AP Euro French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The second estate
the high court of Paris
prosperous, middle-class group, well educated
Jacobin and close associate of Robespierre; executed in April 1794 because he began questioning the extremes Robespierre went to during the Terror
urban French workers (laboring poor) "without breeches"
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
farming peasants, during their non crucial times of year were required to work on public work projects, form of taxation;Egypt/Nile; showed that they had cooperation
Marie Antoinette
Wife of Louis XVI; universally disliked by the French citizens for her extravagant fashion sense and apparent indifference to the struggles of the lower classes; executed along with her husband
Paris Commune
revolutionary municipal gov't set up in Paris, which effectively usurped the power of the Legislative Assembly
83 Departments
france became a centralized national gov't based in paris once the feudal institutions, parlements, estates, provincial law codes, and tarrif and tax bodies were replaced by them
The Directory
(1795-1799) created by the new constitution it was the first bicameral legislature in French history. It consisted of a parliament of 500 representatives, but the majority of French people wanted to be rid of them.
Civil Code
preserved most of the revolutionary gains, it created a uniform legal system, legal equality and protection of property and individuals, undid radical phase of the french revolution.
Marquis de Lafayette
French nobleman who became Washington's most trusted general. Loved liberty and had firm republican convictions, commander of the city's armed forces during the time of the Jacobins.
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and hoped to come back to the old system
"The Rights of Woman"
1791, Following official Declaration in each of its 17 articles, de Gouges applied them to women explicitly in each case
cahiers de doleances
statements of local grievances that were drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General
Charles Calonne
Called the Assembly of Notables and made a reform package with the intent of lowering the deficit
Thermidorian reaction
recalled the early days of the revolution, middle class lawyers and professionals reasserted authority. This was in response to the mass killings by Robespierre. Lead to the collapse of economic controls and inflation; a reaction to the Reign of Terror where middle class professionals reasserted their authority; the death of Robespierre on 8 Thermidor began this movement, the moderates gained control of the National Convention and wrote a new constitution in 1795
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Committee of Public Safety
Political body in France from September 1793 to July 1794; provided defense for the nation against its foreign and domestic enemies and to oversee the other parts of France's executive government
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
cahiers de doléances
each estate was instructed to compile a list of suggestions and grievances and present them to the king.
Flight to Varennes
King Louis XVI and his families attempt to escape paris; made it only to Varennes where they were arrested and put on house arrest. End of French Monarchy
Society of Thirty
consisted of members from the salons who were influenced by enlightened ideas and opposed the parlement of paris' proposal to veto by order
Jean Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
Constitutional monarchy
Form of government in which there is a written constitution that acknowledges a monarch as head of state; France's government type until 1792
Cult of the Supreme Being
introduced June, 1794; Deistic natural religion, in which the Republic was declared to recognize the existence of God and the immortality of the soul
Law of Suspects
Anyone who harms or intends to harm the revolution by thought, word or deed is prosecuted
Tennis Court Oath
The pledge that the third estate would remain assembled until a constitution had been written
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army
Hundreds of people were killed in September 1793 due to being suspected of being against the republic
What were the "September massacres"?
How was the Catholic Church affected by the early Revolution?
Spectacles redirected the people's traditional enthusiasm for the Catholic religious celebration to Republican virtue and love for a nation
What is the 3rd estate?
Written by Abbe Sieyes. Stated that third estate should have power in france. Stated nobility should be abolished.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
passed July 12, 1790 during the French Revolution, subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government
Louis XVI thought a war with Austria and Prussia would end the Revolution and restore power to the monarchy; the monarchy was abolished
What did Louis XVI and the Revolutionaries expect from the war with Austria and Prussia? What was the actual result?
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Battle that defeated Napoleon
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; did not support Parisian military; did not want Louis XVI executed because they thought he would become a martyr
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
peasants revolted against the new military draft and created a counter revolutionary appeal because they wanted the old regime.
another term for "classes" of people
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre
Jaques Neckar
Louis XVI's financial minister; fired in July 1789, which made the citizens very unhappy
National Convention
1792-1795; France was proclaimed a republic on Sept. 21, 1792; abolished the monarchy, installed republicanism, most members were Jacobins and republicans (well-educated middle class)
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
A political party that emerged in revolutionary France after the fall of the monarchy in 1792 when the jacobins split into two factions. Named for the region in southwestern France where many of their leaders were from, not as radical
Termidorian Reaction
Revolt again the Reign of terror
classic liberalism
Emphasizes freedom, democracy, and the importance of the individual.
Political re-education
The idea of overthrowing a government and replacing it with something else; main idea of nearly all revolutions
René de Maupeou
Louis XV's chancellor, appointed in 1768, who was ordered to subdue judicial opposition
Age of Rousseau
second phase of the French Revolution-Republic, execution of Louis, Committee of Public Safety, Regin of Terror, Termidorian Rebellion, Directory
First Consul
controlled the executive power of the government
Georges Danton
president of the Committee of Public Safety
Abbe Sieyes
The mose influential wirter in the third estate that wrote "What is the Third Estate?" that basically said that the nobility was grossly overprivileged and that the entire people should rule the French nation.
Refactory Clergy
French priests who refuse to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and swear a loyalty oath to the new government.
September Massacre
When the Paris Commune killed about 1200 people from the city jails because they were assumed to be counterrevolutionaries
Estates General
Assembly that met when the king said so (hadn't met for 175 years prior to the beginning of the Revolution); each of the three estates had one vote, and as a result, the responsibility of taxes was put on the Third Estate
First Estate
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
"Age of Montesquieu"
first phase of the French Revolution; constitutional monarchy.
popular sovereignty
people alone had the authority to make laws limiting an individual's freedom of action
Lettre de Cachet
letter bearing a seal ordering the imprisonment without trial of a person the letter names
Madame de Stael
ran a salon and wrote widely read books; deplored subordination of women to men that the Revolution had done to little to change
Temple of Reason
New name for the Cathedral of Notre Dame (nonchristain)
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen
The Rights of Women
written by Olympe de Gouges and followed the official declaration in each of its 17 articles, but applied it explicitly to women
"Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
(1792) pointed out two contradictions in the view of women held by such enlightenment thinkers of Rousseau; women must obey men was contrary to the beliefs of the same individuals that a system based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over the subjects or slave owners over their slaves was wrong; enlightenment based on an ideal of reason innate in all human beings, response to "Vindication on the Rights of Man"
The Regin of Terror
Peroid of time in which the guillotine was used to execute many anti-revolutionaries
It became a constitutional monarchy, which gave the people some power and rights
How did the new republic replace the monarchy?
What were three long term causes of the French Revolution?
Deep social changes in France, a long-term political crisis that eroded monarchical legitimacy and the impact of the ideas from the Enlightenment
How did Louis XV change the Sun King's system of taxing, handling the estates, and mistresses?
Louis XV's mistress was of the bourgeoisie class instead of the noble class. He decided to tax everyone regardless of social status, disbanded the existing parlement
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