AP Euro : The Reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Revolution
Totally reversed/overthrown
Anabaptists
-Protestant sects of Christianity
-Only adults could make an informed decision about baptism
-Christians could not participate in civil affairs because of the separation of Church and state
-Condemned & persecuted by Luther, Calvin & Catholics
Anglican Church
founded by Elizabeth I
Unitarianism
-Sect of Protestantism
-Didn't believe in the Trinity
orthodox
conforming to established doctrine, relating or constituting any of various conservative religious of political groups
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
reprobate
majority destined to go to hell
The Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648), Anti-Imperialists (non-Catholics) vs. Imperialists (Catholics), started as a religious struggle, Catholic forces led by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (won for the first half), then Protestant King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (Gustavus II) won several battles against him; Catholics throughout the war were led by the Hapsburg Rulers of Austria; Bourbon (CATHOLIC) rulers of France wanted to extend power and gain land at Hapsburg expense, supported the Protestant cause; Swedes and French defeated Imperialist army, ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia
Indulgences
-A papal statement granting remission of priest-imposed penalty for sin
-Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin, before and after death
-Once a person purchased one, he no longer felt the need to try to be a good Christian because he was already guaranteed admission into Heaven
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Catholic League
Formed by Maximillian (Bavaria) in 1609 in response to the Protestant union.
Transubstatiation
doctrine dating from 1200s that priest had power to change bread & wine into body and blood of Christ. ML repudiated this yet, somehow said God mysteriously still present or con-
substantiation. (Calvinists would say communion only symbolic/commemorative act)
Peasants' Revolt
Germany, 1520s; sought lower taxes, common land rights, higher wages; not supported by Luther
Thomas More
Replaced Thomas Wolsey, beheaded for failure to reconize Henry VIII as the head of the English church
John Knox
established the Presbyterian Church, a protestant church rooted in Scotland. Presbyterianism is rooted in Calvinism (see the chart).
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Nepotism
-Giving lucrative church jobs to one's children or other relatives
Mennonites
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendents of Anabaptists; emphasized pacifism (perhaps in reaction to what happened in Münster)
Peasant's War
Rebellion broke out against all authority in 1524-1525 in Germany over class struggles and relgious revolts (such as controversy over what sin was defined as). Luther did not approve of this, despite being blamed for it.
Bohemian Period
revoked religious freedoms of the Protestants after Ferdinand's ascent to the throne, traditional Jesuit faith is restored. Ferdinand is deposed in Prague
Diet of Worms
Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication in 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do, so he was banished from the empire. Luther was then sheltered in Saxony.
theocracy
a community in which the state is subordinate to the church
predestination
a Calvinist belief that our fates are predetermined and we cannot change that fate.
Legal Basis
A man cannot marry his brothers widow
Dutch Reform Church
what calvinism known as in Holland
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Edict of Nantes
-Granted by King Henry IV
-Allowed Protestantism
-Recognized Catholicism as official religion of France
In Defense of the Seven Sacraments
criticized Luther's views
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Catherine de' Medicis
French queen mother, Catherine de Médicis, became regent for her minor son, Charles IX. She sought to reconcile the Protestants and Catholics, but sided w/ Guises in St. Bart's massacre.
Hapsburg-Valois Wars (1521-55)
French Catholic Kings support German Protestant nobles
Unam Sanctam
The Latin for popes are better than kings. (1302)
Index of Prohibited Books
part of the counter Reformation, essentially "banned" books that contradicted Catholic teachings
Johann Tetzel
Monk who was commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the Church and was sent throughout northern Germany to sell indulgences (official ablutions for the purchaser's sins). This outraged Martin Luther and other critics of the Church and played a role in the start of the Reformation.
John Calvin
"All are not created on equal terms, but are preordained to eternal life, other to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or the other of these ends, we say that he has been predestined to life or death."
- this statement above reflects an essential view of who?
John of Leyden
led radical group of Anabaptists in 1532 to take control of the northwestern German city of Münster, had 16 wives
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
William of Orange
a Calvinist who was the leader of Netherland independence and used anti-Spanish exiles and criminals to lead rebellions against Alba
Pluralism
A person who has more than one job in the hierarchy
sale of indulgences
people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins of sins of their loved ones
Margaret and Alba Inquisition
1564 ppl started to oppose Margaret's govt, b/c Phil tried to enforce decrees of the Council of Trent in the Netherlands. Also Alba inquisition was special Spanish tribunal sent to supress revolt in Netherlands.
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Justification by Faith and its effects
sayd faith alone endures salvation. so....pope excommunicates Luther and Charles V considers him criminal
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
What was the Peace of Augsburg?
Ruler of each german state could decide between Lutheranism and Catholicism
What were the 95 theses that Martin Luther wrote supposed to do?
support open discussion, but someone took down the theses and took them to a printer
What is asked to Martin and how he responds
-"What if somehow we could get every church prelate all together at the same time, at the same place. Then we gave you all the time you wanted to thoroughly explain all you have to explain of your ideas. Then after that everyone could ask you follow up questions to make sure they understand, and you thoroughly answer them. You don't stop talking until you are convinced that everyone understands your ideas. Then what if the audience members took a vote, if they think you are right or if you are wrong. What if the vote was unanimous that you were wrong? What would you do?" -Martin says "Then they would all be wrong, and I would still be right."
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