Terms Definitions
journey home
open-minded , accepting
symbol is the owl
Roman:PlutoSphere:God of the UnderworldIconography:Cornucopia, Black horses, helmet of invisibilityOther: married to Persephone, related to fates
lovely attendants of Aphrodite
First God of the heavens
Roman Name: JunoIconography: Crown, Septer, Sick
Fierce struggle, ended in imprisonment of giants under the earth, usually in volcanic regions where they betray their presence by the violence of their natures (i.e., under volcanoes)
son of Agamemnon & Clytemnestra
characterized by or involving transition; transitional; intermediate.
Daughter of Re. Feather of Truth
sumerian goddess noted for wisdom, lwife of lugulbanda--who is a king of uruk, god, and shepherd, protectuor of gilgamesh. MOTHER OF GILGAMESH
Theban priest and prophet (consider re-looking up his role in the Bacchae). BLIND!
home to the Demeter/Kore mysteries; longest observation of cult in ancient world; Demeter wanders to Eleusis, is finally taken in there to rest (similar story to Leto at Delos).
indigenous; arising from the earth itself; (i.e., Hesiod's Theogeny -instantaneous growth of humans from rocks/stones thrown to ground, turned into people)
approximate date of Trojan War
1250 BCE
calm and tranquil; rich and prosperous; happy and carefree
The mound in which the parhtenon stands
sister of the furies/goddess of just punishment/rewards (karma)
one of 12 olympians(mars)son of zeus and heragod of violent warliked by romansvulture dog
Swallowed by her lover Zeus, after she became pregnant. Name means "cunning." She is the mother of Athena.
Demeter: attributes
torch (looking for Kore), queenly female, turreted crown, sheet of grain/wheat, sceptre; (associated with walls of cities, goddess of both food and famine, fertility - doesn't need consort)
wrote Hippolytus (won first prize at Dionysia in 428 BCE).
Propp (Narratology)
myths are essentially stories, unfold according to logic; mythemes- distinctive parts that make up a story (33)
the ancient Greek god of love, identified by the Romans with Cupid.
lasting only a short time; existing briefly; temporary:
the three goddesses of destiny, known to the Greeks as the Moerae and to the Romans as the Parcae
a city in greece
had the oracle of delphi there
Titan that sides with Zeus and helps create humans
one of the 4 means of communications b/w gods and mortals. Oracles at Delphi, Dodona, oracle of Hermes at Pharae in the marketplace (agora)
Statue of Athena OR statue made by Athena, located in Troy; the loss of this statue will mean the loss of the city.
K.O. Muller
myths emerge from both internal & external influences; reflect historical political systems of the peoples who create hem
- end of world in Norse myth
- warriors await it
the Muse of comedy and idyllic poetry; one of the Graces
goddess of the hunt
marked by moon on head
old man of the sea (like Nereus), who can foretell the future or change shape; (son of Poseidon and Amphitrite?)
That’s how we died, Agamemnon. Our bodies Still lie uncared for in Odysseus’ halls. Word has not yet reached our friends and family, Who could wash the black blood from our wounds And lay us out with wailing, as is due the dead
Amphimedon to Agamemmnon
a Titan, the father of the river gods and Oceanids; a great stream of water encircling the earth and believed to be the source of all rivers and lakes
What happens to Eurydice?
Bitten by a viper and dies
Daphne and apollo
daphne was a greek nymph. daughter of the river god peneus. she was changed into a tree to escape the advances of Apollo, who loved her. the story is from ovid's metamorphasis. rape is common and indicates the lack of control humans have over their destinies. campbell. refusal of the call. refulsal can often result in a pralysis or enchantment. running in fear, daphne calls out to her father to take away her beauty, turns her into tree.
“May Zeus cripple him before he reaches manhood!”
Suitors plotting against Telemachus
Who came to Alcyone in the form of her dead husband to tell her he had died?
“We were persuaded by this appeal to our honor.
Every day she would weave at the great loom,
And every night she would unweave by torchlight.
She fooled us for three years with her craft”
Suitors discussing Penelope's deception of the shroud
Demeter: other Italian agricultural deities
Pales: god of flocks; Robigo: god of rust, festival held right after festival of Pales; Vertumnus, associated w/ changing of agricultural seasons (husband of Pomona, nymph of the orchards; changes shape to try to get her to accept him)
I don’t know what kind of send-off you have in mind, Goddess, telling me to cross all that open sea on a raft, Painful, hard sailing. Some well-rigged vessels Never make it across with a stiff wind from Zeus. You’re not going to catch me setting foot
Odysseus to Calypso, questioning her directions
And I was left there, brooding on how
I might make him pay and win glory from Athena.
This was the best plan I could come up with:
Beside one of the sheep pens lay a huge pole
Of green olive which Cyclops had cut
To use as a walking stick when dry. Lookin
Odysseus regarding the olive tree he will poke out the cyclops eye with
Odysseus' father
12plutounderworldsymbol cloakhelmet invisible
half man, half bull
humbling oneself to someone
omphalos/navel of the world
god of music and poetry
Roman:MarsSphere:God of war (violent side)Iconography:weapons, armor, helmets vultures, dogs, wolvesOther: Eris = sidekick
12dianaapollos twin sisterdess of huntingprotector of young animaldeer stagarchervirgin
the underworld; born of Chaos
(of a woman) stately; regal.
Who is Ceyx?
King of Thessaly
Odysseuis' friend, beats Ares with Athena's help
sumerian and akkadian goddes of deaht. queen of the underworld, sister of istar, spouse of nergal, mother of Ninazu. another name for her is Irkalla. Queen of the underworld.
autochthonus Persian god of light; kills the bull - bull is kind of his double - thus, when bull's blood fertilizes the earth, - bingo: autochthony
Brontes, Steropes, Arges; three sons of Ouranos and Ge, with one eye in the middle of their forehead; assistants of Hephaestus who forged the thunder and lightning bolts of Zeus; allied with Zeus in the Titanomachy
Wife of Cronus; mother-goddess of Earth and fertility; conspired w/ Gaia and Ouranos for plan to keep Cronus from swallowing their last-born son (Zeus).
messenger god, god of travelers, thieves, trade; can travel to & from the underworld
readily assuming different forms or characters; extremely variable.
very loud or powerful in sound:
half woman, half snake, face turns people to stone
Argonauts: team of heroes, sailed on Argo for the golden fleeceHarpies: head of woman/body of bird - bad smellMedea: Aphrodite made her love jason, and help get him the fleece (killed her own brother for it)
goddess of the moon; daughter of Hyperion & Theia; once had a daughter by Zeus; she loved handsome youth Endymion (shepherd); night after night, she lay down beside him as he slept. Zeus granted Endymion perpetual sleep w/ perpetual youth.
becomes river god after incident with Polyphemus over Galatea
Aphrodite: characteristics & stories
typical Mediterranean fertility goddess; vain, capricious, sexually unfaithful, a gigantic troublemaker; story of Adonis - male vegetation god dies and is reborn; also, is in Hippolytus; adultery v. marriage; can be either very powerful or very comical & malicious (generally portrayed inconsistently)
Staff decorated w/ ivy, vines or ribbons and topped w/ pine cone
a person who prophesies doom or disaster.
lasting only a short time; brief; short-lived; temporary.
the act of deviating from the ordinary, usual, or normal type.
Goddess of the earth and mother of Cronus and the Titans in ancient mythology
Joseph Cambell
The hero with a thousand Faces. Heroes from every culture typically undertake a journey in to a far-off land.he believes that the hero myth is really written about every humang being, each of us is the hero struggling to accomplish his adventure. as human beings, we engage in a series of struggles--to develop as individuals and to find our place in society.all hero stories follow the same pattern. monomyth-the narrative structure underlying all myths. based on the view that all myths followt he same patter.
3 fates - Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos - measure thread, cut off thread to bringlife to an end; daughters of Zeus and Themis
myth as a product of exterior forces that affect the human mind
a water or marsh serpent with nine heads, each of which, if cut off, grew back as two; Hercules killed this serpent by cauterizing the necks as he cut off the heads.
a Trojan prince who awarded the apple of discord to Aphrodite and was by her help enabled to abduct Helen
River of the Gods (of Oaths) - gods make promises here
one of the Titans (born of Gaia and Ouranos), mother of the Oceanids (3,000 daughters), wife of Oceanus
You’re dumb, stranger, or from far away,
If you ask me to fear the gods. Cyclopes
Don’t care about Zeus or his aegis
Or the blessed gods, since we are much stronger.
I wouldn’t spear you or your men
Our of fear of Zeus. I would spare them only
If I
Cyclops to Odysseus
apple of discord
a golden apple inscribed ?For the fairest,? thrown by the goddess of discord among the gods but awarded to Aphrodite, causing the Trojan War
What happened to Ceyx and Alcyone at the end of their lives?
Become birds
Bronze age of man:
warriors, did nothing but fight, made of metal, killed each other
“All the gifts Athena has given her, Her talent for handiwork, her good sense, Her cleverness—all of which go far beyond That of nay of the heroines of old, Tyro or Alcmene or garlanded Mycene,Not one of whom had a mind like Penelope’s,Even though n
Antinous talking about penelope
because you can understand things such as advertisements, and also become aware of symbols in your daily life
Why second reason is important
[x], rise and wash the feet of this man,
Who is you master’s age,
Odysseus’ feet and hands are no doubt like his now,
For men age quickly when life is hard
Penelope to Eurycelia
But even if, as seems likely, he [Odysseus] is dead,
And will never return, his son, Telemachus,
Is now very much like him, by Apollo’s grace
Odysseus talking to a maid
The myth of Pelops' chariot race for the hand of Hippodameia is connected to:
chariot races @ the olympic games
How were their two requests granted?
They were priests a long time and then they became two trees with one trunk--oak and linden
Jocasta's brother
King of Thebes
creative; boldly original.
Birth of the Gods
Who made the shepherd-pipe?
Laius' son (adopted by Corinth)
Sides with Kronos in battle
three-headed dog of the underworld
Max Muller
philologist; linguistic similarities indicated common mythologies & common mythological stock; myths of individual peoples are "disease of language"
the food of the gods
-3 murderers: - procrustes (stretches or cuts people to fit his bed)-Minotaur: theseus goes to be sacrificed and kills minotaur in his sleep-Aegus: father
A coventional symbol of office, character or identity attached to any particular figure (i.e., Poseidon - trident)
the state/chasm from which the universe emerged
any goddess presiding over a particular art, one of the Sacred Nine
When athena turns Arachne into a spider because she wasn't respectful of the gods
King of Sparta, brother of Agamamnon, Helen's jilted hubby
mesopotamian. in the epic, the sole survivor of the flood with his wife. made immortal by gods. gigamesh seeks him out in order to gain imortality
father of Achilles; Thetis leaves him as soon as Achilles is born and he screws up the making of Achilles' immortality.
Identified with Dionysus, his is the Orphic story of the birth by Zeus and Demeter/Kore that led to Hera having the Titans kill the child.
Zeus: attributes
(usually nude when active), bearded adult male, muscular, thunderbolt, eagle
son of Odysseus, whiny, weak; becomes hero-esque with Athena's help after going on a journey searching for news of his father
Who is the King of the Winds?
-Daughter of king who wanted a son, raised by bears-fastest runner, good with bow & arrow-Married Hepolitus (beat her w/golden apples)-Caladonian Boar
born of Chaos; w/ Erebus, gives birth to Aither
Mystery cult
a cult characterized by rites which were secret except to duly initiated worshippers
sea monster with 6 necks & heads, obstancel for Odysseus on his nostos back to Ithaca
Now look, today is a holiday,
Throughout the land, a sacred feast
In honor of Apollo, the Archer God.
This is no time to be bending bows.
So just set it quietly aside for now.
As for axes, why don’t we leave them
Just as they are? No one is going to com
Antinoos to Eurymachus
one of a class of woodland deities, attendant on Bacchus, represented as part human, part horse, and sometimes part goat and noted for lasciviousness
a Phrygian king who was given by Dionysus the power of turning whatever he touched into gold
Works and Days
(Hesiod's other work. What else is there on this one?) Includes story of Prometheus/Pandora
“Ajax, son of flawless Telamon,
Are you to be angry with me even in death
Over that accursed armor? The gods
Must have meant it to be the ruin of the Greeks.
We lost a tower of strength to that armor.
We mourn your loss as we mourn the loss of Achilles
Odysseus talking to/about ajax
a celebrated hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, possessing exceptional strength: among his many adventures were the twelve labors for his cousin Eurystheus, performed in order to gain immortality.
Where is the city located?
In Cyprus--it is the capital
nemean lion
a loin whose skin is as strong as steel
But listen now to a dream I had
And tell me what it means. In my dream
I have twenty geese at home. I love to watch them
Come out of the water and eat grains of wheat.
But a huge eagle with a hooked beak comes
Down from the mountain and breaks their necks
Penelope's dream
Bronze Age
the third of the four ages of the human race, marked by war and violence regarded as inferior to the silver age but superior to the following iron age
Seven herds of cattle and seven flocks of sheep,
Fifty in each. They are immortal.
They bear no young and they never die off,
And the shepherds are goddesses,
Nymphs with gorgeous hair
Circe on Helios' cattle
What happened to their little shack?
Changed into a white marble temple
What caused Philemon and Baucis to supsect they had divine guests?
Mixing bowl of wine stayed full
to become aware of the role that myth symbols play in our everyday lives
Second reason why we study myths
When Cronos regurgitated the stone he swallowed in place of Zeus, Zeus
set up the stone in Delphi to mark the center of the world
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