Nature of Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
brambles
ostruzini
snowdrop
snezenka
bark
kura
poplar
topol
twig
vetvicka
deciduous
opadavy
cranberries
brusinky
daisy
sedmikraska
geranium
pelargonie
chrysanthemum
chryzantema
daffodil
narcis
pansy
maceska
pink
karafiat
peony
pivonka
evergreen
stalezeleny, jehlicnaty
honey tuft
vaclavka
linden tree
lipa
crown
koruna stromu
Zygote
fertilized egg
weeping willow
smutecni vrba
cowslip
prvosenka jarni (gb)
field mushroom
zampion polni
chapparal vegetation
very flammable
Photosynthesis phases
-Light Reaction
-Dark Reaction
Hypertonic
plasmolyzed (abormally high tension)
Light Reaction
-Light activates the chlorophyll
-Currency creates ATP
Oxygen is liberated as a bi-product
Micronutrients
Fe, CU, Mn, Mo, B
pitcher plants
utilize pitfall traps
very slippery
donward hairs keep the insects from escaping
contains liquid with digestive chemicals
Bryophytes (informal name)
Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Anthocerotophyta (hornworts), Bryophyta (mosses)
halophytes
-plants that prefer salty environments
-have many of the same characteristics as plants that prefer arid environments
Nitrogen
-Makes plants grow
-There are quick release and slow release forms
-too much nitrogen can either burn plants are cause too much growth
-Plants in the legume family "fix" atmospheric nitrogen in soil
alkaloids
-a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds which mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
-can be used for recreational drugs
chloroplast
trap light energy and conduct photosynthesis
Integument
Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.
soybean
-native to east asia
-many food products and non food products
-soy meal is used for livestock feed
-very high protein crop
mint family
-thyme, sage, lavender,
-common garden mint is spearmint
carrot family
carrots, celery, dill, parsley, parsnips
-some are posinous
Nitrogen imbalance
Deficiency: light green to yellow appearance of leaves
-stunted growth; poor fruit development
Excess: dark green foliage which may be suceptible to lodging, drought disease and insect invasion
-fruit and seed crops may fail to yield
Mutualism
the way in which two organisms interact where each organism derives a fitness benefit.
convergent evolution
-cacti and euphorbs
-both have evolved a succulent growth form with spines as protection
Potassium
-Helps plants resist disease and aids in winter hardiness
-prevalent in 'winterizer' fertilizer
-high salt index, so used with caution
-fairly mobile
Gingko
various medical uses. Native to China. Extinct in wild. Cultivated in China for 1000 years. Fruit is actually a fleshy seedcoat
Phylogenetic tree
Shows relationships and ancestry of plants
opium & morphine
important cash crop in afghanistan
-the milky residue that dries is what is used to make opium and morphine
-helps with pain
black pepper
the world's most traded spice
-biting flavor due to volatile oils, flavor dissipates after grinding
saffron
number of uses as dye and spice
-expensive product because it is labor intensive
-flower in the fall and don't last very long
-each flower has 3 styles and it takes thousands to make 1 pound of saffron
tumeric
used in cooking
also used as a dye
derived from the ginger family and it comes from the rhysomes
Mineral nutrition
-Although plants can make their "food" out of thin air, there is more to life than just sugar
-A wide variety of elements are needed for plants to grow and survive (macro,micro-nutrients)
-Take up nutrients that are dissolved in the soil
Carbon Fixation
the process by which gaseous carbon dioxide is converted into a compound
solution to nutrient deficiencies
-fertilizer
-soil pH (7 is neutral)
-soils range from 4-10
Autotrophic
a plant that makes its own food>>> photosynthesis
Micropyle
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters
Sepals/calyx
Outer part of the outer sterile whorls of the flower that protects the petals
sorghum
C4 grass grown in warmer regions of the world
GM herbicide resistant CONS
more broadcast spraying
-may affect non-target plants
-expensive
-dependence on large companies
-unknown effects on other wildlife
-reduction in crop diversity
-superweeds
-ethical concerns
GM herbicide resistant PROS
easier for large scale farmers
-reduces tillage
-glyphosate is safer than many other herbicides
cotton gin
removes the seeds from the cotton fibers in more efficient fashion
quinine
most important because it is the only cure for malaria
-reduces fever so that people can survive the bouts of fever that come from malaria
flax
-very old crop (egypt)
-does well in a vaiety of climates
-grown in densely planted fields
-taller the stem, the longer the fiber
-creates linen
Water Transport
-Once water is absorbed by the root hairs and taken up into the tissues of the roots, it must be transported to the leaves where photosynthesis takes place
-Water trasnport is conducted by vascular tissue called Xylem. The cells that conduct water are vessels and tracheids
-Water conducting cells are dead at maturity
Major forms of plants (informal names)
Green algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, seed plants
invasive species
plants not native to a region that out-compete native species for resources, reproduce prolifically, and dominate ecosystem
-hard to control
-some turn invasive after a long period of non-invasion
water transport process
-Water reaches the leaves and is used in photosynthesis
-Gas exchange and water loss occurs through the stomata
-Waxy cuticle on the leaf surfaces reduces water loss
-Stomata with guard cells control gas exchange and water loss in the leaf
-Turgor pressure in guard cells keeps stomata open
-When too much water is lost guard cells lose turgor pressure and the stomata close
structural adaptations to dry environments
-loss of leaves during dry period
-sheltered stomata to reduce water loss
-thick waxy cuticle on surfaces on leaves
water storage in succulent above-ground parts or water-filled tubers
-adaptations in the root system to increase water absorption
-vertically oriented leaves to catch early and late day sun
-trichomes on the leaves to absorb atmospheric water and trap air close to the plant
Perfect vs. imperfect flowers
A perfect flower has both sexes while an incomplete flower lacks one or the other.
structural modifications of cultivated plants
-plants acquire traits that make the plant worth the labor of cultivation (reliably sown, cultivated and harvested, uniform seed germination)
-plant is selected for improved qualities
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