Ap Euro - Renaissance Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Secularism
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Charles V
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Titan
Italian Artist
Pope Alexander VI
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Laura Cereta
-Well-educated female humanist
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Tudors
Ruling family of England
William Shakespeare
(1564-1616)
English poet and dramatist; considered one of the greatest English writers. Wrote poetry and 38 dramas (tragic and comedies)
Humanism
Revival of Great/Roman philosophy, rejected Aristotelian views and medieval scholasticism
Medici Family
ruling family of Florence
Jan van Eyck
-(1366-1441)
-Flemish painter
-One of earliest artists to use oil-based paints successfully
-Ghent Altarpiece
-Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
classical
relating to ancient Greece and Rome
Neoplatonism
emphasized the interest in spiritual values that were the heart of contemplative life, studied Plato
El Greco
"Burial of Count Orgaz" mannerist
Michelangelo
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
Skepticism
promoted by Michel de Montaigne, stating that skeptic must be cautious before suspending judgement
Antonio Pollaiuolo
The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
Bruni
expert translator of Aristotle; new advances in historical writing
1453
fall of constantinople
beginning of Renaissance.
Jacob Fugger
headed leading banking and trading house in 16th century Europe
B
In order to obtain needed revenue, monarchs: a.) taxed the church b.) borrowed money from the rich nobles c.)taxed the nobility d.) both B & C
civic humanism
someone in government should be well-educated, and maximize their potential in all areas to run a good government
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes, "end justifies the means"
Bramante
started St. Peter's Basilica, had a giant circular dome (138 ft. in diameter) greatest building in High Renaissance, architect
Louis XI
aka spider, makes taille permanent (take advantage of no more checks/balances, war whenever)
What movement emphasized education and the power of human intellect to bring about change/moral improvement?
Christian Humanism
Perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
High Renaissance
later part of the Renaissance, associated with mannerism, respected artists as genius
New Monarchies
emerged in France, England and Spain
morriscos
Muslim people that converted to be christian.
Louis XI of France
-Son of Charles VII
-Ruled 1461-1483
-"Spider King"
-$$$ = answer
-Promoted new industries
-Welcomed foreign craftsmen
-Entered commercial treaties
Giotto
Florentine painter who led the way in the use of realism
Renaissance Literature
1455- the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg; literature is now cheaper and more available-literacy increases, so does education and ideas spread. classics (greco-roman) art, science, math, ideas. written in the language people spoke =*popular venacular*
Christian humanism
1. Emphasis on early Church writings that provided
answers on how to improve society and reform the
Church
a. Less emphasis on pagan works from ancient Greece
and Rome (although these works were widely read
and enjoyed by Christian Humanists)
b. Many historians today see more continuity between
the Northern and Italian Renaissance than
contrasts.
2. Drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and the
writings of the Church Fathers.
3. Emphasized education and power of human intellect to
bring about institutional change and moral
improvement.
4. Writings led to criticism of the church thus leading to
the Reformation
Isabella d'Este
"First Lady" of the Renaissance; set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands; rule Mantua after her husband died; well-educated; patron of the arts; founded school for young women
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
French humanist; produced 5 versions of Psalms
Julius II
"warrior pope;" patron of the arts; ordered painting of the Sistine Chapel
Habsburg family
Family line of HRE and used Capitulations (Promises of land and power) to be re-elected.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa, the Last supper, technical artist
Chiaroscuro
Use of dark and light colors ot create the illusion of depth
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers unit Napoleon. Also one of the world's great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
Peter Brueghel the Elder
not influenced by Italian Renaissance; focused on lives of ordinary people
Leon Battista Alberti
On the Family (treatise expressing the importance of having an heir to carry on the family's legacy)
Pragmatic Sanction of 1438
French Appointed clergy
no annates
began gallican Church
Treaty of Lodi
A peace agreement signed in 1454 that ended decades of war between the major Italian city-states brought on by Milanese expanisionism. The high mark of Renaissance diplomacy, the treaty established a complex balance of power on the Italian peninsula and maintained stability until France invaded in 1494.
Who was the first to use the term humanism and to write a history of Florence?
Leonardo Bruni
Law against Livery and Matinence
Nobles couldn't have personal armies.
Ended war of Roses
The first humanists were whom?
The first humanists were orators and poets.
Oration of the Dignity of Man
This work, by Pico della Miandola, is regarded as the most famous Renaissance statement on the nature of humankind. It drew on Platonic teaching to depict humans as the only creatures on earth who possessed free will and could chose to become angels or pigs.
Petrarch
...
Michaelangelo
"The David"
Ghibellines
supported HRE
Niccolo Machiavelli
"The Prince"
DURER
-(1471-1528)
-Leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance
Cicero
Great influence on Petrarch
Archduke of Austria
HRE, Habsburg
Hermandades
-"Brotherhoods"
-Groups in towns given authority to act as local police forces
Slavery
________ during Renaissance flourished as extravagantly as art and culture.
Erasmus
(1466-1536)
1. Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists
2. Master of the Greek language; one of Europe's
foremost authorities
3. Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions
of the New Testament to create 'purer' editions.
4. He was the first humanist to earn a living by
Leonardo
Mona Lisa; The Last Supper
Milan
ruled by the Sforza family
Pope Leo X
-Started sale of indulgences
Baldassare Castiglione
Worte the Courtier about manners,
Oligarchies
the rule of merchant aristocracies-- possessed constitutions but only a small class controlled the functions of government. (rule by a few)
Marsilio Ficino
translated Plato's works into Latin
New Industries
printing, mining, metallurgy, banking, luxury industries (silk, glassware, handworked items in metal and precious stones)
Lorenzo Valla
Italian Humanist, educator and rhetorican.
monarchs
In the late 15th century, taxation, war making, and law enforcement became the preserve of ________.
Florence
Italian city state; ruled by the "Medici" family; also patrons of the arts; Cosimo Medici and Lorenzo Medici; art was controlled by the government
Miguel de Cervantes
(1547-1616)
Spanish writer best remembered for his 'Don Quixote.'
Virtu
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
What city was the leader of Renaissance art in the 1400s?
Florence
Renaissance
period of "rebirth" from the 14th century to the 15th century
Mehmet II
leader of Ottoman forces that conquered Constantinople
Holy Roman Empire
Germany in the Renaissance Times
Conquest of Granada
-Entered Granada on January 6, 1492
-Brought together the 800 years Spain had been fighting the Arabs in southern Spain
-Granada in S. was incorporated into Spanish kingdom
-CONCLUDED THE RECONQUISTA
Jacob Burkhardt
thought the renaissance was the birth of the modern world and the "breaking away from medieval ages"
Italy
in the center of Europe. good for trade-good for economy, cultural diffusion
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
(1436-1517):
1. Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy
and church so that many of the Church abuses that
were highlighted during the Reformation did not
necessarily apply to Spain
· Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition (serves
as an example of how not all humanists were
necessarily tolerant of heretical views).
2. Complutensian Polyglot Bible: Placed Hebrew, Greek,
and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
· Yet another example of how Northern humanists
focused on early Church writings and the accuracy
of Biblical translations.
Girolamo Savonarola
a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
pagan
a person who does not acknowledge your God
Pico della Mirandola
glorified humans, in contrast with medival idea that humans were inherently sinful
Cesare Borgia
younger son of Pope Alexander VI, prototype of Niccolò Machiavelli's Prince —intelligent, cruel, treacherous, and ruthlessly opportunistic, wanted to unite Italy under his control
Star Chamber
place of secret hearings without a jury, rigged trials; now associated with underhanded, illegal dealings
Groote
Founder of the Brothers and Sisters of Common life.
Northern ren.
fought a civil war
Following the Hundred Years' War, England _______ _ _____ ___.
Architecture in Renaissance Art
Greek temple architecture in numerous structures, simplicity, symmetry, balance, domes and Roman arches
Republic of Florence
A moderately large Italian city that was central to the Italian Renaissance because of its gifted individuals; Dante, Pretrach, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Boticelli and others. The city was ruled by the Medici familly, a family of great wealth. Still, the city continued to produce new ways of thinking and helped progress the Renaissance further.
The Ambassadors painting
painted by Hans Holbein the Younger which expressed major themes of the era: exploration, religious discord, and death
Concordat of Bologna
treaty between France and the Pope giving power to France's king within church (i.e. choosing bishops and cardinals)
Dr. Faustus
Famous alchemist who made a deal with the devil that lead to his own doom.
Charles VIII (8th)
ruler of France at this time; they were a major problem for the Italians
Baldassare Castiglione's most famous work?
wrote the Book of the Courtier
wars of the Roses
between Lancaster and York houses for the Throne of England.
Produced the English law against livery and matinence.
On the False Donation of Constantine
Lorenzo Valla's analysis and critique of an 8th century document that established papal authority over western Europe, proved that the worked attributed to Constantine was not real
What were the negative results of the Renaissance?
-Deterioration in the power & position of women
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