ap euro 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the Assunta
perceive or recognize something
uses included preserving food, banishing smells of excrement and waste common in urban cities of the time, and medicinal purposes of varying potency
Jean Martinet
French lieutenant-colonel and Inspector General
1276-1337 florentine painter who led the way in the use of realism
National Assembly Accomplishments
1) Secularization of Religion-confiscated church property to pay off national debt. 2) Governmental Reform- divided the country into 83 departments so that it was easier to govern. 3) Constitutional Changes- Transformed France into a constitutional monarchy.
Thomas Moore
refused to support anglican church
Thomas Hobbes
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Vernacular Literature
writings that are understandable to the common person, or at least a large audience, and is written in the native language of the reader- most popular language is French
having an appearance of truth or reason
Napoleon Bonaparte
Great French military leader who associated with the Jacobins in the course of the revolution. After the Directory lost credibility, Abbe Sieyes asked him to lead a Coup d'Etat to overthrow the Directory. Did a lot of stuff in France. Read on to find out more!
Medici Family
ruling family of Florence, Cosimo raised his family on humanist principals, Lorenzo created a treaty with the pope that expanded Florentine influence
not being at one of these positions
French province of Canada that was rich in resources and colonized by 4,000 French peasants sent by Colbert.
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
showing strong feeling to a point of INTENSITY! AHHHHHHH!
eastern spices
demand for -- continued and spurred the explorations of the next centuries and were the reason Portuguese sailors such as Prince Henry, Columbus, and Magellan set sail
Marsilius of Padua
Italian scholar who trained in medicine and a variety of professions - had a political treatse that was considered to be the most revolutionary;had solution to problems that concered jurisdiction, indulgences, and the crusades; etc.
Navigation Acts
passed by the English government in the 1660s in an effort to reduce the advantage of Dutch merchants in the New World
monopolies, guilds
insured a high level of craftsmanship by training their children in apprenticeships from a young age in another household, supplied a town with a consistently good product
Leonardo de Vinci
ideal renaissance man. last supper, mona lisa.
The Brethren
Roman Catholic community that was one of the first groups to place importance on a personal relationship with God and an inner religious experience.
id- noble family and royal dynasty of electors of prussia sig- helped prussia build the best army in europe
moriscos and converses
stemmed from a vicious persecution of followers of these religions by Spanish Christians and the state itself
a sect form the NW German City of Mumster - was inspired by a Prophet - burned all books except the bible, abolished private property and polygamy - were killed by Protestants and Catholics because they were freaking crazy
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years War and recognized the independent authority of the German Princes. Allowed France to intervene at will in German affairs.
Henry VIII
6 wives. act of supremecy- splits from catholic church
the School of Athens
by Raphael Depicts all the major renaissance artists and philosphers, along with greek philosophers too, such as plato and aristotle (pictured in the center of the painting) Pre-christian, all people are either greek or roman, natural science, philosophy, learning through
Wealth of Eastern Europe
Baltic Sea fishing was an important source of income, in Hungary and Bohemia silver mines were a source of sustainable wealth, and Russian forests provided timber
the great schism
pope dies, a pope is elected in Avignon and in Rome,they excommunicate each other. leads to rise of dissenters
On the Dignity of Man
"Manifesto of the Renaissance; text of humanism; celebrates individual genius
Friedrich Con Gentz and Edmund Burke
Wrote "Reflections on the Revolution in France", which reflected negative views about it.
Lady Mary Montagu and Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote about equal rights and education of women.
French Calvinists.
expressing a general truth
range of authority or concern
Boccaccio's stories about the plague in Florence, a series of realistic, sometimes off-color stores written by Boccaccio. They are supposedly told by a group of worldly young people waiting in the villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence. It has cutting humor and presents the follies of the characters with some sarcasm.
fueled by their own bloodthirsty ambitions, not the spirit of the Age of Exploration and Renaissance
Developed a powerful telescope which he used to observe Jupiters moons and our moon. He also confirmed Copernicus's theories
Established the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
Cosimo d‟Medici
Great banker, secretly ran Florence with Lorenzo
- Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
Louis XI
instrumental to the unification of France, he gained lands for the monarchy when families were wiped out and no longer had an heir to their estate
wrote On The Revolutions Of The Heavenly Spheres, and mainly agreed with Aristotelianism, except for his belief in a heliocentric universe
The National Convention
Abolished monarchy and installed republicanism. Charged Louis XVI with treason and executed him and later his wife.
da Vinci
built working models of machines, conceptual designs, painted, inventor and mechanical problem solver
Jan Hus
vernacular bible, invited to council of constance where he was promised safety and then burnt at the stake.
Charles II
under his rule Parliament restored, more religious tolerance for Catholics
Conciliar Movement
effort to reunite the Christian faith during the Great Schism, reducing the pope's power by creating a limited monarchy that would hold meetings with a council frequently
Charles V
he faced attacks from the French, British, and Turkish, as well as an assault on Rome by his own mercenaries
Emile du Chatelet
Female aristocrat trained as a mathematician and physicist. Translated Newtons work from Latin to French.
ideal italian man, also the name of important businessmen in Italy
Battle of Agincourt
English takes down French mounted knights easily with the long bows. marks end of mounted knight/chivalry
one of the leading painters of the florentine renaissance developed a highy personal style the birth of venus
Wars of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
Joan of Arc
English took her prisoner and tried and convicted her of heresy in order to eliminate her as a military threat. She was burned at the stake in 1431
Pico della Mirandolia
An avid member of the neotplatonism group; reconcile all philosophies for a single group; wrote "oraton on the dignity of man" - supreme examples of humanist optimism
Peace of Lodi 1454
lasted 40 years, Florence, Milan, Venice and Naples pledged nonaggression, wasn't very peaceful
Diet of Speyer
A gathering of German princes who protested the Catholic Church's decisions regarding Luther.
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Jan Van Eyck
was an oil painter, a contemporary of Dontello - detailed the specifics of the physical world while showing symbolism
Pope Adrian VI
Dutch pope who attempted to reform the Catholic Church to stifle the spread of Protestantism.
Wittelsbachs, the Luxembourgs, the Anjou and the Hasburgs
The "4 Families" of Central Europe, most powerful during the 13th and 14th centuries and held lands in Western Europe
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572
A savage catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris during the marriage ceremony of Margaret of Valois to the Protestant Henry of Navarre, which was intended to help reconcile Catholics and Huguenots. Led to fighting that launched the War of the Three Henrys
War of the Spanish Succession
The last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne.
regrettable; distressing.
Germany annexed Austria
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis-ended Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Defeats the French at Trafalgar
Johannes Kepler
Date Alive: 1571-1630
Occupation: Astronomer
Contributor of: Scientific Revolution
Contributions: Using the knowledge and observations regarding planets ofhis teacher, Tycho Brahe, Kelper was able to successfully prove that planets orbited around the sun in an oval pathway.
"Inner Six"
members of the EEC.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Brunelleschi combined Gothic architecture with classical architecture. He used planes and spheres and had very geometric work. He is also said to be the first person to really understand perspective.
by expanding into ______ Leopold achieved Ottoman recognition of his sovereignty
Giuseppe Mazzini
This early Italian nationalist believed that doing labor for the principles of one's country is labor for humanity
stockholders can only lose original investment
Ex: Credit Mobilier of Paris
the hatred of women by men
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
The Guises were
a powerful French family
___ with the catholic church acknowledges that the french majority is catholic (NOT that it was the official religion)
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.
thomas cranmer
archbishop of cantberry who grants henry's annullment and is edward's main advisor who leans the church to the protestant side during his rule
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
Rump Parliament
1647, Independents abolished the House of Lords and removed all Presbyterians from the House of Commons. This was then call the "Rump" Parliament.
Who dominated Latin America's commerce after Spain was defeated?
Great Britain
book - diderot - collection of enlightnment ideas
Alban Berg
composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression
Calvins religious theory thatt God has already planned out a persons life.
in the late 19th century, great Britain's position as the preeminent naval power in europe was challenged by _______ naval build up
Royal Society
The English scientific society that was formed in 1662.
This man replaced Calonne as Louis XVI's financial advisor.
Last German offensive that lasted five months and caused 300,000 soldiers to be killed on both sides
this is undermined after the black death and the question about suffering and dying
The Monnet Plan
established commissaritat General du Plan (CGP)
Rerum Novarum
(1891-Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism
Pope Leo XIII
who wrote the encyclicalrerum novarum,, limited acceptance of modern world by him eased tensions between church and state, accepter private property, church attendance went up
Alfonso de Alburquerque
Alfonso de Alburquerque was a Portuguese general who, understanding the importance of strategically placed battalions, conquered seaports in the Middle East and India.
a large land estate owned by person's originally born in spain or of spanish decent born in america
Clement V
A Frenchman elected by the other Bishops so that the Papacy would not fight - and lose to- the French king in battle again. He was elected in 1305, and was the first Pope in the Babylonian Captivity or Avignon Papacy.
Battle of Waterloo
Battle where Napoleon is defeated 1814, after return from Elba (hundred days) , sent to st helena
Atlantic Charter
Created by Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in order to avoid another world war; established five rules for countries to follow
prinitng press/guttenburg
used movable type - guttenburg's bible = first book sold - showed success of printing press
Encomienda System
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
a policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights
George III
Wanted ministers of his own choice, not aristocrats; ignored Whig family in power since 1715; blamed for tyranny
Benedict de Spinoza
Dutch philosopher who espoused a pantheistic system (1632-1677); belief that there is no dualism between God and the world
Friedrich List
German writer who advocated a rapid and large-scale program of industrialization as the surest path to develop a nation's strength. Felt that a nation must use protective tariffs to assure that path to industrialization.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
year that King Edward III of England repudiated his huge debts to florentine bankers and even put some in bankruptcy
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
a member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator
Cardinal Mazarin (1642-1661)
Unpopular ruler during the childhood of Louis XIV. The Fronde broke out, in which the nobles rebelled and roving bands of brigands terrorized the peasants. The nobility called in the Spanish, with whom France was at war, and at that they lost support from the bourgeoisie and from within their own movement. The Fronde ended without lasting effect, and Louis XIV took the throne at the age of 18 in 1661.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf and attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction. Communistic in nature.
price revolution (inflation)
a period of rapid inflation that occurred in Europe between the 15th and 17th centuries. Over the course of 150 years, prices for commodities increased sixfold and in some cases, the inflation was even more extreme.
Bloody Mary
Mary Tudor. Wife of Philip II of Spain. Radically Catholic. Killed many Protestants.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
1859 Garibaldi's invasion
An energized movement of radicals from Sicily to the mainland and gaining land for unification
Peace of Augsberg (1555)
This was an agreement/declaration by the Germanic princes, which said that they had the choice of what religion to follow (their people would be whatever religion they said that they were). Thus, some became Lutheran and some remained Catholic. Those who chose Catholicism were generally in the South, closer to Rome (law of proximity), and those who were Lutheran no longer had to pay taxes to or obey the Pope.
Prince WIlliam of Orange
aka William the Silent, first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, united 17 provinces in 1576
Christian VII of Denmark
Attempted to put in enlightened reforms.
this country sort of led the way for the discovery of new lands by opening up the atlantic
Revolutions of 1830
The French Revolution of 1830 occurred because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
Sturm und Drang
This was what the early German Romantics called themselves
great patriotic war
This was what Russia called World War Two. Thus their triumph became a symbol of national pride. This was ironic, however, because 20 million Russians were killed in the war, the Russians could not have won the war without help from the other Allied powers, and the Nazis were the ones who initiated it by invading Russia.
The Napoleonic Code
A system of French laws formulated by Napoleon that became the foundation of many European legal systems. It safeguarded all property, privileges based on birth abolished, employment of official based on merit not purchase, workers organizations forbidden, and all children could inherit.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Council of Blood
created by the Duke of Alba, Spanish governor of the Netherlands, in 1567. The job of this Council was to try cases of suspected treason committed by Protestant rebels against the Catholic government imposed by Spain.
Test Act (1673)
This law made it so that all officeholders had to take Communion in the Church of England. It prevented Catholics from holding office or being in the army or navy.
Berlin Conference, 1885
Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.
edict of nantes
a law, promulgated by Henry IV in 1598, granting considerable religious and civil liberty to the Huguenots: revoked by Louis XIV in 1685.
Meiji Restoration of 1867
This was a replacement of the Japanese government with the emperor, done so by samurai
Women in totalitarian states
They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
The Russian Revolution would not have happened as it did if not for ________________?
The upheaval caused by WWI
order of the garter
Formed in 1348 by Edward the III of England and inspired by Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, they were a select group of nobles whose job it was to exemplify qualities of chivalry.
Konrad Adenauer (1876 - 1967)
A leader of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), he was a Christian Democrat. After him, Christian Democrats became the majority party for a generation. He was extremely anti-Nazi.
Oration on the Dignity of Man
This work, by Pico della Miandola, is regarded as the most famous Renaissance statement on the nature of humankind. It drew on Platonic teaching to depict humans as the only creatures on earth who possessed free will and could chose to become angels or pigs.
The goal of humanistic studies
to be wise and to speak eloquently, to know what is good, and to practice virtue
Because he believed he could not rule over his people if they believed in different religions, because he was a divine right monarch. "One king, One law , One Faith"
Why did Louis XIV revoke the Edict of Nantes?
oneness with God
(1377-1446) Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Impact.... upon on Marriage
third international
(comintern), Terrorist organization dedicated to worlwide revolution, Fourmed by Lenin in 1919 to forward communism worldwide
offspring of Spanish and Indians
wealthy merchants who governed Florence with support of merchants, lawyers and craftsmen of lesser status, 7 major guilds kept 14 lesser guilds in subordinate position
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
nobles were technically liable for this resemblance of an income tax; the "twentieth"
on liberty
john stuart mill wrote this
Cosmo de' __________ was the wealthiest Florentine and a natural statesman.
Paul Gaugin
French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
medieval chemistry; attempt to change base metal into gold
Constitution of 1791
-lasts 10 months
-constitutional monarchy- king and legislative assembly
-2 questions- whose more powerful ans. LA
-who is in the LA
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe (1853-1902)
the leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists. They would carefully plan the economy and guideit forward by undertaking vast public works projects and establishing inverstment banks
Robert Owen
(1771-1858) Utopian socialists who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most noteable was New Harmony (1826) which failed
15 sovereign courts in the french judicial system that checked the king's ability to tax and legislate arbitrarily
______ was weak because they kept electing foreign rulers
Sante Fe Capitulations
Capitulations that named Columbus viceroy over any territory he might discover and gave him one-tenth of the material rewards of the journey.
Significance- Lead to Columbus being charged with corruption which turned the land over to the control of the Crown
group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
"high class prostitute" paid to spend time and have sex with old aristocratic men
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
El Alamein
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
famous seller of indulgences for the Catholic church; "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." Tetzel's crude methods inspired Luther's actions and sparked the Reformation.
Spanish Armada
1588-supposed to solve all Phillip's problems, English defeat the armada
Last Czarina of Russia. Wife of Nicholas II. With Czar at the battlefield she interfiered with politics on advice from Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man. She and her family was executed.
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
..., Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
What were the peasants of France known as?
1st Partition of Poland- caused
Russian/Prussia/Austria; Poland lost 30% of territory
John Calvin
This French theologian was the leading French Protestant Reformer and very important to the second generation of the Christian Reformation. He deeply influenced Protestantism elsewhere in Europe and in North America. The Calvinist form of Protestantism is has had a great impact on the development of the modern world, and included the Hugeunots. One thing he specifically believed was that God knows before a person is born whether they are going to heaven or hell.
Lettre de cachet
Gov't could imprison anyone without charges or trial
Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibited racist discrimination against african americans in public services and on the job.
Peasant Revolt
in response to Luther's ideas, the people revolt against the political leaders
they did not have the support of Luther
Theory of relativity
Einstein's theory that time is different depending on how fast you travel or how massive of object that you are on
The Restoration
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
utopian socialists
persons who believe that people can live at peace with each other if they live in small cooperative settlements, owning all of the means of production in common and sharing the products
Great Schism
when the countries of Europee were divided between which pope ruled them, either Urban Vi or Clement VII; most of these decision fro which one to listen to was based solely on political reasoning
great white walls
Discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out, created by America and Austrialia by the 1880s.
law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict
Pope John Paul II
Assumed Papacy 1979, Conservative Pope, against strengthening women's position in church, more staunch on birth control
New Order
Hitler program based on the guiding principle of racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples. The French, an "inferior" Latin people, occupied a middle position. Slavs in the conquered territories to the east were treated with harsh hatred as "subhumans."
a person, now esp. a woman, who professes or is supposed to practice magic, esp. black magic or the black art; sorceress.
Jan De Vries
termed the factors that worked the rate of growth of existing large cities' decline and smaller cities' growth "an urban growth from below"
War of Austrian Succession
-Prussia, France, and Spain
-tried to recover lost lands(everyone)
-British trying to balance the power
Article 231
Commonly know as the "Guilt Clause" of the Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to take complete responsibility for starting World War I. Was the result of the thirst for revenge from British and French citizens.
The Middle Class (Bourgeosie)
Consisted of merchants, trades people, bankers, and professionals. Diverse and divided, with deep resentment for those wealthy on commerce or social connection. Had less wealth than nobles, but more than urban artisans; income had little to do with land, and benefitted from increased trade and commerce. Driven by desire to move up in society; seen as aggressive, ambitious, and supportive of reform and change. Fostered the revolution of consumption by both owning the industries producing goods and buying these goods. Could not gain noble titles, but could enjoy material comfort. Nobility and middle class clashed; Nobility shared the middle-class support of commerce, but was bothered by middle class attempts to emulate nobility (which was seen as threat to their privileges). Social rising restricted by nobility's privileges, inefficiencies of monarchial bureaucracies, and by aristocracy controlling patronage. Rising to increase political power and social prestige: issues were over power, not values or goals of class. Feared lower class, as it was seen as a threat to middle class safety and a drain on resources
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
Leonardo Bruni
Humanist. "The whole glory of man lies in activity."
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin [Reformation]
Theodor Herzl
Says that jewish asylum has failed and they need their own state.
Joseph Turner and John Constable
English, peaceful serene landscape, and the latter natural power, beauty, and disaster
"Window to the West"
In Russia, Peter's 1703 construction of St. Petersburg on the Neva River achieved similar purposes. It was his "window to the west." Originally built as a fortress in the quest to deprive
Sweden Baltic dominance, the city came to represent the ideals of Peter's vision.
John Constable (The Haywain)
This man was a Romantic painter
Combination Acts
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinist in Paris on August 24, 1572 (Saint Bartholomew's Day), followed the usual pattern. The occasion was a religious ceremony a wedding, which was supposed to help reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was the leader of the Huguenots and was present at the wedding, but the night before, Catholic aristocratic Henry of Guise had Coligny attacked, rioting and slaughter followed. The Huguenot gentry in Paris were massacred. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of the Calvinists led to the War of the Three Henrys. (p.490)
Battle of the Marne
Allied attack on German forces attack France. Allies were victorious, and both sides began to dig into France, this was the start of Trench Warfare
"Peace, Bread, and Land"
- Lenin's slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
One important mode of influencing public opinion, used by the English and French kings during the Hundred Years' War, was...
instructing priests to deliver patriotic sermons.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
Battle of the Bulge
All was going smoothly until December when Germany launched a counter attack in Belgium and Luxemborg through the Ardennes Forest. The Germans pushed toward the the Allied line, which is how the battle called its name. This time there was no doubt the Germans had lost te war on the battlefield.
House of Orange
This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Bismarck's plans and maneuvers
He wanted to unify Germany, but played it safe, with many alliances and pacts, and ends up being amazing
Treaty of Utrecht: 1713
Left a Bourbon on throne of Spain; forbade same monarch to rule both France & Spain; resulted in containment of Louis XIV's France
Cabal of Charles II
..., the council of 5 men appointed by Charles to serve as both his major advisers and as members of Parliament.
34. Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia -
he urges the Italian states to resist Austrian rule and he grants a constitution to his people and declares war on Austria to gain territory in Italy.
In what part of Europe was Hitler's rule most ruthless?
Eastern Europe against the Slavic peoples
WWI - Long Term Causes: Crises preceding WWI: Balkan Crises 1912-1913
nicknamed "the sick man of Europe" because of its declining power, losing land
1. Balkan Wars: In the first Balkan war, the Balkan peninsula is set up in land owndership for Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria. Serbia needs water access because they're land locked. These 3 regions attack the Ottomans. There is a fear that Austria-Hungary could take more land because of their multi-ethnic empire, which would compell them to help out their ethnicities of other countries (i.e. Serbia). Russia likes the Blakan peninsula, but Serbia is not worried about Russia because they share the same people - Slavs - so they can help each other.
Russia's goal = pan-Slavianism, which means one large area made up of all Slavs. (Like an mono-ethnic country)
Austria-Hungary, Montenegro
Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Greece fight and win
In the second Balkan war, Serbia fights against Bulgaria because they want access to the Black Sea, but Serbia doesn't win. Serbia wanted the Black Sea because it borders Russia and so they wouldn't have to travel through the other side with the Adriatic Sea through Austria-Hungary.
Results of the Bulkan Wars: Russia and Serbia become allies, while their hatred towards Austria-Hungary intensifies
In 1685 what did Louis XIV do to the Edict of Nantes?
He revoked it-because he did not believe in religous tolerance, religious liberty wasnt a popular policiy. The event of the revocation of the edict of natntes was the emigration of Huguenots slightly hurt the economy
Cold War
a legislative body
National Assembly
representative for population
Triple Alliance
Germany Austria Italy
Northern renaissance
artistic, emphasis on education
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
International relations involving the deliberate creation of a risk of war to apply pressure on the other party.
Ecclesiastical reservation
part of the Peace of Augsburg, saying that if the leader of an HRE territory should change religion, they must move to a territory supporting them, rather than changing their territory
Ecclesiastical reservation
limit of choosing religion
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German speaking states except Austria by 1844
The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's Ideology.
Henrí Matisse
An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form
Louis Blanc
represented republican socialists in the provisional government in France. He pressed for recognition of a socialist right to work. Also wanted to take steps to a new noncompetitive social order.
Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 10): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ. (p. 463)
The law of suspects- basically witchhunting. Anyone who is seen as an enemy of the revolution is killed.
Revolutionary courts- they're not fair and they do whatever they want. 40,000 people executed. 300,000 imprisoned.
The law of 22 pairial- The mont of meadows, speeds up reign of terror by abolishing the defense council.
Algeciras Conference
Conference provoked Germany backfired on Germany over the issues of the Morocco crisis.
causing difficulty in finding an answer or solution
John Locke (enlightenment)
brit. philosopher. pioneers of enlightenment. "essay concerning human understanding" Tablu rasa (blank slate), absolute power is unnatural.
a magnifier of images of distant objects
Because he was sensitive to public opinions, Napoleon III progressively __________ his empire, giving the Assembly greater power and the opposition candidates greater freedom.
John Wyclif
English scholar and theologian; wrote that papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in Scriptures, Scriptures should be foundation of Christian belief
willing to trust or believe too readily
Michael Romanov
ended time of troubles
begins push across Asia & trade with west
son Alexis leaves disputed throne. elder son Ivan cannot rule. Peter is son by second wife.
Charles I
dissolved parliment, son of James I
1816 Serbia
Got Autonomy from Ottoman Empire. Nationalist.
A radical supporter of the French Revolution who used his newspaper to demand more blood; he was eventually murdered
working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants
The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany
he return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell-in fact, a military dictatorship
his ideas were based around the English Civil War in a period of chaos; his ideas imvole an all-powerful government in which they take control of their people
Gavrilo Princip (1895-1914)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand's assassin who worked with The Black Hand, a secret Serbian nationalist group
free france
Democratic side of France that opposed the Nazis; gov. was based out of london and then later on in algeria
The resistance was led by Charles DeGaulle
Germany had to pay billions of dollars in war reperations
John Locke
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
the movement in various forms of art in which art should convey a deeper meaning through various subtleties. This movement was in essence a reaction against naturalism and realism, in which the meaning of the art was conveyed through straight-forward methods.
People's Budget
A plan in British parliament that increased spending on social services
Vienna Settlement
through this, the great powers framed international relations so the major powers would respect that settlement and not use military force to change it. It created 100 years of European peace. Also redrew national boundaries.
Nicholas II
Last emperor of Russia, ruled from 1894 to 1917. His reign saw Russia transform from one of the worlds foremost powers to a nations straight with internal conflict.
test act
Parliament passed this in response to Charles II's declaration of indulgences; required all military members to swear an oath against transubstantiation., required all office holders to be part of the Church of England (passed by Parl.)
A man sometimes called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism.
Non-government Organizations (NGOs)
Development of these orgainzations was laregly due to the growth of an independent public movement and its aspiration for participatin in political, economic and social life.
Wassily Kandinski
Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
social democratic party
(socialists), German Party in late 1870s that were committed to a Marxist critique of capitalism and cooperation with other socialist parties internationally. Bismark saw them as threat to stability of Germany and outlawed the party, although candidates stood for election. Socialist strength steadily grew.
humiliation of olmutz
treaty between prussia and austria where germany went under austrian leadership
diet of worms
legislative body before which Martin Luther was ordered to recant
a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the ecomony
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) This was an agreement that confirmed Portugal's right to the Eastern route to the Indies, and any land east of a fixed imaginary line that entitled Portugal to Brazil. Spain received the land west of this line. At the time, it seemed as though Portugal had the better end of the bargain, until the Spanish explored the rest of South America.
"laboring poor"
held jobs, but earned little more than subsistence wages
Nicholas I
weak ruler who never went through with any of his plans. He was also were conservative in his foriegn affairs.
Polish Corridor
The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
Treaty of Versailles
peace treaty signed after WWI
point of it was to punish Germany-made them take full blame and pay huge amounts of money to the Allies
Germany said it was a diktat-had no options, no bargaining but are forced to sign it
-creates successor states-like Czechoslavakia
Commercial revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
James II
the only problem with this guy as king was that he was openly Catholic, the M.P's who supported James were the torries, M.P.'s who didn't support James were the whigs, not moderate, believed in divine right, flaunted his Catholocismn, Parliament didnt like him, disowned the Test Act
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Phillip II of Spain
devout catholic (monk like), and he becomes the major poltical ally of the catholic church
University of Wittenburg
After going to Rome, Luther went here to get his doctrite in Theology. and then he taught the scriptures there.
Soviet quality of life
Life was hard, there was no improvement in the average standard of living, but unemployment was unknown and communism had real appeal
Importance of Neoplantanism
This way of looking at things, based on Plato's ideas, basically said that the universe was geometrically designed, and math and music were the most honorable pursuits. This mind set spurred mathematic science, especially for astronomers.
Army Order No. 1
It was issued to all Russian military forces as the provisional government was forming. It stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected communities of common soldiers. It was designed primarily to protect the revolution from some counter-revolutionary Bonaparte on horseback, Army order No. 1 led to a total collapse of army discipline. It was issued by the Petrograd Soviet. This order stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers. (910)
Marquis de LaFayette
He was a French general that led the people to storm Bastille. During the American Revolution, he was one of Washington's most trusted soldiers. When the people started the rebellion in 1789, he was set to be a mayor-like figure in the city to control the citizens who rebelled.
1. China pays England 1000 million dollars
2. China gives Hong Kong to England
3. China must open 4 new "treaty ports" (British there are not subject to Chinese law and taxes)
4. Humiliating for Chinese
Describe the Treaty of Nanjing...
Seven Years' War
This war was began as a follow-up of the War of Austrian Succession when Prussia invaded Austria
how were 16th and 17th wars dif
- Politics and religion (not dynasty)
- armies were bigger (more expensive)
- had to reorganize administrations to finance
- guns and cannons were "coward weapons" -->war lost that "noble" quality
- propaganda
3 Impacts of Enclosure on peasants
forced off lands
many moved to towns or cities
loss of jobs do to unskilled workers
Grand Alliance - members & goals
The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
Outline the abuses of the Irish at the hands of the English.
Clergy banned, voting rights removed, no teaching, can't purchase land, Irish exports banned
saint simionianism
Birth of Venus
attainment of anything desired
beginning of the reformation
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army.
"Red Shirt"
Columbus sails the ocean blue
Linear perspective
architecture technique: dimension, depth, illusion
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Boyard nobility
russia. powerful landowning nobles., the nobility in the feudal division of the eastern slavic territories
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
district or village assemblies that administered local areas
Lorenzo Valla
Wrote "On Pleasure;" defended pleasure; father of historical criticism, exemplified new secular spirit
Thomas Pitt
British East India Co. entrepreneur
The Six Acts
1)forbade large unauthorized meeting
2)raised fines for seditious libel
3)sped up trials for political agiatators
4)increased newspapertaxes
5)prohibited training of armend group
6)allowed officials to search homes
WHen a person confesses, absolved, truly repented they can pay money to get an indulgence and be spared God's punishment
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy
This Italian politician improved his country by reforming taxes, improving infrastructure, stabilizing the currency, and supporting free Napoleon III against Austria in the Treaty of Plombieres in 1858. This led to the defeat of Austria by France in 1859, and the unification of Tuscany, Parma, and Modena under plebiscite.
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Berlin Wall
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West. (In 1990, the wall was torn down.)
Pragmatic Sanction
stated that the Habsburg possessions of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia should never be divided (1713)
Neville Chamberlain
the british prime minister who strongly supported the policy of appeasement with germany. he said that we can have "peace in our time"
Imry Nagy
elected the new Hugarian leader, declared Hugary a free nation to quell rebellions, led the red army to invade and was replaced by Kadar
In the 16th century, Japan begun having contact with the Europeans. In the 17 century, the shogun isolated Japan from the outside world. After the Emperor's Restoration, Japan experienced intense westernization.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
Black Death
"Bubonic Plague" disease that killed 30-40 % of Europe's population- focused outbreak in the 14th century, but periodic otbreaks thru the 17th century
Prince Lvov
the head of the privisional government.
Kingdom of 2 Sicily's
Ruled by Bourbon King
Edmund Cartwright
Inventor of the modern power loom.
da gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, which led to Portuguese control of the spice trade
Lord Castlereagh
The British representative at the Congress of Vienna, he represented the UK at the Congress and helped create the security system for Europe that would last until 1848.
Problems after WWI
Germany resented the Versailles Treaty's harsh terms, US rejected the Versailles Treaty and followed a policy of isolationism, France was determined to enforce the Versailles Treaty and make Germany pay reparations for the damage it caused, Communist Russia remained outside the international system
involves the basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit. A secular way of thinking tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beigns within the limits of what the senses can discover. They concentrated on the here and now.
Emile Zola
In 1868 Emile Zola (1840-1902), the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended his violently criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals. Zola's literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism, which had emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Zola was most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life. But he also wrote gripping carefully researched stories featuring the stock exchange, the big department store, and the army, as well as urban slums and bloody coal strikes. (p.815)
An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Napoleon III
Ruled France 1848-1870. Policy was to stand above class conflict and work for the welfare of his subjects through government action. He was a leader in urban planning; he thought that rebuilding a large part of Paris would benefit (employment, living conditions).
Grigori Rasputin
a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
the lower chamber that was elected by universal male sufferage. William I tried to maintain most of the supporters in Reichstag
7 Weeks War
Bismark Purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria, which provoked Austria to declare war on Prussia. Austria lost and gave up the region of Venetia. (Also Austro-Prussian War)
was a reform movement in the 14th, 15th and 16th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope.
Revolutionary Calendar
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin which produced a lot more cotton and therefore increased slavery.
Popular Front
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
Winston Churchill
1874 to 1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
Council of Trent
meeting of roman catholic leaders called by pope paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by protestant reformers. condemned central doctrines of Protestantism.
Hegelian dialectic
Hegel was a German, 1770-1831, and probably the most outstanding of all 19th century philosophers. He emphasized the importance of the state. Became the philosopher of "change." The Hegelian dialectic described the tendancy of the mind to proceed from the creation of opposites. A thesis, he claimed, was usually followed by an antithesis and from these two came, ultimately, a synthesis. His ideas then stimulated historical studies seeking to find this "Hegelian dialectic" in man's recorded past.
enlightened absolutism
enlightened governing into the rule of absolute monarchs often at the insistence of the philisophes
The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
Danish War
in 1864 after three months of fighting denmark surrendered to prussia and austria. they were forced to give up two duchies, prussia wouuld administer schleswig and austria would administer holstein.
Concordat of Bologna
1516 Treaty under which the French crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all french bishops and abbots
Dutch Revolt
This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
Vincent Van Gogh
A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"
Act of Confederation
German princes gathered in Paris and formally signed the act that dissolved their connection with the Holy Roman Empire and allied them to France. Francis II, who had proclaimed himself emperor of Austria in 1804, resigned his title of Holy Roman emperor and the empire came to
an end.
Georges Clemenceau
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Battle of Lutzen
Gustavus is killed in battle; death= defeat of protestant forces
Renaissance Popes
These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches
Modern devotion
A form of german mysticism formed in low countries but started by Gerard groote
Popes Julius II and Leo X used the sale of indulgences to help pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. (true/false)
National Socialist German Workers Party
German right-wing nationalist party that Hilter took total control of. Called Nazi for short.
John Locke (1632 to 1704)
Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property
Madame Ann-Louise de Staël
(1766 - 1817) Daughter of Jacques Necker (remember him from Unit 3?) Mistress of very popular Paris Salon and author of Dix annees d
Union of Utrecht (1581)
alliance of 7 northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands. (p. 496)
Reign of Terror
Took place between 1793 and 1794 and was used to solidify the home front during the revolution-led by Robspierre
24. Sir Isaac Newton's greatest discovery or insight was
- Law of universal gravitation
Peaceable Assembly and Habeas Corpus
In 1817 the Tory government responded to protests by urban laborers (who protested in response to the change in the Corn Laws) by suspending..
Did it go up in 1820-1850?
yes it rises significantly and steadily, especially after 1850
Church Statute of 1721
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar
What stopped the German's from conquering Russia (the USSR)
1. an early, cold winter
2. the Russians refused to quit and counterattacked
Battle of Crecy (+ year)-
This battle occurred in 1346 when the French army surrounded the English army on a hill. Remarkably, the English archers fired at the French cavalry, who responded by leading the blind John of Bohemia into battle. This was a huge mistake, leading to great success for the English, who lost only 100 men and managed to kill 3,000 French.
China's Hundred Days of Reform
A period of reform for china in the attempt to meet the foreign challenge
Even though 1 third of all woman were pregnant before they were married only 1 percent were born bastards there for there was a very low rate of illegitimacy, Community control caused men to marry woman they impregnated.
What happened with premarital sex before the 1750's?
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