AP Euro first semester final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Boccaccio
The Decameron
henry IV
...
louis 14
sun king
Richelieu
Louis XIII's chief advisor
Ciompi Revolt
poor vs. wealthy, Florance
Brahe
Compiled the first detailed observational data on planetary motion (mars), without a telescope.
Rabelais
France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest
John Constable
most notable romantic painter-fascinated by nature-gentle wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment, the comforting countryside of unspoiled rural England
Bourgeoisie
name for the middle class
Brezhnev
Soviet leader following Krushchev; re-Stalinized USSR, undid Krushchev's reforms; crushed Czech liberalization movement; released Brezhnev Doctrine
1688
glorious revolution william and mary
Ulrich Zwingli
Zurich, denied all sacraments, concerned with this world; social reform
The Peterloo Massacre happened in which country?
Britain
Constitutionalism
government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers
Individualism
Concern for the capability and uniqueness of the individual personality
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, formulated the most striking analysis of the explosive dynamics of the family, particularly the middle-class family in the late nineteenth century. A physician by training, Freud began his career treating mentally ill patients. He noted that the hysteria of his patients appeared to originate in bitter early-childhood experiences wherein the child had been obliged to repress string feelings. When these painful experiences were recalled and reproduced under hypnosis of through the patient's free association of ideas, the patient could be brought to understand his or her unhappiness and eventually deal with it.
Brandenburg-Prussia
the nucleus/centerpiece upon which the German nation is eventually formed, unified with Brandenburg (started the war of the Austrian succession)
progress
the enlightened idea that society should continue to grow and develop, moving forward
proletarianization
the "transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners"
Humanism
a literary and linguistic movement cultivated in particular in the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries and founded on reviving classical Latin and Greek texts, styles, and values
Nationalism
origins in the French Revolution, belief that each person has his own cultural unity growing from a common language, history, and territory.
Putting-Out System
merchant capitalist loans raw materials to cottage workers who manufacture it into a finished product and return it to the merchant for profit
zemstvo
new German institution of government; dealt with local issues; made up of 3-class sys of towns, villages, and noble landowners
Caravel
a Portuguese invented small light, the masted sailing ship which held more cargo and was more manoverable
Albert Einstein
e=mc^2, German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed
The most significant form of antediluvian socialism was the movement stirring among the working classes of France. Their spokesman came up with the idea of "social workshops." He was
Louis Blanc
Hundred Days War
napoleon's last bid for power
Niccolo Machiavelli
Statesmen and historian; wrote The Prince
Boyle
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
Union of Utrecht
Organized the seven northern, Dutch-speaking states into a Protestant union determined to oppose Spanish rule.
Holy Alliance
coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the request of Alexander I of Russia, signed in Vienna on September 26, 1815. Was to instill the Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Monarchs used this to prevent revolutionary influence (French revolution) from entering these nations. It was against democracy, revolution, and secularism.
Tariff protection
Friedrich List wanted a high protective tariff to encourage the infant industries to allow them to develop and eventually hold their own tariff against their more advanced British counterparts. It was a government's way of supporting and aiding their own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper, imported goods of another country, ex. when France responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country with high tariffs on British imports.
Proletariat
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
Francis Bacon
This man advocated the careful recording of scientific experimentation. He was not a scientist himself, but the idea that all experiments should be repeatable and thus reliable influenced all of European science. This conflicted with the Church's interests, because science could not be controlled by Rome and could seldom be explained by religious teachings. Unexplained "magical" science was easier to disprove and thus ignore than openly explained experimentation.
thermodynamics
a new branch of science that "investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy"
sans-culottes
members of the lower classes that became interested in politics and were a radical force and the source of many uprisings
economic nationalism
the belief that participating and growing an economy was a form of supporting the state
Versailles
the palace of Louis XIV, with exceptional art and architecture meant to glorify Louis
social contract
the doctrine that all political authority dervies not from divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens and their rulers
Empiricism
knowledge had to be pursued through experimental research, and present concrete evidence
Fredrick I
18th cent. compromised with nobility (junkers) by giving them control over peasants in the army. gained power.
Crystal Palace
18th/19th cent. viewed as an architectural masterpiece, made from only glass and iron, home to Britain's industrial fair.
agricultural rev first begins where...
netherlands and GB
Lateran Agreement
agreement made by Mussolini that recognized the Vatican as an independent state; gained support of the pope
Duma
Russian parliament est. in the October Manifesto
Thirty Years War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ...see print out
Civil war (1917-21)
Bolsheviks and Soviets "Reds" vs. "Whites"
who in letter on toleration advocated an established chrc with toleraton for alll except catholics and athisats
john locke
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Mary Tudor
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Enclosure movement
Their common rights were precious to the poor peasants. The rights to glean and to graze a cow on the common, to gather firewood in the lord's forest and pick berries in the marsh, were vital because they helped poor peasants retain a modicum of independence and status and avoid falling into the growing groups of landless, "proletarian" wage workers. Thus when the small landholders and the village poor could effectively oppose the enclosure of the open fields and common pasture, they did so. Moreover, in many countries they usually found allies among the larger, predominantly noble landowners, who were also wary of enclosure because it required large investments and posed risk for them as well. Only powerful social and political pressures could overcome such combined opposition. Enclosure is the idea to enclose individual share of the pastures as a way of farming more effectively. Enclosure of the open field also meant the disappearance of common land, which hurt the small landholders and village poor. Many peasants and some nobles opposed these changes. The enclosure process was slow, and enclosed and open fields existed side by side for a long time.
Natural Selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
William Laud
archbishop of Canterbury who tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches; insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission
Cardinal Richelieu
the opponent of Adolphus and chief minister of King Louis XIII of France. He was also involved in the last phase of the war by declaring war on Spain.
Hernando Cortes
the Spanish conqueror of the Aztecs and founder of New Spain
antiseptic principle
a theory proposed by Joseph Lister, that applying a disinfectant to wounds greatly reduces the chance of infection
Genevan Consistory
a governing body that oversaw Geneva and attempted to reform it to Calvinist beliefs. It concerned itself with not only secular but religious supervision.
George II
the king of England during the American Revolution
Martin Luther
a German monk who started the Protestant Reformation in 1517 by challenging the practices and doctrines of the Catholic church and advocating salvation through faith alone
consumer revolution
the rapid increase in consumption of new staples produced in the Atlantic system as well as of other items of daily life that were previously unavailable or beyond the reach of ordinary people
Supremacy Act
16th cent. established English King as head of Church of England
understanding of diseases
scientific rev. and jenner, pasture, and lister
Woman's movement
general protest for equal rights for women; grew into international feminist movement; more successful in some places than others
Otto von Bismark
German chancellor who is responsible for the unification of the German confederation into the German State; developed system of alliances throughout Europe
What did Nihilists believe in?
Believe in nothing except science
What century was the new golden age and a revival of ancient Roman culture to people like humanist Petrarch?
14th century
Napoleon's Continental System
attempt to stop British goods form reaching Europe, but failed
Avignon Papacy
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
Ferdinand II (HRE)
successor to Matthias as HRE. Arranged troops from Milan, pope, Bavaria - > bohemia and defeated Frederick v at battle of the white mountain in 1620. Frederick fled at "winter king" and lost his ancestral lands in palatine. Ferdinand got himself elected king of bohemia and took land from Protestants. Nobles -> to church and Jesuits streamed in - recatholicising bohemia.
Alexander I (Rus)
"liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world savior (holy alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Thermidorian Reaction
a reaction to the Reign of Terror where middle class professionals reasserted their authority
agricultural revolution
a period of time in Western Europe were new agricultural methods were developed.
Ignatius Loyola
the founder of the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits. They traveled throughout the world converting and popularizing Catholicism.
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
a war between Catholics and Protestants in Europe. It had four separate phases and ended in the Peace of Westphalia.
checks and balances
the idea that government should be limited and no part of it should have absolute power
Montezuma
the former king of the Aztecs, who was captured by Cortes.
Council of Trent
a general council of te Catholic chruch that met at trent between 1545 and 1563 to set Cathlic doctrine, reform chruch practices, and defend the church against the Proteestant challenge
The Peace of Augsburg
1555, recognized Lutheranism as a religion. rulers of each German territory decided between Catholicism or Lutheranism
Archduke Ferdinand and Sophie
the Austrian couple that was assasinated by a Serbian nationalist, sparking WWI
"Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!" This quote is from what work or speech?
Marx's Communist Manifesto
Women in the Renaissance
were often well read and educated, though this was discouraged by most men
Rococo art
a style of 18th century French art and interior design. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. It was largely supplanted by the neoclassic style.
Edict of Nantes
This was published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns in France. The reign of Henry VI and the Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by helping restore internal peace in France. It was a liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in one hundred and fifty fortified towns.
Napoleon Bonaparte
an emperor of France who was part of the coup that replaced him as a ruler instead of Directory. During his reign, he instituted many social reforms, but was eventually ejected from rule by foreign enemies.
Results of the Council of Trent 1545-1563
Reforms the Catholic church
Time of Troubles(Russia)
after ivan IV and his sons death it increased the pressure on the peasants to pay for his wars it led to a breakdown (the Time of Troubles, 1598-1613).
What was the name of the group that assassinated Czar Alexander II?
The People's Will
The Hundred Years' War
The 100 Years War was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings. The two primary contenders were the House of Valois, and the House of Plantagenet. The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England. The Plantagenet Kings in England, also known as the House of Anjou, had their roots in the French regions of Anjou and Normandy. French soldiers fought on both sides, with Burgundy and Aquitaine providing notable support for the Plantagenet side. This lasted from about 1337 to 1453.
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
the treaty that ended the Thirty Years War that divided Germany into separate regions, the validity of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was recognized, Sweden gained money and territories, France received Alsace, the Peace of Augsburg was upheld, and the pope was no longer allowed to participate in German religion.
War of Spanish Succession
After the death of King Charles II of Spain in 1700 passed the Spanish throne to Louis XIV's grandson, England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia united against France to preserve the European balance of power and check French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa. This conflict became known as the War of the Spanish Succession.
During he time of Marie Theresa's reign in Austria, her foreign minister and domestic minister created a series of changes to the three major compenents of the Austrian Empire to ensure the flow of taxes ad soldiers to Austria. which of the following is N
Hungary more fully incorporated into the Empire by making German the official language of Hungary, and forbidding the use of the Hungarian native language
Pilgrimage of Grace (1536)
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power
population explosion of the 18th century
a population boom brought on by increased food and new medicinal techniques
german dualism in the 18 centuy was
two gernman powers on the rise chllenging each other for supremacy and they are prussia and austria
Battle of the White Mountain (1620)
a fight between Ferdinand II and the nobility of the Bohemian Estates, ending with the victory of Ferdinand and the demise of the Estates.
Because he was only the regent for Louis XV abd nio the monarch, the Duke of Orleans had to concede power to the parlments especially the parlemet of pars. what power was this
parl;ement of paris claimwd the rright to consent to legislation and taxes.
15. When Alexander II of Russia freed the serfs and gave them half the arable land in Russia, the land ownership came with a condition. Which of the following is that condition of land ownership?
The land became part of the collective property of the local mir, a peasant village assembly, and the mir was responsible for ensuring the land was paid for by collecting money from the peasant who bought the land
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