Native American History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
maize
corn
de facto
By pattern.
Enviorment
surroundings that include physical, social, and cultural conditions
Pilgrims
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Comanche
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Agency
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rancherias
farming communities along rivers or streams
Meriam Report
1928 Boarding school/Indian policy review. Horrible conditions at institutions, ineffective policies, exploitation, suicide. Ends boarding school policy in 1930s. ID loss, mistrust of gov, lost lang and cult, family dysfunction.
Requerimiento
A written declaration of sovereignty and war, read by Spanish military forces to assert their sovereignty over the Americas.
Matrilineal
Women became responsible for farming and became the backbone of Indian societies. Husbands moved into the wives houses and the wives brothers were more powerful that the husbands themselves.
Columbian Exchange
Dramatically widespread exchange of animal, plants, culture , communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. Smallpox, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep and rats from Old World to New world. Turkeys from New World to Old World.
American Revolution
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Aztec Empire
Mid-American Indian society that became the most powerful in the area. By 1000 BC, they had advanced enough agriculturally to sustain large cities. They believed in a sun God, Quetsequatl, and sacrificed humans to him. They were conquered from the north b
Easton Conference
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Caddoes
lived in East Texas, planted crops, largest East Texas Native American group
Archaeologist
a scientists who studies the material remains of past human life
Federal recognition
Specific tribes granted tribal status by FedGov. Benefits of land, social programs (funding), self-governance (independence). Treaty rights/history, can petition.
Frontenac
Governor of New France. Together with LaSalle comes up with a scheme to rebuild French fortunes.
Great Lakes
Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Eerie, Lake OntarioWaterways used by Native Americans to ease their travels and help them travel farther
Roger Williams
Bought Rhode Island from Narrangensett and then allied w/ them.
Mandan Indians
Sedentary Indians encountered near the Missouri River and befriended by Lewis and Clark. At war with the Lakota. Their sedentary life let disease spread rapidly and their numbers declined very quickly. They quickly went from 34 cities to just 2 in a short
Tenskwatawa/The Prophet
Tenskwatawa was a Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as The Prophet or the Shawnee Prophet. He was the brother of Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee. He advocated the pan-Indian movement in the Middle Ground and was th
Neolin
Neolin believed that the native people needed to reject European goods and abandon dependency on foreign settlers in order to return to a more traditional lifestyle[1]. He made arguments against alcohol, materialism, and polygamy. Neolin emphasized that t
Empire of Liberty
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Tanaghrison
was an American Indian leader who played a pivotal role in the beginning of the French and Indian War. Killed French commander Jumonville when George Washington captured his small force.
Paleo-Indians
First indians to arrive in America, relied on hunting (men) and gathering (women), hunted in grasslands with plentiful game, but by 9,000 BC, the game was extinct. Small bands of 15-20 that moved around seasonally.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
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Pueblo Revolt
2,500 Pueblo warriors rose against Spanish in 1680. They surrounded their village and 400 Spaniards were killed. Spanish fled and did not return to area for another 12 yrs.
Hiawatha
Known as The Great Peacemaker, he traveled between the Iroquois tribes advocating peace. He may have been crazy, but he started what would be the Iroquois Confederacy, a power nation of NE Indians.
Alabama-Coushattas
two groups that merged, lived in East Texas
Boarding school policy
Assimilation goals of late 19th century. Skilled and unskilled labor teaching and education FOR indians in Christian schools. Stripping away culture, language, religion, ties to family (to induce migration). Kill it in kids. Away from home. Sad.
Anasazi
The Native Americans who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings
Onantio’s Milk
Indian term for brandy named after French governor.
Pequot War
English vs Peqouts in 1637. English wanted more land and Peqouts were already devestated by disease. English surrounds village and killed many non-combatants.
Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.
White Indians
People who were held captive and started to act like indians. Many captives refused to return to their old lifestyle.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
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Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador that led to the downfall of the Aztec empire. Brought disease and horses/war dogs to the Americas. Burned his ships once arriving in the Americas so that their mission must be accomplished. Had a weapon superiority of steel against th
Indian Trade
Fist settlers to trade with the Indians were the Spanish and the Portuguese. The settlers traded what they viewed as trinkets with little value, but were seen with great value to the Indians because of the technological difference. They trade iron steel a
Huron
Origionally formed in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, near Quebec, they were another powerful nation in NE America/Canada and became hated enemies of the Iroquois. They were encountered and interacted with French explorers, especi
Jamestown
Settled by the English in 1607, they were interested in profit in either the form of gold or the NW passage. They were all men and were ruled under military control. Originally greeted with hospitality, they soured their relations with the natives with hi
New Amsterdam
Settled by Dutch explorer Henry Hudson who found land in 1609. Bought Manhattan from Iriqouis witch would become New Amsterdam.
1924: Citizenship Act
before this act native Americans were only able to gain citizenship through marrying a settler, military service, etc. in 1924 congress granted citizenship to all native Americans born in the usa. Another way to assimilate. "Some members of the white society declared that the Indians had successfully passed the assimilation test during wartime, and thus they deserved the rewards of citizenship."
Culture
the way of life developed by a group of people to satisfy its needs
Land holdings decline
1900=7%, 2000=2.3% (of total US land mass [all native])
5 Nations of Iroquois
Mohawks, located to the east; Oneidas, near Syracuse NY; Onandagas, south of Lake Ontario or Eerie???; Cayugas, Fingerlake area; Senecas (keepers of the western door), south of Niagra into PA
Don Luis
An Indian boy that was captured in 1570 and sent back to Spain to assimilate into Western culture and adopted Christianity. When he was taken back to Ajacan, present day Virginia, he reverted back to his native ways and led an attack that killed 8 priests
Praying Towns
Towns developed by the Puritans of New England from 1646 to 1675 in an effort to convert the local Native American tribes to Christianity. It was an English style of living with an all Indian community. By 1675, 1/4 of the NE Indians lived in Praying Town
Wampum
Come from shells used for beads in the northeastern bay area. Used as a way to communicate by using symbols. Very valuable trade commodity. Became a currency for the Indians and setters. White and purple wampum was very valuable.
Iroquois
An indian tribe that arose out of the fall of the Mississippian society. Located in the NE region of America, they were ruled by a council, rather than a chief. The Iroquois were made of 5 regions that built villages with defensive walls. They had a large
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer that settled Quebec in 1608 and was interested in setting up French colonies to create a trade network for beaver pelts. They went deep into the interior of Canada through the waterways and Great Lakes. He established an alliance with the
Opechancanough's Uprising
Son of powhatan, and could be Don Luis, led an uprising against English settlers after they had killed a medicine man. In 1622, he organized 100
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Officially ended conflict between the American Colonies and Great Britain. Britain had to relinquish all claims to territory of Appalachian Mountains, but British told Indians land was still theirs and Americans had no right to it.
Hernando De Soto
Spanish explorer that set out to explore SE America between 1539 and 1543. Landed in Tampa Bay and proceeded to go through most of the Southern States, finally ending in Texas. Didn't bring food and thought the Indians would provide it for them, but many
Bering Straight
Land bridge from Russia to Alaska that Indians migrated over. Due to lower sea levels because of the Ice Age. Natives moved across the Bering Straight very gradually, from 75-10,000 BC
Beaver Wars
Mid 17th Century war that was very damaging to native societies. Encouraged and armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tr
Indian Removal Act
1830s Andrew Jackson. All tribes E of Miss to W of river (Indian Country) Trail of tears. Dispossession, free land for white settlement.
Hopewell
100 BC - 100 AD. They meshed with the Adena Indians and also built mounds, as the Adena did, on a larger scale. They covered 27 acres of land and had similar designs such as a small and big circular mound and a square mound with 4 entrances. They created
Captain John Smith
English settler that was captured by a Powhatan raid and then 'saved' by Pocahontas.
Mourning War
A war that was started by the Iroquois belief that losing members must be justified by capturing their enemies. Older women decided whether they lived or diea, they were put through a ceremonial torturing upon capture. Brought backs heads of enemies on sp
1887 Dawes Act
An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severally to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes.
Who were the Dakota/Lakota?
Their name means Allies, and that is what they called themselves.
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Indians gave up a lot of land for trade goods. The American government bought this land so that they could set up forts and drive out the French and English. Americans finally gained a foothold in the Middle Ground. The natives were allowed to hunt there
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