AP Euro chapters and Flashcards

Terms Definitions
galliopoli
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Speer
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churchill
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Positivism
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oswald sprengler
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Young Turks
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Heinrich Himmiler
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Atlantic Charter
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Thirty Years War
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Helmuth Von Moltke
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Physiocrats
Economists, government administrators and advisers, concerned with tax reform and increasing the economic wealth of france
Theodore Dreiser
United States novelist1871-1945), wrote novelsex: Sister Carrie) depicting workers as being brutalized by greedy business owners
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Descartes
I think, therefore i am
louis pasteur and joseph lister
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Friedrich Engels
co-wrote Communist Manifesto, worked in father's cotton shop, thus factory-working class experience, knew about "wage salary" wrote CONDITIONS OF THE WORKING CLASS IN ENGLAND in 1844, helped marx with money and manifesto via his working knowledge
Handel
(northern Baroque composer) born in 1685 like bach; more interested in opera; moves to England where he is loved; his music is heard at ceremonies at st. paul's cathedral; wrote "The Water Music"; devotes most of his time to writing operas, written in Italian and performed by Italian singers; at this point the most interesting part of the opera was the Aria where a single singer would improvise their vocal line while expressing a single powerful emotion; Italian opera does not remain popular in England however; To the growing English middle class, Italian opera seems over the top, and foreign; Handel then begins writing Oratorios, which were religious, less theatrical pieces, written in English; Handel wrote the Oratorio "Messiah" about the life of Jesus. It contained "The Voice that Crieth in the Wilderness", "Ev'ry Valley", and "Hallelujah". The "Hallelujah" chorus is still wildly popular in the modern day.
Galley
The traditional narrow, open boats, propelled largely by manpower (slaves or convicts primarily); these ships were well-suited for the placid, thoroughly traveled sea lanes of the Mediterranean, but little else.
rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Kepler
Discovered orbits of planets were ellipses
killing nurses
wet-nurses associated with killing babies they nurse, it is said that the bad traits in children were given to them from the milk of their wet-nurse
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Magyars
majority ethnic group in Hungary. Mostly Calvinist. Nobility rebelled several times.
Feodor Dostoevski
Russian novelist who wrote The Brothers Karamazov about four brothers who plot to murder their father.
Louis Pasteur
French chemist who began studying fermentation in 1854 at the request of brewers-found that fermentation depended on growth of living organisms and that the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heat
Honore de Balzac
French realist novelist. Chiefly remembered for his series of 91 interconnected novels and stories known collectively as The Human Comedy which pictures urban society as amoral and brutal characterized by a Darwinian struggle for power.
Mansa Musa
successor to Sundiata Keita (founder of the kingdom of Mali); used his vast wealth to invest in the building of new mosques and religious schools, making Timbuktu a renowned center of culture and learning; under his rule, the rights of Muslim women were also much higher in terms of social acceptability and freedom
Baroque
period in art and music throughout most of Europe(except Britain and France) characterized by very emotional, thoughtful qualities; name comes from the Portuguese word for "Odd-Shaped Pearl" in reference to what art critics of the time viewed as "overblown" and "unbalanced"
Don Quixote
written by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), this novel of a character living in a military dream world filled with glory, and beautiful maidens; this book represented a more negative Spanish view around this time
alexandra
Last Czarina of Russia. Wife of Nicholas II. With Czar at the battlefield she interfiered with politics on advice from Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man. She and her family were executed.
Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe. Wrote Julius excluded from Heaven. "Prince of Humanism"
Rousseau
Married an uneducated woman and gave all his kids away to an orphanage
economic liberalism
individual should have oppurtunity to make money; no government, An ideal that suggests that people are happiest and economy thrive most when governments minimize their regulation, monitoring, and control over the work we do and the kinds of goods we buy & sell
Boyars
Russian nobility, gabe peter a hard time and they often fought with the streltsy for political powers.
Third Coalition
consisted of Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia, defeated by Napoleon in brilliant victories (ony defeat was off southern coast of Spain)(stopped invasion of England and ensure British Naval supremacy) because countries wouldnt work together
Quebec Act
extended boundaries of Quebec to include the Ohio River Valley. Americans viewed the Quebec Act as an attempt to prevent the extension of their mode of self-government westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Franz Liszt
Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso (1811-1886). Exempified achievments for New German School.
Auguste Comte
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology." Influenced Realpolitik
Franco-Prussian War
Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power.
Gustave Droz
Gustave Droz, the author of the bestseller Mr., Mrs., and Baby went through 121 editions between 1866 and 1884; saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness. He condemned man who made marriage sound dull and practical, men who were exhausted by prostitutes and rheumatism and who wanted their young wives to be little angels. He urged women to follow their hearts and marry a man more nearly their own age.p.810)
Seven Weeks War
Another name for the Austro-Prussian War
Treaty of Nijmegen
(1678) here, Louis gained additional Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comte.
woodrow wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
henri bergson
A writer who believed intuition and experience were better than rationalism and science for understand reality.
franklin roosevelt
the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658) Adopted Navigation act which required all imports to be carried either in english ships or in ships registered to the country from which the cargo originated.
Tycho Brahe
Orbits are not circular, they are ovals, earth has it's own orbit
Cahiers de Doleances
statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
Otto von Bismark
Prussian Diplomat responsible for the unification of Germany. Cunning politician, fights Danes with Austrians and Germans. Expels Austrians from Zollverein, fights Austrian-Prussian war w/ help of Germans. Gets North Germkan Confederation, led by Prussia. Then fights French, Franco-Prussian war, gets rest of Germany and Alsace-Lorraine. Diplomat under William I of Prussia, and then Wiliam II, who makes the mistake of firing him.
Robert Walpole
previously active in House of Commons and was a cabinet minister. Management of British national debt assigned to South Sea Company > price of stock soared, then crashed in 1720 > under his leadership, Parliament intervened and adopted measures to honor the national debt. George I gave him his full confidence > often regarded as the 1st prime minister of England and the originator of the cabinet system of government. Generally demanded that all ministers in the cabinet agree on policy. Real sources of power: personal support of the king, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his ironfisted control of government patronage. Quieta non movere > pursued peace abroad and supported status quo at home.
William Gladstone
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
Count Camilliodi Cavour
prime minister under King Emanuel. Made an agreement with Napoleon to drive Austrians out of Italy.
Instrument of Government
the constitution prepared by the army that invested executive power in a lord protector (Cromwell) and a council of state.
james joyce
An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book
Ferdinand and Isabella
They were able to exercise total control over Spain's churches and Christianize spain. Gives permission to Christopher Columbus to start his voyage.
putting out system
The merchant loans raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant.
The mountain
This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome.
Guglielmo Marconi
sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901.
French classicism
the art and literature of the age of Louis XIV; completely expressed the artistic preferences of Louis XIV; most music and art is not very good from this period; plays ARE good from this time period. The most common types of plays were Comedies and Tragedies
Phillip II
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
White Collar Jobs
jobs that do not involve manual labor although they require less education and provide a lower income than do the jobs held by the upper-middle class (nurses, small-business owners, salesmen)
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end. "paris is worth a mass"
Lusitania
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Solidarity
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Charles Dawes
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Enabling Act
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Joesph Chamberlein
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Robert Owen
created owenism
Luftwaffe
the German airforce
Roundheads
Supported parliament located southeastern half of england.
Tolstoy
Russian realist-combined realism in description and character development with an atypical moralizing, which came to dominate his later work-War and Peace: monumental novel set against historical background of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812-probed deeply into lives of a multitude of unforgettable characters-central message: human love, trust, and everyday family ties are life's enduring values
Monteverdi
(southern Baroque composer) wrote "Orfeo", the first operatic masterpiece in 1607; he utilizes recitative(sung speech) to make his scenes more dramatic; opera becomes the most popular form of entertainment in Europe after this
Newton
English mathematician and physicist remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)
deductive method
Theory, hypothesis, observation, confirmation
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Flaubert
Madame Bovary-far narrower in scope than Balzac's work but unparalleled in depth and accuracy of psychological insight-tells ordinary story of a frustrated middle class housewife who has an adulterous love affair and is betrayed by her lover-portrays provincial middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical
Caravel
A small, light, three-masted sailing ship; somewhat slower than a Galley, but held more cargo. Its triangular sails and sternpost rudder made it much easier to maneuver; being equipped with cannons also played a huge role in its success
Racine
wrote tragedies that displayed a common theme of good and evil; these were based of the tragic dramas of greek and roman legend.
dadaism
a nihilistic art movement (especially in painting) that flourished in Europe early in the 20th century
Petarch
Italian Scholar, Lived from 1304- 1374, considered to be one of the earliest Renaissance humanist, Referred to as the "father of Humanism"
proletarianization
transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
Salons
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas. ran by women.
Millets
The ottoman empire governed their empire through communities. This is significant because various laws and regulations applied to the person who belonged to the millet rather than to a particular administrative territory.
Charles XII
Swedish king. Headstrong, possibly insane. Great Northern War > lead vigorous and often brilliant campaign, but it eventually resulted in Sweden's defeat. Defeated the Russians at the Battle of Narva, but then turned south to invade Poland. Defeated at the Battle of Poltava > after that, Swedes could maintain only a holding action against their enemies. Sought refuge in Turkey and didn't return to Sweden until 1714. Killed while fighting Danes in Norway. After his death, Swedish nobles were determined to reassert power over the monarchy.
Florence Nightingale
Established sanitary nursing care units. Founder of modern nursing. began professional education of nursing.
Kulturkampf
Bismark's policy to make Catholics put loyalty in the state rather than in the Church
Audencia
(In Spain) presided over by the viceroy, this was a board of twelve to fifteen judges that served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body.
Popular Revolts
increased pressures of taxation and warfare turned bread riots into these armed uprisings
bauhaus
a German style of architecture begun by Walter Gropius in 1918
vladimir lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
igor stravinsky
1882-1971, Russian, settled in France then U.S., early collaboration with Diaghilev and Ballets Russes, large, romantic era orchestra, Russian themes, neo-classism, serialism-Firebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
methodists
john wesley started it. after becoming a teacher at oxford he organized a holy club the members soon were called methodists
Horatio Nelson
British navy commander who defeated Napoleon in Egypt (The Battles of the Nile) and Trafalgar; naval supremacy saved Britain from the invasion and shattered Napoleon's dreams of an overseas empire
Corn Law
Protected the English landowners by prohibiting the importation of foreign grain unless the domestic price rose above a certain level.
Treaty of Utrecht
British received thirty-year asiento to furnish slaves to Spanish. Britain gained right to send one ship each year to the trading fair and Portabello (major Caribbean seaport on Panamanian coast). Both privileges allowed British traders and smugglers potential in-roads into the Spanish market.
Thomas Cook
British pioneer of mass tourism, responsible for organizeation of railroad trips on a regular basis = profits by renting special trains, lowering prices, increasing number of passengers, 1867 = tours to Paris and 1800s = to Switzerland
Dmitri Mendeleyev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)
Lateran Treaty
1929; Treaty in which Italy recognized the existence of Vatican City as an independnt state and the pope as its leader
King John II
(r. 1481-1495) Under him, the Portuguese established trading posts and forts on the gold-rich Guinea coast and penetrated into the African continent all the way to Timbuktu.
Louis XIV
(r. 1643-1715) longest ruling ruler in European history; known as the "Sun King" because he shed light on all in his domain; larger than life ruler, people thought he was huge, although he was only around 5"6; His mother was Anne of Austria; fervently believed in the divine right of kings to rule; very hard working king; built the palace of Versailles outside of Paris. This was a huge palace that he used to make the statement, "I am here, and am imposing my power over nature." Versailles was used also to keep the most powerful nobles in check and under Louis's supervision; he sought glory above almost all else, which brought about many wars and defeat late in his life.
louis sullivan
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
masurian lakes
The second victory of Germany over Russia took place here.
adolf hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Michaelangelo
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Some of his famous statues include the Moses, la pieta (in the Vatican), and the David.
Da Vinci
conceived movement of blood and the earth around the sun
Girondists
a group of Jacobins named because many of them came from the department of the Gironde in southwest France. They were determined to oppose the forces of counterrevolution. They even passed one measure ordering the emigres to return or suffer their loss of property and another requiring the refractory clergy to support the Civil Constitution or lose their state pensions.
Louis XVI
He lacked any characteristics of a good leader to help support france. In the beginning he tries to enforce laws such as taxes but is stopped by parlement. Later on, he reacts too slow and therefore people took over. He ends up calling the estates general which continued the decline of France because it was an outdated institution.
Seven Years' War
Frederick II invaded Saxony, France and Austria formed an alliance against Prussia > eventually joined by Sweden, Russia, many smaller German states. 2 factors (in addition to Fred's stubborn leadership) saved Prussia: Britain furnished considerable financial aid, and (with the death of Elizabeth of Russia) Peter III made peace with Prussia (admired Fred).
Gustave Courbet
most famous member of realist school. Painted only things that he saw. Phrase "realism" was coined in reaction to one of his paintings. All of his works represented everyday life.
Bill of Rights
the principles of this were formulated in direct response to Stuart Absolutism. These were:
a. No standing army during peace time
b. No quartering of soldiers
c. Law cannot be suspended by the king
d. Only protestants can bear arms
e. Judges cannot be fired by the king
f. Kings cannot arrest someone without due process of law
g. The crown canno interfere with parliament in terms of elections and debate(this was ignored by most rulers)
h. Kings must be protestant
Amerigo Vespucci
wrote the letter "The New World" based on his discoveries on the coast of modern-day Venezuela.
Mein kampf
Book written by Hitler while he was exiled, my struggle.
Act of Succession
Made Henry and Anne Boleyn's daughter Elizabeth was heir to the throne
Philhellenic Societies
pro greek societies that were found in every major country during the greek revolutionthey posed that the greeks struggle was western liberal freedom against despototic Asian Ottoman empire
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
ended War of the Austrian Succession. Prussia retained Silesia, Spain renewed asiento agreement with Britain.
Vasco da Gama
commanded a fleet of four ships in search of a sea route to the Indian Ocean trade. ¬¬¬¬¬________'s ships rounded the Cape and sailed up the east coast of Africa. Although he failed to forge any trading alliances with local powers, he had proved the possibility of lucrative trade with the East via the Cape route.
Rump Parliament
After a while, there were less than 50 members of parliament remained.
smallpox inoculation
a type of vaccinatin in which the pus of an infected individual is inoculated into a healthy one., Inoculation of smallpox began in the Muslim lands of western Asia. The skin was deliberately broken and a small amount of matter taken from the pustule of a smallpox victim was applied. The person thus contacts a mild case of smallpox that gave lasting protection against future attack.
Ivan the Terrible
reign followed by civil war known as the "Time of Troubles."
war of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses, Trench warfare between Germany and France. Called War of Attrition(wearing down) because the goal was to break down the enemy. There was no winner after 3 years of fighting.
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