Ttichophyton concentricum -- skin formations forming concentric circles.
sexual reproduction
fusion of two nuclei to a zygote
What is used to differenciate fungi?
texture, topography,& color
Fungal infection on hair shafts
Black and White Piedra
Mass of fungus growing in the lung may be
Aspergilloma
Growth pattern of Coccidioides
Dimorphic; found as hyphae in soil
Colonial texture describes
the height of the aerial specimen hyphae.
Germ Tubes
are the begining of true hyphae and appear as filaments. not constricted.
How is pneumocystis tested for
Bronchoalveolar lavage1) silver or giemsa stain2) calcofluor white increases sensitivity
Only type of fungus that can be transmitted from person-to-person
Dermatophytic (superficial) mycoses
yeast & fungus like bacteria
biochemical tests are the primary basis for identification
What drugs are effective against aspirgillosis and zygomycosis
aspir-azoles (mainly) & amphotericin Bzygo- just amphotericin B
Chlamydospre production is enhanced with
addition of tween 80. The candida species are inoculated onto corn meal agar with tween 80 using the Dalmau technique.
What is the most common Aspergillus species and what is it often confused with
A. fumigatusA. lentulus- resistant to voriconazole
basidiospores protrude from the end of the basidium.
the haploid nucleus travels into a basisiospore.
Urine is a common culture used to test for
YEAST. first morning speciment is preferred in a sterile container.
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