AP Euro Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tax on land
warn or reprimand someone firmly
Spanish humanist who gained international noteriety for his publications denying the dogma of the Trinity.
the striving for excellence humanistic aspect of renaissance
philosophy was created by Descartes"I think, therefore I am" rejected all of his sensory perceptions- name of his theory
Northern half of Europe and Scandanavia
the Commonwealth
government between Lord Protectorate and parliament
sir thomas more
1478-1535 englishman lawyer politican chancellor for henry VIII wrote utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society executed for not compromising his religious beliefs
father of humanism, able to earn acceptance through his writings. Cicero and Virgil were among his biggest inspirations
followers of John Wycliffe after the death of him; managed to survive underground but were completely persecuted after the Protestant Reformation
French Foreign Minister who was not originally gonna be included, but then he had to help out Prussia and Russia sort out their differences.
Spanish Inquisition
a crushing of any non-christian believers in spain, led by Ferdinand and Isabella
group of different crafts, art, etc. created competitions within cities
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England
the Holy Trinity
Masaccio, the father of modern painting, new style characterized by great realism, good use of light and dark
John Locke
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
Hanseatic League
composed of northern German cities and others near the Baltic Sea that reached a political agreement based on mutual support and protection, came to monopolize Baltic trade
ignatus loyola
founded the society of jesus resisted the spread of protestantism spiritual exercises
Dutch, cheap and not reliant on large crews, constituted the largest marine fleet of their time and traded throughout the Baltic and elsewhere
Henry IV
glamerous prince of France who wanted a strong and United France. Became catholic, but granted Huguenots rights in the Edict of Nantes. His willing to sacrifice religious principles to political necessity saved France from civil war.
Isabelle de Este
first lady of the italian renaissance
Great Schism
A period of division within the Catholic Church in which there was a pope and an antipope
Oliver Cromwell
led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War
Cardinal Richelieu
- Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown under Louis XIII.
de Alburquerque
conquered ports in the Middle East and India. He did this to increase Portuguese influence in the East, successful in completing Portuguese dominion in the spice trade
Industrial Revolution
A process of economic change from an agricultural and commercial society into a modern industrial society.Robert Fulton
Catherine of Aragon
marries but couldnt produce male heir so divorces. had bloody mary
id- the idea of combining the power of secular government with the spiritual authority of the church sig- political theory that the head of the state is also head of the church
importance of Baltic grain
allowed the Hanse to force Denmark into an exclusive, profitable deal concerning the export of fish from Norway and Sweden. This colonization extended throughout many prominent cities of Europe, including London and Venice
defeat of the Spanish Armada
Prevented Philip from unifying western Europe.
mongol yoke
id- the period of rule of the mongols over the eastern slavs for more than 200 years. they forced people to submit to their rule. mongols used violence to re-impose order sig- this unification transformed the internal political situation
Pope Leo X
Was the pope during the time of Martin Luther, member of the Medici - in 1520, he excommunicated Martin Luther and claimed to be a heretic
The Order of the Garter
founded by King Edward III in 1348. The ruler was inspired by romanticized tales of chivalry such as "King Arthur and the Round Table"
tax on salt
New Model Army
Created by Cromwell.
1377-1446 italian architect celebrated for work during Florentine renaissance he was anti-gothic founding hospital in florence
1386-1446 sculptor probaly exerted the most influence of any floretine painter before michelagelo his status expressed an apprecitation of the incredible variety of human nature
Calico craze
lightweight, brightly colored Indian cotton that became popular in England and France, Both England and France attempted to outlaw the fabric in an effort to preserve their own textile industries
Renaissance man
broadly knoweldged with specific knowleldge in one area. well rounded.
id- nobility of brandenburg and prussia that dominated the estates, taxes could not be levied without their consent. they ruled over the serfs sig- when fredeick william the first ruled the nobility commanded the peasants in the army as well as the estates
Babylonian Captivity
blanket expression to describe the influence that the French had upon the Avignon papacy
Francois Rabelais
French himanist who ridiculed the clergy on a day to day basis - famous for Earthy Bawdings - printing press took over churches teachings monopoly - was unhappy with religious practices
Discovered the laws of Motion, Gravity and Inertia. He wrote about them in some cool books
Prince, Machiavelli
essential rulers guide, traits needed to be the best prince
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Greatest patron of Renaissance art
raison d'etat
a country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural
Last Supper
Da Vinci, stress on tension between Christ and the diciples
a disease or ailment i'm not dead yet
One of the methods instituted by the Avignon papacy in order to increase the funds of the Church
Caterbury Tales
A piece written by Geoffrey Chaucer; it was an imaginitve literature on pilgrimage - talked of the different perspectives of human personality
The four "great spices"
Cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and mace
Michel de Montaigne
best representative of early modern skepticism. advocated openmindedness, tolerance, and rejection of dogmatism. rejected the clai that one culture may be superior to another, and inaugurated an era of doubt.
Italian Wars
Other countries invade italy and see all the amazing things goign on there and bring some of these ideas back to their countries.
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
michael romanov
id- grandnephew of ivan the terrible, elected as tsar of russia after ivan's death. his rule was represented as restoration of aristocracy. he placed central authority back in place but couldnt control uprisings. sig- gained a mass of ukraine, took control of siberia, and army and bureaucracy growth
Hundred Years War
Battle at Formigny where the French used gunpowder for the first time and decisively ended the war in their favor
when a person is kicked out of the catholic church
Bohemian Phase 1618-1625
characterized by a civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League and Protestant Union. The Bohemian fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule. Ferdinand II wiped out Protestants in Bohemia.
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Battle of Crecy
took place in the year 1346, and marked the first major battle of the Hundred Years' War, French cavalry cut down by a group of archers congregated on a hill
Wars of Italy, Mehmet II
Contributions to Italy's demise (2 things)
king frederick I
id- son of frederick III, given title of king of prussia as a reward of his father's aid to the war of spanish succession sig- according to Germanic law at that time, no kingdoms could exist within the Holy Roman Empire but he crowned himself king anyway
Baron de Montesquieu
Wrote The Spirit of the Laws, and he was the first to talk about the seperation of powers.
Erasmus + philosophy of christ
top dog in humanism - conveyed that the life of Jesus should be a model for anybody living, purity can only be regained through intense studies of scripture - spent ten years focusing on rebuilding the New Testament
heavenly or spiritual
to cherish as sacred
German tariff policy est. 1834
Jewish and Muslim converts to Christianity in the Iberian peninsula and the New World.
john huss
bohemian religious reformer whose effort to rteform the church eventually fueled the protestant reformation
George Stephenson
Made the railway locomotive commercially successful
Elizabeth I
Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
damage the purity of something of somethinglike kicking a jonas brother in the crotch ha!
became an enormous trade city between 1500 and 1550, Antwerp was next in the succession of trade cities
Scientific Revolution
question Aristotelian science, rise of the new science, imperialism, and advances in mathematics, chemistry, and anatomy, centered around the scientific method and new discoveries
Denis Diderot
Edited the first Encyclopedia, which no self respecting reformer would ever be caught without.
During the Renaissance, if the bride did not have a large -- then her marriage could not be guaranteed
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church
Charles IV
founded a university in Prague to rival that of Paris. He focused on cultural improvement and revitalization throughout his reign. He was fluent in several languages, wrote his autobiography and authored several religious texts that pertained to Czech tradition and religious beliefs
Henry VII
Henry Tudor gained his English crown by surviving the War of the Roses and earned it by centralizing power in England and limiting the power of the aristocracy, unifying England and restoring power to the monarchy
Piers Plowman
A piece written by William Langland; it was a poem - talked about 11 different visions, all viewing different perspectives on the plague and the failings of the church
Gothic Revival Style
Some awesome architecture in the Romantic period.
Naples, Papal States, Venice, Florence, Milan
five powers of Italy
Wrote the Prince, sucking up to medici family writing about how to be a good ruler. said you should use religion to your advantage.
to state again as a fact; assert again strongly
Clement V
the first pope of the Avignon papacy, chose his residence to avoid possible defamation by Philip IV, so influenced by the French that he appointed nine cardinals from that kingdom
Johannes Gutenberg
the first to master paitning with a moveable metal type - in 1455, the bible was the first work to be massively copied, and his invention spread rapidly
Italian Cities
provided a market for the produce and agriculture produced by farmers outside of the city, allowed people to create social networks
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land
pico della mairandola
wrote on the dignity of and which stated man was made in the image of God before the fall and as christ after the reseruction man is placed in between beasts and the angels he also believed their is no limit to what man can accomplish
Joint Stock Companies
the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company, owned by subscribers who each held a certain number of shares of the company
Pope Clement VII
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.
English War of the Roses
the house of York and Lancaster, battled for supremacy and the power of being the next ruling dynasty, such rivalries were common during the fall and separation of the German Empire
Concordat of Bologna
pope gets the money but not the power in France- 1516
Madame de Geoffren and Louis de Warens
Self educated women who had salons with their husbands but weren't really very cool.
relating to HELL
the art of expression
"natural religion" that rejected traditional Christianity and thought of God as impersonal, or a "clockmaker". This was one of the major religious changed that took place during the Enlightenment
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
controlled by a particular religious group
Protestant scholar who translated the Bible into English.
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
gradually sppread over an area ex. print culture
hub of bullion distribution during the Age of Exploration,
supported the belief that math and music were perfect disciplines and that the universe could be explained through the use of math
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Linear Perspective
used by Donatello, Massaccio, made paintings seem three dimensional, utilized geometry and math theories
winter palace
id- official residence of russian tsars until 1917 sig- the storming of the palace in 1917 became an iconic symbol of the russian revolution
lorernzo de medici
1469-1492 medici's a great banking family in florence in the 15th century ruled government of florence from behind the scenes
English Longbow
an advantage for the English because of its range and effectiveness en masse, extensive training required in order to be proficient with the weapon
proved that the world was round, but more importantly that circumnavigation of the world was indeed possible; navigator, Sebastian Elcano, was forced to bring the survivors back to Europe himself
The Decameron
collection of short stories written by Giovanni Boccaccio; one of the first major works used to amuse rather then education; first prose Italian Masterpiece in Italian
New Wage Economy
families were less closely bound together than in the past; the economic link was broken
Lorenzo Valla
used philology to reveal the forgery of the Donation of Constantine
Augsburg Confession
A statement of the Lutheran position that formulated official Lutheran thought.
A French tax on officeholders in the government
hans holbein the younger
painter noted for his religious painting and sculptures
Declaration of Pillnatz
Issued by Austria and Prussia, it wanted to restore the French monarchy.
Felippo Brunelleschi
Architect of the St. Maria del Fiore in Italy. THE DOME. pride of florence. inspired by the pantheon.
administrative monarchy
The French state in the 17th century became stronger in that it could achieve more of its goals
revival of antiquity
the awakening from the dark ages and focusing on the romans
The English Royal Society (1662)
formed alongside France's Academie des Sciences, and was home to some of the most important scientists of the age
Battle of Pavia
A battle between Francis I and Charles V that allowed Charles V to capture Northern Italy.
Prince Henry the Navigator
a Portuguese sailor was one of the first to encourage a systematic approach to traveling around Africa to India in order to participate in the spice trade there
Submission of the Clergy
A law passed by Henry VIII stating that no church law could be written without the king's permission.
de las Casas Apologetic History of the Indies
described the society of the native tribes that faced destruction by glory-hungry conquistadores and diseases such as smallpox that killed millions of their kin
Spanish Armada
elector of palatine
The Compromise
Dutch drew this up
Nazis destroyed Jewish temples, businesses, homes, and Hitler used this as an excuse for Jews to move into concentration camps
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
a small administrative division of Switzerland
The __________ commanded an enormous empire in Peru.
Karlsbad Decrees
These decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in the universities and newspapers an established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Andrew Ure
wrote Defense of Factory System-"pompous ass" about what he wrote
Spanish explorers who colonized the New World along the model of their reconquest of Spain
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
English romantic poet (1772-1834)
When special trading privileges could be bought, so that one company or merchant had exclusive rights to some part of an industry. This could lead to an uneven distribution of wealth. Also, because certain markets were not competitive, there could be unreasonable price inflation.
Benjamin Disraeli
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881)
Created by Napoleon, kept watch over their own area of France, allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
highlight of year, people ate and drank, could act as silly as they wanted to, mostly in Mediterranean.
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots, 1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Nobles, Jansenists, Huguenots
Opposition to the French monarchy
economists - want a more prosperous society with a stimulus
The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
This was a traditional doctrine that said that God has already chosen who will be saved and who is damned. John Calvin's belief said that those who are already chosen for salvation must lead, and those who are damned must also be governed. This put a special emphasis on discipline when Calvin lead the reformation in Geneva.
before the development of quinine in the mid-nineteenth century_______ made africa the 'white man's grave'
Wet Nursing
The upperclass highered women to breast feed their children, as feeding their own child was below their status. The woman was forced to abandon her own child so she could feed the employer's
Napoleon placed in charge of Paris. With other urban planners, he destroyed old buildings to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through both the center of the city, as well as on the outskirts. This allowed for easier traffic flow, better housing, and sewers.
Charles X
(France) Overthrown king because of arrogance/stupidity. Tried to reestablish absolute monarchy (had been a constitutional one), censored press, and disbanded the legislature.
"French Classicism"
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Washington Conference
(1921)-Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence
Gustave Droz
Gustave Droz, the author of the bestseller Mr., Mrs., and Baby went through 121 editions between 1866 and 1884; saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness. He condemned man who made marriage sound dull and practical, men who were exhausted by prostitutes and rheumatism and who wanted their young wives to be little angels. He urged women to follow their hearts and marry a man more nearly their own age. (p.810)
Golden Age of the Netherlands
Politically decentralized; wealthy merchants (had more power than estates general); executive power from house of orange (nobles); Stadholder; SSAU; golden age of art too (landscapes, baroque)
The son of a farmer, this Florentine painter and sculptor was one of the earliest Renaissance artists. His subjects were religious, but he made them life-life, unlike medieval art. He was well-known and honored during his lifetime, and there were many stories about his skill as an artist(1267-1337).
Desiderius Erasmus
wrote 'The Praise of Folly' 'The Education of a Christian Prince' believed that education is the means to reform, and the core of education shoud be to study the bible and the classics
Great Russians
a source of stability in Germany. Party leaders nationally identified themselves, stressing their roles in saving the country during the Second World War
Probably not a word, but process of imposing Russian law, langauge, and administration on Poland
thomas cromwell
Hnery VIII's advisor - help administer change
Cardinal Mazarin
power through boy king Louis XIV, tried to increase royal revenues to meet the costs of war with Spain, caused the fronds
The French idea of revenge for what Germany did in the Franco-Prussian war
first continental congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
Catholic Reformation
1540, carved out large zones of allegiance in central and northern Europe, parts of France, most of England, reaching Scotland, following John Knox, accepted Calvinism in 1560, more than 90% Protestants were Lutheran, Calvinist or Anglican, ect among smaller sects.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
taken out of the possession of another and transferred to your own use often without permission
9/11 Terrorist Attacks
four airplanes were highjacked: three hit their targets, the fourth plane's passengers rushed the cockpit and forced the plane to crash into the ground. Osama bin Laden was identified as the person responsible for the terrorist attack.
Maximilian I (1493)
Used strategic marriage to intersect royal families, resulting in Charles V.
Nicolae Ceausescu
set up a rigid and dictatorial regime in Romania, captured on Dec. 22 and executed on Christmas Day
liberum veto
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
Electric Streetcar
Adopted by Europe from America in the 1890s. They were widely used by millions because they were cheaper, faster, more dependable, and more comfortable than horse-drawn carriages. Also allowed people to move farther to new housing.
General Assembly
The only UN body provided by the charter in which all member states are represented. The _________ was designed to be a deliberative body dealing chiefly with general questions of a political, social, or economic character. It meets in a regular annual session beginning the third Tuesday in September; special sessions are sometimes held. It has seven main committees set up to deal with specific matters designated as (1) political and security, (2) economic and financial, (3) social, humanitarian, and cultural, (4) trusteeship, (5) administrative and budgetary, (6) legal, and (7) special political.
Rudyard Kipling
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
They want Industrial reforms
Why are the Factory workers upset?
J.M.W. Turner
artist who used vivid colors to depict untamed nature and landscapes
Mary Stuart
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
El Cid
This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
da Gama
This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
Lady Jane Gray
ruled after Edward VI instead of Mary because MAry was Catholic, only queen for a week, removed from power, tried for treason, beheaded, didn't want to become queen in the first place
education in italy
new schools created - no girls - humanist (history, philosophy, language, math)
Phillip II
King of Spain, married to Mary I of England. anti-politique, thought himslf as the defender of Catholicism
Marie de Medici
mother of Louis XII who became a regent until he was of age to rule France and ruled three years after he was of age
falling mortality rate
what attributed to the growth of euro population in late 19th century
Nicolo Machiavelli
Writer of the Prince, a dark look at power which influenced leaders for the next 400 years
Examples of family life (middle class)
1. family Christmas traditions
2. new view of children as deserving of longer childhood
3. sport used to "toughen boys up"
4. Boy Scouts
5. generally middle class traditions rather than lower class
Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)
This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
Raft of the Medusa (Géricault)
This Romantic work shows a crew shipwrecked
Giovane Italia (Young Italy)
Founded by Mazzini, the goal of this political movement was to create a united Italian Republic. Instigated fighting against Austrian imperial forces and the papal states. Ultimately failed as counterrevolutionary forces gained control of the papal states, Naples, Tuscany, and Modena.
Juan de Pareja
The name of the figure on the cover of your book. This painting was made by the individuals owner Diego Velazquez, a famous artist.
James I
He was the son of Mary and he tried to make peace w/ Spain. When he died, a war broke though in Spain to appease Parliament.
The event in Chinese history known as the"Long March" is when
the Communists fled northward away from Chaing Kai-shek and towards the Soviet Union border and Soviet supplies
conditions in europe & how they hindered unification
Europe was anything but unified in the fifteenth century. There was a great lack of communication between the regions, as traveling in the harsh cold and wet seasons proved to be next to impossible. There were many languages used by Europeans which also hindered their communications, and made it hard for rulers to control their massive empires. Alongside that, rulers inherited their states and were constantly defending their genetics from those who wished to seize the throne, on top of keeping their nobility suppressed from taking the spot at the throne. Finally, "most kingdoms had assemblies that represented the propertied classes, especially in matters of taxation."
28. All of the following are true of 17th Century Brandenburg-Prussia
- started out as a small country
- eventually grew from the Nieman River to the Rhine River and from the Baltic to the North Sea
Principia Mathematica
Alexander II
Russian czar
praise, glorify, or honor
economic "restructuring" reform implemented by Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers. (p. 1032)
suspensions, by competent authority, of general rules of law in particular cases in the Catholic Church
Napoleon's painter-painted the famous portrait of Napoleon's coronation.
Explain the German Reformation of Luther.
__________ means "rebirth" in French and was considered by most scholars to be a time of transition from medieval to modern times.
A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism
Consititualism is the limitation of government by law where there is balnace between the power of government and the rights of the subjects. In a republic power is in the electorate and the represantives however in monorchial constitutionalism, the king is the head of state and has some authority but the main power is in the elctorate. In the 17th century consititutionalism appeared in England and the Netherlands.
Pierre Bayle
wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary examining religious beliefs and persecutions of the past. He found that human beliefs were very varied and often wrong. He concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, and that one's best hope was open-minded toleration. This skepticism was very influential. His Dictionary was the most popular book in private French libraries at that time.
John Calvin
This French-born intellectual expanded on Martin Luther's Protestant ideals, which contradicted the practices of the Catholic Church. This man established the idea that God has supreme power and that humans are predestined to enter Heaven or Hell. Wrote Institutes of Christin Religion, and developed Calvinism at Geneva.
Large and small German solutions (719)
factory act
limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Frederick II
"The Great" expanded Prussia, divided Poland, took Austrian lands after dishonoring the Pragmatic Sanction (Aus)
Tried to issue a Constitutional charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties.
Feudal System
King Pope
Lords Bishops
Serfs Leity
Glorious Revolution
in Britain, nonviolent overthrow of the government of James II that resulted in the reign of William and Mary
Charles II
Merry Monarch; shrewd tactician who came back to power after Cromwell
Henry Cort
He developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke.
This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
at the munich conference of 1938 britain and france agreed to let germany annex the sudeten region which belonged to _______ a country created in the post world war I peace agreements
1849 Gold Rush
lead to great French economy
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
Zimmerman Telegram
Germany offered Mexico the Southwest of the US if they supported them in WWI. This was made public and caused the US to become involved in the war.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
The Restoration
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
Fabian Society
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change
Jeremy Bentham
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Simony- define
The selling of church offices (term); the clergy could hold multiple positions which caused them to be less than effective in terms of "ministering to their flocks"
The Courtier
A book by Castiglione, about the perfect elite person. He said that a coutier was born, and should be "endowed by nature... with talent and beauty of person and feature." This book detailed proper etiquette and education, but said that the most important thing about a gentleman was sprezzatura, or natural ease and superiority.
total war
a development of WWI; the total mobilization of society for war
Paris Accord
was for all practical purposes a general peace treaty, bringing an end to World War II and the Cold War that followed
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it (Britain ultimately won)
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Grigori Rasputin
a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
German Catholic League
organized by german catholic princes in 1609, headed by Maximilian of Bavaria, all because German Catholic states sought Spanish intervention in dispute over princely succession.
James II
closet Catholic, fled to France during Glorious Revolution
Austro-Sardinian War
Austria invades Italy and the French come in to help the Italians. The Italians and the French are very successful and gain Lombardy.
Cardinal Jimenez
Spanish religious reformer did much to improve the state of the Catholic Church.
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Published Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792.
Alliance for Germany
Kohl promised the East German citezens an immediate economic bonanza. One-for-one exchange of all east german marks. This was set up in East Germany and was closely tied to Kohl´s West German Christian Democrats. In 1990, they outdistanced the Socialist party and won nearly 50 percent of the votes.
Quieta non movere
status quo at home and peace abroad
Opium Trade
A system in which the British would smuggle opium into china in exchange for silver. This system along with military aggression greatly weakened china and allowed Britain and other western powers to open up china to foreign trade and ideals.
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year
Benvenuto Cellini
A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise. (1500-1574)
Boxer Rebellion
A rebellion in China (1900-1903), of a secret society that did not want reforms.
Sir Oswald Mosley
Founded the British Union of Fascists, antisemitic
James Hargreaves
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
Ramsay MacDonald
He was the leader of the Labour Party. They governed the country with the support of the smaller Liberal Party. His government followed the orthodox economic theory. The budget was balanced, but unemployment workers received barely any welfare. (944)
The Protestant Union
formed by some Protestants in the HRE in 1608
monk - 95 theses - man is saved by faith - pope and council are bad authorities - no indulgences - we must interperit scripture
Supremacy Act (1534)
declared the King, the Head of Chruch of England. this sparked a huge debate as John Fischer attacked the clergy for cowardice by not fighting the King. Also, Thomas More resigned his chancellorhsip and then they were both beheaded with other dissedents.
Women's march on Versaille
-Oct. 1790
-had alot to do with economy, nobles wouldnt buy their items because of the poor economy
-inpired by Jean Paul Marot's "Friend of the People"
- they search for Marie Antoinette in Versaille,
-king and his family need to go into Paris, the Tuilleries, to be protected,
-nat. convention is also there
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction--communistic in nature
"One's kingdom, his religion"
Cuius regio, eius religio! What does it mean?
Balance of Power
no nation can grow too big or too powerful
Wanderer in the Clouds (Friedrich)
This work of art shows the insignificance of the human and the supremacy of nature
Frederick William (The Great Elector)
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Iranian Revolution 1979
The shah fled the country in 1979 and Khomeini took power. There was a strong anti-U.S. slant to the revolution because the shah was able to travel to the U.S. for medical treatment. Shia militants captured 69 hostages in the U.S. embassy in Tehran, 55 remaining as hostages until 1981. Iranian leaders shut U.S. military bases and took U.S. economic ventures. Because they were targeting a major foreign power, the revolution inspired other Muslims to take terrorist actions. However, this did not lead to solidarity. Iranian Islam was a minority sect of Shia Islam. Iraq, Iran's neighbor, tried to capitalize on the chaos of the revolution and invaded.
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Written by Wollstonecraft, it brought forth a judgement of the rational enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge towards Rousseau.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Coporate State found in Mussolini's Italy?
the "corporations" were left outside the actual government structure of Italy; were independent of the actual Italian government structure
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte (1808 to 1873)
Nephew of Napoleon I, he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848
115. In France during the Bloody Days of June of 1848
- There were three days during which a terrifying class war raged in Paris
- Over 20,000 men from the workshops took to arms, and they were joined by thousands of men and women from the working-class districts.
- Small arms were the main weapons.
Ronald Reagan
to preserve Republic
National Assembly
empowered French Parliament
The old Tsarist secret police
a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine
The final "Revolutionary" government from 1799 to 1804, it was in reality a dictatorship dominated by Bonaparte (#170); it won the War of the Second Coalition (#169).
making unwarranted or exaggerated claims to greatness or importance
German preacher sold indulgences for church
➢ Believed Russian develop. Depended on adoption of W. tech and lib gov't
"living space". hitler's plan to expand germany
Robert Bakewell
British agriculturalist who made advances in animal breeding to produce more animal products.
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
made enlightenment ideas accessible to a broad audience
An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
D'Alembert/ Diderot
co-wrote "Encyclopedia", a collection of enlightenment writing
British settled on policy; Neville Chamberlin became BPM; Chamberlain believed impossible for BG to fully rearm vs. strength of Germany & Italy; Began w/British recognition of Italy's annexation of Ethiopia
Their demand was universal male suffrage
# I was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their won land to work as well.
My Secret Life
Eleven-volume autobiography of an English sexual adventurer from the servant-keeping classes. Describes a man showing his times: indulging in sex with prostitutes, etc. Reveals the dark side of sex and class in urban society.
Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi (1835-1908) drew on conservatives forces. The traditional ruling group temporarily produced new and effective leadership for China. In 1860, govt was on verge of collapse. Tzu Hsi was a critcal factor in a 30 year comeback. Governe
Tzu Hsi
Adolf Hitler
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
Dietrich bonhoeffer
german lutheran pastor, who who actively protested the nazi regime policies in his country
Lords in Eastern Europe revived this to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants' right of moving freely
Lateran Agreement
(1929) Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well.
protestant union
alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism.
Were a faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in 1904 after a dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, both members of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. The dispute originated at the Second Congress of that party, ostensibly over minor issues of party organization
A newfound openness of government and media.
August Comte (1798-1857)
System of Positive Philosophy (attempted to apply science to human society--sociology)
"The Athens of the renaissance" - small city state with geniuses (many great people came out of here)
People's Budget
A response to rapid nationalist spending, saying it gave ample opportunity to special interest groups and lobbyists to take "the people's budget" or money from the private sector.
Franco-Prussian War
War between France and Prussia that was started over the next king of Spain. Resulted in the declaration of a German Empire. Bismark's third war.
Anglo-French Entente of 1904
Britain improved its often-strained relations with the United States and in 1902 concluded a formal alliance with Japan. Britain then responded favorably to the advances of France's skillful foreign minister, Theophile Déclassé, who wanted better relations with Britain and was willing to accept British rule in Egypt in return for British support of French plans to dominate Morocco. The resulting Anglo-French Entente of 1904 settled all outstanding colonial disputes between Britain and France. (893)
at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, ther term Protestnat meant all non-Catholic Christian sects
sphere of influence
When a powerful nation secured exclusive economic privileges in an underdeveloped region. Usually this economic monopoly was respected by other imperialistic powers. ex. before WW I, France, Britain, Germany and Russia had divided China up into spheres of influence.
Edward Bernstein
A revisionist social who advocated the gradual gain of socialism and looked towards Darwin's doctrines as a measure for a change in socialism's tactics
n. A church office endowed with funds or property for the maintenance of divine service.
The March Revolution
Nicholas II was replaced with Alexander Kerensky but the army was breaking down and anarchy was becoming a big problem
Table of ranks
set educational standards for civil servants, Peter sought to replace old Boyar nobility with new service-based nobility loyal to the tsar
This was a school of thought that believed that the artist had to show life exactly as it was with careful detail and research. This applied especially to the novel and was brought upon by Emilie Zola. This was a similar idea to realism; however, this concept was based in America and was epitomized by Dreiser in Sister Carrie.
Protectorate as Dictatorship
When William Cromwell was given control of England
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler. "Whose the region, his the religion."
Thermidorian Reaction
This response by the conservatives and radicals of the Convention ended the Reign of Terror by executing Robespierre. Following this was the Directory.
French pope during the Great Schism
Pope Clement VII
Herbert Hoover
President of the United States between FDR and Calvin Coolidge. Issued a one year moratorium of all international debts.
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919 to 1933
Iron Curtain Speech
March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
Dawes Plan
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift. Caused because Allies introduced mark without consulting Soviets
port cities
cities on or near a coastline, vital to trade
Peace of Schonbrunn
deprived Austria of much territory and 3.5 million subjects. The result of the Battle of Wagram.
Hitler's Foreign Policy
Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else.
Statute of the Six Articles
upheld the seven sacraments, maintained Catholic theology, and replaced the authority of the pope with that of the monarch
Poor Law
The action taken by the government to take care of poverty. It was debated whether poverty was good, and regulated population with death by diseases and other causes often tied to poverty.
Louis XIV
(1643-1715 - Also known as the "Sun King"; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe
Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938)
leader of the "Right Opposition" who advocated continuing NEP and building communism within the Soviet Union, rather than his opponent, Trotsky, who wanted to spread Communism to western Europe and return to war communism.
Francois Guizot
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
Robert Nievelle
He took command of one of the main French armies engaged in the Battle of Verdun, leading it during its successful counter-strokes against the Germans, but was accused of wasting French lives during some of his attacks. He became Commander-in-Chief of the French armies on the Western Front in December 1916, and was criticised in that capacity for not exploiting good opportunities to attack the Germans. He was responsible for the Nivelle Offensive, which faced a very large degree of opposition during its planning stage. When the offensive failed to achieve a breakthrough on the Western Front, Nivelle was replaced as Commander-in-Chief in May 1917.
Urban living conditions
These were awful in the 19th Century as a result of poor sewage treatment, water conditions and bad foundations for buildings
Mississippi Bubble
created by John Law, it failed so the ecomoy went bankrupt and the government didn't by the investors back the money they lost, no trust in the French economy
Declaration of Pillnitz
The document in which Leopold I stated that he would restore order to France with military force if other nations joined him. He was hoping to scare France into ending the Revolution, but after his death, France declared war on Austria.
Louis de Bonard
French admiral who served as the first official military governor of Cochinchina
The Common Market
A group of nations in Europe whose goal is to expand trade and compete against the US and Japan
Christian Revival
Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel.
causes of the cold war
1. Germany divided into four sections, Berlin as well, divided separately and equally between the big three. 2. Stalin wanted to punished Germany with paid repressions just like after WWI, US wanted to help rebuild Germany. (If Germany was forced to pay repressions Stalin was hoping they would later become desperate and resort to communism) 3. US in Nato, USSR in Warsaw Pact. 4. Iron curtain 5. Truman Doctrine 6. Containment Policy 7.. Domino Theory 8. Marshall Plan 9. Berlin Airlift
"Crown from the gutter"
This was the expression used after the Revolutions of 1848 where Friedrich Wilhelm refused to just take the throne of Prussia
The importance of gun powder
Gunpowder made heavy armor and castles obsolete. Therefore, lightly armored horses and riders were now more effective and could be used against infantry. The infantry became the most important part of an army, armed with long pikes or muskets.
Five Year plans - objectives, methods & success
Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before
Titus Oates was a notorious liar who fabricated, in 1677, a tale of a Jesuit plot to murder Charles II, massacre Protestants and put the king's brother, James, on throne in England. It was a complete fabrication - no evidence to support it - but it had the effect of inflaming public opinion against the Catholics and James, who later become the unpopular James II in 1685. It was at this time that word of the secret treaty of Dover was leaked - further fueling the anti-Catholic sentiments and continued suspicion of the Stuart monarchs.
Absolute Monarchy and a Constitutional State.
What were the two types of government in the 1600's
Who were the chief players in the Concordat of Bologna?
The chief players in the 1516 Concordat of Bologna were King Francis I (France) and Pope Leo X.
The 1400's.
Battle of Orleans-France
calvinism believed in predestination
____, france = puppet state
ancient astronomer - geocentric model
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
Philip V
First Bourbon Spanish King
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Charles Fourier
socialist who envisoned communities made up of 1,620 people. early proponent of the emancipation of women, believed marriage was only a developed form of prostitution, called for free sex unins in which anyone can be anyone else's mating partner, called for the aboliton of the middle class, and their oprressing regime of the working class
Grimms Brothers
Romantic/ German nationalist authors/ folktale compilers. Collected German folklore and published the stories, helped to foster German Nationalism and identity. Kinder- und Hausmärchen ("Children's and Household Tales")
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
Smallpox inoculation, used cowpox to inoculate smallpox
During the industrial revolution the leading industry was
"peaceful coexistence"
Krushev's foreign policy; peaceful coexistence with communism was possible.
Abolished in the British Empire, 1833
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Grand Alliance
Europe was afraid that France/Spain would become huge monarchy and take over; went to war (War of Spanish Succession)
Defense Mechanisms
Mental devices, that Freud explained, are being used to keep our conscious emotional needs from conscious awareness. Most of this is sexual energy that is controlled by rational thinking and moral rules.
Triple Alliance
1881 Italy joined Germany and Austria.
Peterloo Massacre, 1819
A well-organized mass meeting damanding Parlimentary reform that culminated on August 16, 1819 at Saint Peter's Fields outside Manchester. A local magistrate ordered the local militia to move into the crowd, causing panic and death. 11 died and many were injured; the arrest of many radical leaders ensued.
royal council
National governing council of England under Henry VII, demonstrated the monarchy's distrust of nobility by excluding it.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
Francisco Goya
a Spanish painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history
king during War of Augsburg League
Louis 14
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
serious labor unrest, year in which Ciompi revolts took place
five-year plan
a spectacular growth of heavy industry, especially with the aid of government control of the workers and foreign technological experts. # Massive investment in heavy industry, however, meant low standards of living for workers.
"Moveable type"
Moveable type made printing easier because it no longer had to be transcribed by hand. Also, there was less chance of a scribe changing things. The Gutenburg Bible, the first book to be printed using moveable type, eventually became the standard for all future Bibles.
John Hampden
is arrested for not obeying Ship Money
fredrick iii
the elector of saxony who protected luther by hiding him in his castle when charles v condemned him
one of the most influential writers of the enlightenment
Rerum Novarum
(1891) Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism.
(1762-1814) German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
J. G. Fichte
Fast and relatively humane - used for mass executions.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Nuremburg Laws
(1935) Measures that excluded Jew from white-collare profession and from marriages and habitation with non-Jews
Giovanni de Verrazano
(1485?-1528?) Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America. [Exploration]
Age of Imperialism
time when industrial countries took over other countries for economic gain
Stanley Baldwin
conservative with a background in iron and steel manufacturing, part of National Government
Mary Tudor
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
a French word used to describe the middle class or anything associated with it in France. This could also be considered the Third Estate during revolutionary France.
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Divine Comedy
Long poem by Dante Alighieri, about a imaginary journey to places where Christians believed souls went in afterlife. Very critical of some church authorities.
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
poor law of 1601
establish workhouses , under this education began to expand .the aristocratic lords were in controll.
"refactory clergy"
half of the priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Joseph Joffre
French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
Navigation Acts
the result of the English desire to increase both military power and private wealth, required that goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article etc. (p. 645)
Chinese Nationalists
group of Chinese in favor of a powerful united china during their revolution. nationalists.
Decline of Absolutist Spain
No middle class, population decline, no productive enterprises, disease, no more silver from the New World, and bankruptcy was declared 5 times
The Hundred Days
The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
Camp David Peace Agreement
This agreement was signed between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, after 13 days of secret negotiations at Camp David. President Jimmy Carter witnessed this agreement. Sadat and Begin shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978. There were two Camp David agreements: A Framework for Peace in the Middle East and A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel, the second leading towards the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed in March 1979 . These included an autonomous self-governing authority in the West Bank. The peace treaty six months later was outlined and the Sinai peninsula was dealt with-Israel agreed to move out troops and civilians in exchange or a return to normal diplomatic relations. The U.S. also agreed to give several billion dollars to the governments of Israel and Egypt each year.
Enlightened despots
the four major: Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, and Joseph II of Austria
Geneva Catechism
Calvin published in 1541-it was a set of questions and answers and acquired a summary of the Genevan people's faith and guide for daily living
council of Constance
in 1414 ended the Great Schism and deposed of 3 popes
accomplishments of frederick william the great elector
Formed a standing army
Forced the Estates to accept taxation w/o consent
had financial independence/superior force
absolutist state
formed an alliance with the junkers who accepted his claims in return for their privileges
larger bureaucracy, centralized government
tripled the state's revenue
A-bombs - Hiroshima, Nagasaki
The final straw for the Japanese, resulting in millions of civilian and military death. Little Boy and Fat Man were used here. These flew on the plane "The Enola Gay"
Bonfire of the Vanities
The notorious bonfire in Florence in 1497 in which supporters of Savonarola collected and burned thousands of paintings, books, and other temptations to sin.
William of Orange
dutch prince invited to be king of England after "The Glorious Rev". joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV
What was the biggest social impact of WWI?
It ended unemployment
Meeting at Marburg
This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
Aplogetic History of the Indies
(1550)- Written by Bartolome de las Casas, a friar who devoted his life to convert Native Americans in the New World and advocating for their rights back in Spain. The work was written to show his belief in the humanity and goodness of the Native Americans
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Thirty Years War (Result)
It was a turning point for the Austrian Habsburgs. They had an alliance with Spanish Habsburgs, but now because of the latter's decline in power, they were on their own.
standard of living
this improved in the 2nd half of the 19c even though there was some economic downturn
On The Fabric of the Human Body
Book written by Vesalius which explained that blood vessels came from the heart not the liver
Papal Index of Prohibited Books
List of books considered by the papacy to be dangerous to the religous health of Catholics
Papal Index of Prohibited Books
book burning (kinda)
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
What did the Duma and the organs of local governmentdo to improve war effort
They made special commitees to coordinate defense, industry, transportation, and agriculture
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