AP Euro Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NATO formed
Henry VII nationality
"without breeches"; shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners who were the primary factors in the internal development of the revolution
United Nations
International peacekeeping organization that followed League of Nations.
Type of paining during Renaissance.
Bishop Bossuet
theorist created divine right
The prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia during the movement toward Italian unification. He is considered the architect of the Italian Unification.
reliable knowledge comes from past scholars
William I
wanted to strengthen Prussian military
Louis XIV's financial minister who centralized the French economy by instituting a strict policy of mercantilism
became leader of National Socialist German workers party (NAZI)
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Munich Conference
An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland
analytic geometry; necessary to doubt everything; deductive reasoning; cartesian dualism: divided all existence into the spiritual and material; the belief in the separation of mind and body (proposed by Descartes). Your "mind" is distinct and apart from "the universe"
Faith-healer for Alexi Romanov. Had much influence in the royal court, which was embarassing to the Russians because of his bad reputation.
The Mensheviks began to organize soviets, councils of workers, and soldiers. Relatively orthodox Marxists, the Mensheviks believed that Russia had to have a bougeois stage of development before it could have a revolution of the proletariat. They were willing to work temporarily with the Constitutional Democrats in a liberal regime, but they became estranged when the Cadets failed to control the army or to purge "reactionaries" from the government.
received money from Ferdinand and Isabella, found the new world (Bahamas)
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
The "Sentinel on the Rhine," who received a lot of territory on France's easter border.
The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
Giovanni Boccacio
Wrote the Decameron reflicting on different people reactions to the black death
After Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, __________ became, in Russian eyes, the "third Rome".
a revolutionary political club made up of middle-class lawyers and intellectuals
refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck. The Kulturkampf did not extend to the other German states such as Bavaria.
a religious movement by the churches to re-interpret christianity in the light of new developments. Catholic church eventually condenmed this in 1907.
John Locke
Created the Second Treatise of Government, which maintained the authority of the people,
Jaques Turgot
-passed the guild laws
- economic minister at the time Louis came into power, got fired
The "Battle" of ______ occurred in 1898 as British forces under General Horatio H. Kitchener moved up the Nile River while building a railroad. At Omdurman, Muslim tribesmen charged the forces and were shot down using machine guns. Eventually 11,000 Muslim tribesmen were killed.
"living space" Hitler's goal in WWII was to gain this for Germany in the East. This meant enslaving or killing the native populations of Poland and other Eastern European countries
William Pitt
English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
Léon Blum
French politician, was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. Blum passed legislation extending the rights of the Arab population of Algeria. In foreign policy, his government was divided between the traditional anti-militarism of the French left and the urgency of the rising threat of Nazi Germany. Despite the division, the government managed to engage the greatest war effort since the First World War.
Madame du Chatelet
(1706-1749) was an intellectually gifted woman from a high aristocracy with a passion for science. She became Voltaire's longtime companion, she studied physics and mathematics and published science articles and translations. She was the finest example of an elite French woman, she suffered because of her gender. She was excluded from the Royal Academy of Sciences. She later became uncertain of her ability to make important scientific discoveries.
95 theses
Luther's ideas posted on the Wittenberg church door
95 theses
As in the Middle Ages, France's 25 million inhabitants were still legally divided into three orders or "estates"-the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else. As the nation's first estate, the clergy numbered about 100,000 and had important privileges. It owned about ten percent of the land and paid only a "voluntary gift" rather than regular, to the government every five years. Moreover, the church levied a tax (the tithe) on landowners, which averaged somewhat less that 10 percent. Much of the church's income was actually drained away from local parishes by political appointees and worldly aristocrats at the top of the church hierarchy-to the intense dissatisfaction of the poor parish priests. (698)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
Lord Byron
aka. George Gordon (1788 - 1824) British Romantic poet famous for his scandalous lifestyle and served as a regional leader of the Carbonari. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and Don Juan.
Role of reason
The Enlightenment thinkers used reason to deduct conclusions about everyday life
Boris Pasternak
1958, forbidden to accept Nobel Prize for his anti-socialist, individualistic book
-Berlin Wall
The wall seperating east and west germany, east belonged to soviet and west to the other countries
Michael Servetus
Spanish Humanist who gained fame for his publication denying Christian dogma of trinity. When he escaped to Geneva he was there arrested then burned at the stake as fathers saw his ideas as dangerous to public morality under his denial of child Baptism and the trinity.
John Law
Scots financier and friend of the Prince Regent of France in 1716 - organized French central bank and the Mississippi Company which had a monopoly of trade with Louisiana. New Orleans was founded in 1718. THE MISSISSIPPI CO. absorbed the French East India Co. and the China, Senegal and Africa Cos. - gave rise to a legal monopoly of French colonial trade. John Law was allowed to assume the ENTIRE GOVERNMENT DEBT with this company. Bonds were issued and a plan to elminate the debt and establish tax reform was hatched. There was a frenzy of speculation and prices went sky high - the Mississippi Bubble - then confidence all of a sudden dropped and the "Bubble" burst in 1720.
Works of art that are painted with water colors onto wet walls or ceilings.
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
Clement Attlee
British statesman and leader of the Labour party who instituted the welfare state in England (1883-1967)
ballot act
passed by gladstone - declared that voting was to be done by secret ballot
Peter Stolypin
Nicholas II names him prim minister after 1907, tries rural reforms, like allowing peasants to leave farms, was assassinate, maybe w/ consent of Nicholas II
William Tyndale
William Tyndale, a follower of Luther, translated the Bible into English and was burned for heresy. He was inspired by Thomas More's Utopia.
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
George III
He was described as a rather stupid person but wasnt the tyrant he often portrayed being. He was determined to strengthen monarchial authority.
Aristotelian World View
Belief that the motionless earth was fixed at the center of the universe and God was beyond.
James Hargreaves
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
well ordered music in the honor of God - German
Cosmo deMedici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
European Coal and Steel Community
international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
Alexander I
This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
Concordat of Bologna
1516, signed between Francis and Pope Leo X despite resistance of French clergy and established royal control over ecclesiastical appointments, many more royal officials represented and enforced royal will in provinces than ever before, Francis confirmed Paris's identity as seat and emerging symbol of royal power.
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Modernization of the Russian Empire
Eperience political crisies in mid-nineteeent century as Ottomans had; still had serfdom and became a large moral and political issue; transportation was poor
act of supremacy
it declared Henry the "only" supreme head in earth of the Church of England
Napoleonic Code
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
The Storming of Bastille
1st violent act of Revolution, July 14, 1789 French peasants stormed the prison the Bastille in attempt to free prisoners
salvation by faith alone
luthers belief that people only went to heaven by being faithful
Course of WWII
First war in Europe, then war in Asia
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
People's Will
Kills Tsar Alexander II to try to get reform. It only makes the government enforce Russification more.
The Working Class
This class made up 4/5 of the population. The highly skilled workers made up the Labor Aristocracy and earned 2/3 of the income. They thought of themselves as leaders of the working class. There were also Semi-skilled workers and unskilled workers
Imitation Of Christ
A semimystical guide to the inner life intended primarily for monks and nuns. Read by those who wanted to pursue the ascetic life
Munich beer hall "revolution" of 1923
In 1923 communists momentarily entered provincial governments, an in November an obscure nobody named Adolf Hitler leaped onto a table in a beer hall in Munich and proclaimed a "national socialist revolution." But Hitler's plot to seize control of the government was poorly organized and easily crushed. (942)
leon batista alberti
He penned the slogan of the age when he stated "Men can do all things if they will."
David Ricardo
Man who said that if wages go up then the standard of living goes up, but then people will have more kids, therefor the wages will go back down, So standard of living stays the same.
cuius regio eius religio
phrase meaning the ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land
Index of Prohibited Literature
This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
International effect of the Spanish Civil War
• The USA extended its neutrality legislation to cover wars and placed an embargo on the export of arms to Spain
• British and French instigation caused 27 country not to intervene
• Germany, Italy, and USSR intervened sending troops
• Volunteers of leftist or liberal sympathy from the USA and Europe went to Spain
• Split world into fascist and antifascist camps.
• Helped bring Germany and Italy together
• Japan was able to pursue a conquest on China while Europe was distracted. (China lost main coastal cities)
Reason why no women in Sci rev.
No women in university, or anywhere (tradition)
They had the best of both worlds had the best diet in Europe.
What were the Mainstays and Deficiencies with the European Artisans and Townspeople's Diets?
July Revolution
A German painter.
reign of bloody mary
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
Magnificent households and palaces where the signori and the most powerful merchant oligarchs required political business to be conducted.
The German Social Democratic Party,cfounded in 1875 by the labour agitation of Ferdinand Lasalle who wanted workers to participatevin German politics. The party always divided between those who advocated reform in GErmany or those who wanted a revolution. ..
Petrarch (renaissance)
(1304-1374) Father of humanism. coexistence of classical and christian values, admiration for ancient rome.
to examine carefully by taking apart
Johann Gutenberg
Inventor of the printing press
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Ahura Mazda
God of light in Zoroastrianism
Romantic Art
John Constable's Salisbury Cathedral. cathedral is medieval, he associates liberal reformers with devil. Romantic Art tried to portray old gothic designs and sublime. Great forces of nature overpowering small humans
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Catherine of Aragon
marriage annulled in 1533
Appearance of Prussia and Russian States 2) All should be governed by the King
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
_____________________ of Prussia yielded to revolts in Berlin by promising to create a Prussian assembly.
Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm IV
These were the hereditary nobility of Muscovy, who had a great deal of power there. They were treated terribly by Ivan the Terrible, who stripped many of life, status, and/or property, and appointed new ones who owed him allegiance.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese comissioned by the spanish to find a route to the spices of moluccas, killed in the philippines but crew sailed around the world, proved immensity of earth
The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Baroque Art
Part of the Counter Reformation. Displayed a religious theme, red and gold color scheme, dark (sinner) vs. light (saint), and was intensely dramatic. Early Baroque art was dominated by Spain.
Charles VII
(1422-1461) Name the French king crowned at Reims with the help of Joan of Arc who helped the French monarchy recover some of its former prestige after the 100 Years War.
English East India Co.
English Indian spice company
September Massacres
September 1792: Fearing that political prisoners will aid the advancing Austrian Prussian army, revolutionaries break into prisons across France and massacre thousands, many of them innocent bystanders.
Neville Chamberlain
British prime minister whose name became associated with the policy of appeasement; after the Munich Crisis was resolved, he returned to England proclaiming, "I believe we have achieved peace in our time."
Jeremy Bentham
the founder of utilitarianismefined as the greatest good for the greatest number of people, sould be applied to gov the economy and the judicail system in europe
Pride's Purge
Cromwell felt kingshould be executed to prevent counterrevolution. Parlt. hesitated so Cromwaell used army to break up Parlt. which had started at 500 in 1640 and already sunk to 150. Used Colonel Pride to remove dissenters(100 of them) and left only about 50 - The Rump.
the right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and determining controversies.
Cartwrights' power loom
Edmund Cartwright invented a power loom that would save on labor costs in 1785. But the power looms of the factories worked poorly at first, and handloom weavers continued to receive good wages until at least 1800. (727-728)
May Day
➢ Coordinated action by the Second International
➢ International labor day to be marked by strikes and mass labor demonstrations
spinning jenny
A machine that could spin several threads at once
War Communism
The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
India National Congress
Purpose: Britain trained Indians to run India along British lines
Nicholas II
Believed that the absolute power of the tsars should be preserved.
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Henry VII
the grandfather of Charles IV, he arranged for his son to marry Elizabeth, the heiress of Bohemia.
war of austrian succession
prussia invades austria (maria theressa) and takes silesia --> britain and austria vs france and prussia
Battle of Magenta
Sardinians and France are victorious easily inspires France and Sardinia.
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.
misery index
the combined rates of inflation and unemployment. (p. 1019)
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Triangular Trade
This was a natural evolution of bilateral trade, between two places, to trade involving multiple (generally 3) places. Instead of just trying to get rid of surplus for either precious metal or some other desirable commodity, merchants were able to meet a variety of supplies and demands, making a profit on each step. The major players in this trade system were Great Britain, the West Indies, Africa and Europeans in the Americas.
The common crime of paying for holy offices for the position of power
Liberum Veto
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
Jean Paul Sartre
A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
Peace of Augsburg
a Treaty between Charles V and Lutheran Princes in Augsburg (present day Bavaria, Germany) which officially ended the struggle between Catholics and Lutherans. "cuius regio, eius religio" allows German princes to pick either lutheranism or Catholicism in the areas they controlled.
What was Metternich opposed to in central Europe?
liberalism and nationalism
Laboring Poor
Term to describe those who held jobs, but earned little more than subsistence wages
Warsaw Pact
Created by Stalin in 1955 to counter NATO and to tighten his hold on satellites.
Genuinely New Knowledge (Scientific Rev./1700)
Reniassance, reflection of old knowledge
Follwoed Bacon's idea: Knowledge with use
Francis Bacon
(1561 - 1626) was an English proponent of induction (#19) and empiricism (#33), and was one of the first of the Scientific Revolution to popularize experimentation, observation, and testing of hypotheses. He died of pneumonia after staying out in the snow too long, trying to refrigerate chickens by stuffing them with snow.
Ludwig van Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
the diet of speyer
(1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects. (p. 462)
Thomas a' Kempis
author of "the imitation of christ"; early northern christian writer who challenged individuals to live a godly life rather than focus just on knowledge
corn laws
repealed in 1846. they had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings
Black Death
The term historians give to the plague that swept through Europe in 1346-1353
Led to France as distinct nation in late Middle Ages (war)
100 Years War
Franz Joseph
The old leader of Austria in the years before WWI
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
War of Three Henrys
war for secular power, between Henry of Navarre, Henry VIII and Henry of guise
Great Patriotic War
This was what Russia called World War Two. Thus their triumph became a symbol of national pride. This was ironic, however, because 20 million Russians were killed in the war, the Russians could not have won the war without help from the other Allied powers, and the Nazis were the ones who initiated it by invading Russia.
Women in totalitarian states
They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
henry VIII
wanted a male heir - had 6 wives - created anglican church
Committee of Public Safety
A 12 member committee elected on a monthly basis by the National Convention to promote the revolution, destroy enemies within France, and support the War Effort. This Body was the main proponent of the Terror.
difference between conservatism and liberalism
Conservatism in the 19th century meant belief in a corporate society and a goal of tradition and "organic growth". They believed in progress within the old system, as opposed to replacing the old with new entirely. Liberals, however, believed in individualism and aimed for more drastic progress and change, aspiring to perfect reason.
England, the German States, the Netherlands, France
These areas all had religiouis civil wars or political insurrections
18. Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman Empire and replaced it with
- The Confederation of the Rhine
- woman work in factories, fields, shops, etc.
- woman become more independent, break out of stereotype.
What happened to woman's rights around Europe in WWI?
14. One reason for the middle class resentment of the French aristocracy was that
- they were taking the government positions
Charles beheaded
"Social Contract"
Babylonian Captivity
Pope taken
"Praise of Folly"
led whigs (liberal party)
reason, happiness, liberty, nature
Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin. (Majority men).
Cartoons in Rhyme and Line
Douglas MacAuthor
helped in korean war
social darwinism
survival of the fittest
third world
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
Elizabeth I
last of the tutors
Gottlieb Daimler
invented internal combustion engine
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
Noble political upheavals in France under Mazarin
November Resolutions
Bolsheviks wanted new civilization, unions cooperated during war and collective bargaining became solid future.
Sergei Witte
Russian policy-maker (1849-1915) who focused on industrialization within the Russian empire, served under the last two tsars, and was the author of the October Manifesto of 1905. Also negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese War
Claude Monet
Founder of French impressionism (1840-1926). "Bridge over a Pond of Waterlilies" and "Impression, Sunrise"
utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest number)
idea of unification of all slavs
Conservative prime minister during the 1980s, known for reducing inflation, making sharp cuts in public spending, slashing taxes, etc.
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Adam Smith
"invisible hand" of free competition
Henry IV's chief minister; combined taxes, improved infrastructure, boosted trade
2nd industrial revolution
steel, chemicals, electricity, oil
Peterloo Massacre
An 1819 British organized rebellion against the Corn Laws that was broken up violently by the English cavalry.
Leopold II
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
Triennial Act
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which said that Parliament had to be summoned at least every 3 years
Allies Competing Desires
Reality for competition: secret treaties/agreements. Sacrifice should lead to win. Allies owed US lots of $. Losers pay for war.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
JA Hobson
English economist and critic of imperialism (1858-1940) who wrote "Imperialism"
cult of celebrity
ironic glorification of the personalities who portayed oeioke ither than themselves
Isaac Newton
Law of universal gravitation; every body in the universe attracts every other body in a precise relationship
art that shows more gritty everyday life without glorifying much
diderot's encyclopedia
collection of knowledge, everyone is rational and can learn
early on, inspired by FR: political equality for all; economic equality for all through common ownership of property: Utopian socialism
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country.
The Great Schism
two popes at one time
This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
appointed by Marie de Medici around 1610; transformed monarchy into embodiment of France itself; manipulated nobility with artificial power (intendant system); pushed by religious uniformity; raison d'etat; divine right of kings
children of mixed white and Indian decent
The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870).
Thomas Cranmer
The first archbishop of the Anglican church; annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine, wrote the Book of Common Prayer
Stalinization of culture
The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda
Social Democrats
The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.
The chief security units of the Nazi State.
National Mobilization
Getting the whole country involved in the war.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany's policy around the British isles, which they hoped would knock France and Britain out of the game. It didn't.
led by Theodore Herzl, this was the Jewish political movement for the self-determination of Jewish peoples in a sovereign Jewish national homeland, preferably in Palestine. It was eventually successful, creating Israel in 1948
Sepoy mutiny
1857 mutiny primarily caused by rifle cartridges being lined with animal fat, causing Hindu and Muslim soldiers to protest. It then exploded into a rebellion, causing the dissolution of the East India company. India was then governed by the Crown as the new British Raj.
classical art forms
based on greek and roman art—snapshot in time, perspective. Reemergence of busts, horsemen, and nudes.
"sketch of the progress of the human mind":
the "politics of reality" I.e. the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German philosopher & founder of Marxism-theory that class conflict is motor force driving historical change & development
versailles treaty
end of wwi, forced harsh reparations on germany, put blame on germany
High Renaissance
end of the fifteenth century; time during which Renaissance's center was Rome (not Florence); lasted until 1520s
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
House of Commons member who emerged as military leader during Civil War as head of New Model Army; established military government (which lasted until Restoration in 1660)
Jacob Burkhardt
historian who was the first to categorize the Middle Ages as a "Dark Age" and the Renaissance as a "cultural rebirth."
Schlieffen Plan
Top-secret German strategy to fight a 2 front war against Russia and France. The idea was to invade neutral Belgium for a quick vicotry against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia
Council of Trent
mid 1500s meeting of roman catholic leaders called by pope paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by protestant reformers
Decline of Ottoman Empire
They fell behind in industrialization, in education, and in general compared to the west
French educational reforms
The Dreyfus affair lead to the separation of church and state, and lead to more people in government backed schools that were no longer catholic schools but republican schools.
Ems Dispatch
A telegram edited by Bismark to insult the French people while making it sound as though they had insulted the Prussians. This led to the Franco-Prussian wars which Prussia won handily and violently. The French people never forgave the Prussians, setting the stage for World War I
German losses had to do with the $135 billion reparations, article 231 (war guilt cause), no general staff or offensive weapons. Minorities had to pay.
John Stuart Mill
One of the leaders of Utilitarianism along with Jeremy Bentham, this man believed in the greatest good for the greatest number, especially in the making of laws. Government should intervene to provide a social safety net for its citizens
Statute of the six articles
upheld the seven sacraments, maintained Catholic theology, and replaced the authority of the pope with that of the monarch
67. trade surplus
An economic measure of a positive balance of trade, where a country's exports exceeds its imports. A trade surplus represents a net inflow of domestic currency from foreign markets, and is the opposite of a trade deficit, which would represent a net outflow.
peace of utrecht
ended spanish war of succession during louis xiv's rule, forbade union of france and spain and left france on the brink of bankruptcy
Francis Joseph
Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary in mid-late 19th century; very weak, threatened by nationalist efforts of Magyars, etc
the march revolution
Nicholas II steps down, strike of workers
A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles
Madagascar Plan
Aspired to the mass shipment of Jews to the island of Madagascar.
Louis XIII
Succeeds Henry IV, ONLY 9 years old, Power of throne was laying with mother - Marie de Medici-second wife of Henry- until Louis came of age, Marie- doesn't do a good job, resents Henry- he'd been unfaithful-dismisses all of Henrys administrators, gives positions to Italian friends - French hate this -1617 she is driven out of power
Serbian nationalist movement
This was a movement to create a Serbian state and break from Austria Hungary
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Matteotti's Murder
He was killed because he was one of the few brave enough to speak out against Mussolini and his fascist movements.
India and the Spice Islands
much wealth came from this area.
factory act 1833
no one under 9 allowed in factories, education available for workers' children, limited children's hours
Declaration of Pillnitz
the promise by Austria and Prussia to protect the French monarchy
Frederick William IV
A king and leader of Prussia who was unable to unify Germany "from above," he was replaced by William I
Dawes plan and Young plan
Two plans proposed to change Germany's payment of repudiations.
9. English Bill of Rights
re-statement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William in March 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It lays down limits on the powers of sovereign and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement to regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution.
Mary Queen of Scots
mother of James I; Catholic queen of Scotland; perceived as threat to English throne by E1, who had her executed
Henry IV of France
This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes
Migration: Who went where, and why? (demographics)
1/3 of European migrants came from British Isles; less that ½ went to the US; most often a small peasant landowner/village craftsman; left because they were threatened by industrialization; many returned to their homelands
27. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of natural right, the rights of man are universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself.
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