Nervous System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
thick folds
cerebro-, encephalo-
Third Ventricle: Location
In Diencephalon
shallow groove of cerebrum
Third ventricle location
within thalamus
-buried deep within lateral sulcus
-forms part of floor
connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, and lie between the nervous tissue and bones
Degenerative brain disorders
alzheimer's, parkinson's, huntington's
also known as the hypophysis, comprised of anterior and posterior pituitary
regulates thirst and hunger, body temperature, sleep and wakefulness, sexual arousal, anger, fear, pain and pleasure, produces ADH oxytocin, and the releasing and inhibitory hormones that regulate the pituitary
parietal lobe
perceives sensations from skin, muscles, tendons, and joint receptors
frontal lobe
responsible for voluntary motor control, reasoning, planning, emotions, social judgement
Substantia nigra
in the midbrain, contain melanin
Dura mater
outermost meninges layer. Has periosteal and meningeal layers.
Transverse fissure
seperates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum
Cerebral tracts
myelinated fibers coursing through white matter (nerves in PNS)
small transverse gyri of the cerebellum
spaces in brain filled with CSF
What connects Third and Fourth Ventricle?
Cerebral Aqueduct
Occipital Lobe
1. Posterior and Inferior to parieto-occipital lobe
2. posterior to temporal lobe
temporal lobe
contains auditory centers to receive signals from the ears, important in memory, damage to this area may result in amnesia
part of dura matter, attached to periosteum of skull
Primary brain vessels of development
prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
Decussation pyramids
part of medulla, visible anteriorly, they are the crossover point for pyramidal tracts
Pons (structures located w/in)
middle cerebellar peduncles (superficial horizontal tracts extending to cerebellum), pneumotaxic center, pontine nuclei
Interventricular foramina
connects third ventricle to the lateral ventricles
tract connecting some of the paired structures of the limbic system
Ventricles of Brain
-four ventricles make up central cavity of brain
-filled cerebral spinal fluid CSF
-lined with ependymal cells
respiratory center
works with the two respiratory centers in the pons
corpus callosum
the band of nervous tissue that connects the two halves of the cerebrum
Arachnoid villi
part of the arachnoid mater, it protrudes superiorly into dural sinuses to return CSF to circulatory system
Superior cerebellar peduncles
part of the midbrain, visible posteriorly, horizontal tracts, extend to cerebellum
Red nucleus
In midbrain, motor pathways for limb flexion
Homeostatic imbalances of spinal cord
trauma induced paralysis, poliomyelitis, ALS
Third step of cerebellar processing
cerebellar cortex calculates coordination of the movement
Thalamus (function)
All sensory inputs pass through it before ascending to the cortex, crude recognition (pleasant or not)
Blood brain barrier
capillaries serving brain have unique structure (insures constant chem environment for brain tissue), endothelial cell connected by tight junctions, thick basal lamina, astrocytes cause endothelial cells to form and maintain tight junctions
Cerebral vascular accident
a stroke, homeostatic imbalance of brain
Parietooccipital sulcus (of cerebral hemispheres)
separates occipital from parietal
Three surface landmarks of Cerebral Hempisphere
1. Sulcus
2. Fissures
3. Gyrus
spinal nerves
comprised of 31 pairs of nerves in humans, all are mixed nerves, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Cerebral peduncles
part of the midbrain, they are visible anteriorly, vertical tracts, they include pyramidal motor tracts
Lower motor neurons
part of the descending pathways, they are cell bodies in anterior horn, fibers extend to skeletal muscles
Ridges and Grooves (gyri and sulci)
used a brain landmarks
Left hemisphere of cerebral cortex
controls comprehension of spoken & written language, speech production, math and logic
Corpora striatum (structure)
type of basal nuclei, have a striped appearance due to corona radiata
People who have left hemisphere dominance
90% of people, right handed usually
Spinal cord (location and protection)
Extends from foramen magnum to L1 or L2, protected by meninges, bone, and CSF
People with right hemisphere dominance
10% of people, tend to be left handed and male
the star-shaped (oligodendrocytes) are glial cells that have long processes and help form the blood-brain barrier.
the process of (endocytosis)acounts for the release of neurontransmitter into the synaptic cleft
Pudendal Nerve
Nerve medial to sciatic nerve
glial cells that phagocytize invading microorganisms are called ___
the difference in electrical potential in a resting neuron is called the ___
resting potential
motor neurons transmit impulses from the (peripheral) nervous system to the muscles and the glands
relay station for sensory impulses; crudely recognizes pleasant and unpleasant sensation
-Superficial cervical-dorsal scapular-suprascapular
3 Branches of Subclavian Artery
shift in nuc pulposas causing back pain
the central nervous system consists of the brain and the ___
spinal cord
motor neurons relay impulses from the CNS to the glands or the ___
the first activity in the body's response to a stimulus is called ___
Satillite cells surround the cell bodies of peripheral neurons which can be found in (the)a)peripheral centers b)ganglia c)roots d)nuclei e)a.o.t.a
b) ganglia
Gray matter:
Consists of neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated nerve fibers.
-Deep femoral artery
Branch of femoral artery supplying adductors
the place where an axon comes close to but does not join a dendrite is called a (synergism)
neurons with many dendrites and a single long axon are known as_____
multipolar neurons
Which of the following selections lists only types of glial cellsa)apocrine/exocrine cells b)microglia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells c)astrocytes/parenchymal cells d)merocrine, platlet an dependymal cells e)n.o.t.a
b)microglia,oligodendrocytes, schwann cells
Which functional subdivision is distributed by cranial nerves II and VIII receptors within the retina and inner ear and are therefore only activated and stimulated with light and sound?
SSA: special somatic afferent
The substance that envelops the white matter and is divided into three funiculi is called...
white matter
The ________ nervous system s the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls many activities along the gastrointestinal tract.
a soft, white, fatty material in the membrane of Schwann cells and certain neuroglial cells: the substance of the myelin sheath.
Ideopathic back pain
micro tears in the anulus fibrosus (fibrous tissue around the circumference of IVD)
the nervous system has two principal divisions called the central nervous system and the ___
peripheral nervous system
The grove between the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain is (the)a)lateral sulcus b)pario-accipital sulcus c)central sulcus d)longitudinal fissure e)n.o.t.a
c) central sulcus
char of unipolar
Unipolar One extension from the cell body Extension divides into 2 branches One of the branches is associated with dendritesFound:Sensory neurons (temp., touch, pain)
Which type of afferent deals with pain, touch and temperature and is distributed by spinal nerves and cranial nerve V?
general somatic afferent
The central nervous system:
excludes the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia and sensory receptors.
a nerve fiber is composed of bundles of ___
axons &/or dendrites
The visceral cortex is located in the a)temporal b)occipital c)insular d)parietal e)frontal
b) occipital lobe
what are the components of the CNS
brain, brainstem, spinal cord
an end organ or a group of end organs of sensory or afferent neurons, specialized to be sensitive to stimulating agents
Types of synapses include all of the following excepta)axosomatic b)neuroeffector junctions c)axodendritic d)axoaxonic e)all are examples
e) all are examples
what is an action potential?
also called a nerve impulse or signal.It is a Wave of electrochemical activity that allows a neuron to carry a signal over a distance.generated by the diffusion of specific ions in and out of the neuron.
-Medial and Lateral femoral circumflex arteries
First two branches of the femoral artery
Each spinal nerve is formed by the union of what?
two roots: dorsal and ventral
(neuron to neuron)how are neurotransmitters released?
When an impulse reaches the end of the Pre-synaptic neuronNeurotransmitter is released into the synapseRelease is from vesicles (packages) formed and stored at the end of the Pre-synaptic neuronStrength of the impulse that reaches the end of the AXON determines the amount of neurotransmitter releasedThe Greater the Concentration of neurotransmitter released into the synapse means;The faster it DIFFUSES across the synapse (speed)The greater the response of the Post-synaptic neuron (intensity)
What are the classifications of neuroglia?
In the PNS there are schwann cells and satellite cells/ In the CNS there are oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells
Motor responses
telencephalon:(cerebral cortex-surface of brain for sens & motor) (olfactory bulb-cntr for rception & intgration)……diencephalon (thalmus-relay for cns)(hypothalmus-automatic and endocrine)
inhibitory-inhibited by LSD-skitzophrenia mimics LSD
generally excitatory, pleasure, depression
divided by longitudinal fissure.
Right hemisphere controls left side of the body.
Left hemisphere controls right side of the body.
Peripheral N.S
all other nerves
Sympathetic nerves
speed up body processes
The Pons: breathing, facial muscles
bones of ear
ossicles (malleus,incus,stapes) amplifies stimulus
Types of neurons
sensory(afferent) neurons, motor(efferent) neurons, interneurons
Prefrontal lobe
decision making; appropriate behavior
Potassium Ions
Diffuse outward, repolarizing the membrane.
The response which occurs without conscious thought
an evolutionary trend toward a clustering of sensory neurons and interneurons at the frond end
is it possible for some neurotransmitters to be simply amino acids?
where is gray matter found?
cerebral cortex
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Neurotransmitter that crosses synapse between neuron and muscle fiber.Causes muscle contraction.
brain stem
connect parts of nervous system.regulates internal organs and processes sensory info
Main receiving portion of a neuron
The three semicircular canals are each perpendicular to the other two and are filled with a fluid called what?
dialates pupils; fight or flight response, increased heart rate, shunt blood from digestion; shuts off saliva secretion; subdues reproduction except sex
Spinal Cord
Has thirty-one segements that gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves. (31 pairs of spinal nerves originate from the spinal cord).
Medulla Oblongata
contains reflex centers for repiration and blood circulation.
When does neural tube formation(neurulation) occur?
Embryonic weeks 3-4
Neural groove
A longitudinal midline depression in the neural plate. It progressively deepens to form neural canal.
Volatage Changes in Neurons
-70mV is resting potential
Depolarization: causes voltage to reach threshold
Then a fast spike occurs to acction potential
Then falls back to resting potential
motor neurons
convey signals from interneurons to effector cells
type of synapse in the heart?
electrical synapses
does the somatic nerous system control the lifting of a finger?
dorsal vs ventral
dorsal(back) ventral(chest)
name given to the telencephalon in mammals.
presynaptic cell
neuron whose axon transmit action potentials to synapses
What animals have the simplest nervous system?
Pia mater
thinnest layer; wrapped closely around the brain
What is this known as?
Rest and digest
What do the photoreceptor cells synapse onto?
Bipolar cells
What does it do?
It absorbs one wavelength
Two parts of Peripheral N.S
somatic and autonomic
efffector cells
something moves by nervous sytem (muscles and glands)
The Sympathetic Divison
Responds to stressful and emergency conditions.
Neural folds
The elevated lateral edges of the neural plate.
Deepening of the neural groove plus growth of the neural plate cause the neural folds to rotate dorsalward around the hinge-like axis of the neural groove.
The Cortex Brain
Center for conscious thought and logic
Reading, listening, speaking, action, planning
Experience of our senses
Multiple sclerosis
a disease which breaks down myelin sheaths and causes a decrease in nerve signal conduction
what is the deterioration of the myelin sheath called?
multiple schlerosis
Peripheral Nervous system
consists of nerves and ganglia…also share sensory and motor nerves with CNS
telencephalon("end brain")
element of the forebrain, devoted to associative activity.
dura matter
outer most layer made of connective tissue and contains many nerves and blood vessels
Central Nervous System
the brain and the spinal cord
What is a typical resting membrane potential?
-70 millivolts
What is that?
It has specialized sensory cells called hair cells
What happens to the voltage-gated Na+ channels then?
They close
Reticular activating system
gets rid of irrelevant information; controls part of brain that puts you to sleep when there's no relevant information; arousal
are used to detect objects in very dim light conditions
Spinal Segment
The portion of the spinal cord that gives rise to each paired set of spinal rootlets/roots/nerves
Regions of the Cerebral Cortex
Frontal: speech, associations and reasoning, motor cortex
Temporal: hearing
Occipital: reading, vision
Parietal: speech, somatosensory cortex
nodes of ranvier
gaps in between segments of mylein sheaths
The ______ _____ is the thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the body
Spinal Cord
reticular formation
are the nuclei in pons and medulla which controls consciousness, alertness, sleep and waking states.
cell body
the rounded end of the neuron that contains organelles
What can each hemisphere be divided into?
Four different lobes
What are afferent neurons?
They are neurons that carry information about the eternal or internal environment to the brain or spinal cord
What is the action potential described as?
An all-or-none response
The Choroid Plexuses
In the wall of the ventricles secrete cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the fluid that occupies the Subarachnoid cavity and the central lumen?
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
where are most of the organelles in a neuron located?
cell body
what does the eye detect
energy in the form of photon
The _____ half controls movement on the left side of the body is associated with ____________ and ______ ability
right, creativity, and artist
pns? peripheral nervous system
everything that comes off of spinal cord and brain
From where do cranial nerves exit?
They exit from the brainstem
Together, what do the midbrain, pons, and the medulla constitute?
They constitute the brainstem
What is the ANS comprised of?
Two subdivisions called the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
What do oligodendrocytes do?
They produce myelin in the central nervous system
What does this do?
It stimulates the quadriceps muscle to contract
What is this called?
It is known as an uptake carrier
What does this imply?
It means that whenever the threshold membrane potential is reached, an action potential with a consistent size and duration is produced
Relationship between disk herniation and the nerve they affect:
Disk herniations tend to affect the next nerve down the chain.(for about C5 and lower)
For example, c5 herniation affects C6 nerve.
what is the function of the nervous system?
relays messages, processes information, and analyzes information
Consists of a network of nerves that branch out from the ____ ____ ____ and connects it to the rest of the body, and it is involved in both involuntary and voluntary actions
The Central Nervous System
What does increased brain size reflects in mammals?
The relatively great enlargement of the cerebrum.
What is the function of neurons?
They are specialized to receive signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons in the body and transfer this information along the length of the axon
What are ANS pathways characterized by?
They are characterized by a two-neuron system
Why are they there?
They are there to tell the brain where the limbs are in space
Why is the resting potential created?
Because the neuron is selectively permeable to K+
What is the ear responsible for?
It is responsible or maintaining equilibrium balance in the body
Its a shiny greenish or blue layer which covers pary of the choroid. It reflects light and causes the eye of some animals to "shine" at night animals that have this layer can see better at night than a human. Humans do not have this layer.
Gray matter of the spinal cord
§  The H-shaped inner core of tissue, composed largely of nerve cell bodies
·         Dorsal (posterior) horn: Houses mainly cell bodies of interneurons that receive input from afferent neurons and/or other interneurons
·         Ventral (anterior) horn: Houses mainly cell bodies of spinal motor neurons
·         Lateral (intermediolateral) horn:o   Houses cell bodies of preganglionic autonomic neuronso   Restricted to cord levels T1-L2/3 & S2-4
what does the central nervous system consist of?
the brain and the spinal cord
What is the job of a dendrite?
Carrying impulses toward the neuron's cell body.
What encloses and protects the spinal cord?
The vertebral column and meninges (system of membranes)
What do the cones and rods contain?
They contain three different pigments to absorb red, green, and blue wavelengths
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
It acts to conserve energy and restore the body to resting activity levels following exertion
What is a major component of the telencephalon?
It is the cerebral cortex
What is the midbrain?
It is a relay center for visual and auditory impulses
What is this period of time called?
It is called the refractory period
What is this difference maintained by?
It is maintained by the Na+/K+ pump
What are ANS pathways characterized by?
They are characterized by a two-neuron system
During a Lumbar Puncture/Spinal Tap, what is being punctured?
The Dura mater and Arachnoid are being penetrated to reach the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) located in the subarachnoid space.
what makes AP in the axon faster
heavier mylein sheath, or wider axon, more/longer gaps of nodes
What are the regions of the cerebral cortex?
Primary motor cortex: movement and controlPrimary somatosensory conrtex: sensory controlAssociation cortex: higher mental functions
What is at the base of each canal?
A chamber with sensory hair cells
How does the eye circulation system work?
It has its own circulation system. Near the base of the iris, the eye secretes aqueous humor, which travels to the anterior chamber of the eye from which it exits and eventually joins venous blood
What are the divisions of the PNS?
It has two primary divisions, the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What does this imply the ANS is an important controller for?
It controls blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility, excretory processes, respiration, and reproductive processes
What is the eyeball covered by?
A thick, opaque layer known as the sclera, which is also known as the white of the eye
What are the divisions of the PNS?
It has two primary divisions, the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What does the iris respond to?
It responds to the intensity of light in the surroundings
What is a classic example of this?
A classic example of the knee-jerk reflex
What are some associated dangers with spinal taps?
Can have problems if there are any significant changes in CSF pressure.
How is the nervous system of cnidarians arranged?
Neurons are linked together by a nerve net. It has no associative activity.
What is the diameter of the pupil controlled by?
It is controlled by the pigmented, muscular iris
What is it called when the neuron is at rest, and there is a potential difference between the extracellular space and the intracellular space?
It is called the resting potential
What happens with Na+ at the axon hillock?
Na+ rushes into the neuron and diffusers to adjacent parts of the axon
What do ion channels located in the nerve cell membrane do in response to these changes in voltage?
They open in response to the changes
what is the purpose of the myelin sheath?
to speed up the conduction of nerve signals
Where are the cell bodies of these sensory neurons located?
They are located in the dorsal root ganglia
What is the axon terminal of the first neuron known as?
It is known as the presynaptic neuron
What is a function of the pons?
It is to act as a relay center to allow the cortex to communicate with the cerebellum
What does this do to the cell potential?
It returns the cell to a more negative potential
cuada equina
horses tail

Premotor Perseveration


Prefrontal Perseveration
Premotor Perseveration
Compulsive repetition of the same movement

"Mmmmmargret" example Kathy gave

Prefrontal Perseveration
Compulsive repetition of same task
Eg. Brushing teeth. Terminating. Go to wash face but instead begin brushing teeth again

Axons connecting subcortical structures with cerebral cortex (ie Cortico-spinal tract)
Form the ascending and descending tracts
Tertiary Association Area
Tertiary Association Area
Location: Inferior PARIETAL lobe

Function: Complex functions that REQUIRE INTEGRATION of P,T,O

Dysfunction: APRAXIA
- Motor
- Ideational
- Constructional
*Inability to construct 3-D designs
-Dressing apraxia

- Figure-ground deficits
- Spatial positioning, position in space...
- Unilateral spacial neglect
- Body scheme disorders
- Somatoagnosia
* can't recognize body part as own
* typically w/ sever hemiparesis
- L/R discrimination

- Wernicke's/receptive aphasia
- Agraphia
* Difficulty writing
- Alexia
* Reading
- Acalcula
afferent (touch, pain, pharynx) efferent too.
Diencephalon - Subthalamus
Controls motor functions
Enlarged foramen spinosum and increased meningeal vascular markings are indicators of :
Accomplished by the hippocampus and surrounding structures
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the 3rd ventricle.
huntington's disease
inherited disease characterized by chorea (involuntary, purposeless movements), progresses to severe dementia and death, ages 30-40 shows up, death around 55, gene causes body to make huntington protien incorrectly
Primary Auditory Cortex
Primary Auditory Cortex
Temporal Lobe
Location: Superior temporal gyrus
Function: Reception of auditory information
Dysfunction: Decreased hearing acuity in both ears
-Greater loss to contralateral side
subthalamus aids in control of?
body movements
afferent (sensory), smell; nose. Test= identify odors.
is division of labor between hemispheres
Huntington’s Disease
Hereditary disorder leading to degeneration of the basal nuclei and the cerebral cortex.
How do nonglial neoplasms grow?
Through expansion
White matter consists of:
myelinated nerve bundles
Parieto-occipital sulcus
Separates the parietal and occipital lobes.
cerebral palsy
permanent, crippling damage to motor control areas of the brain; damage is present at birth or occurs shortly after and remains throughout life. causes: prenatal infections or diseases of the mother; mechanical trauma to the head before, during or after birth; nerve-damaging poisons; and reduced oxygen supply to the brain
projection tracts
Run vertically; convey sensory and motor information
Blood Supply to Brain

2 Internal Carotid Arteries

+     2 Vertebral Arteries

4 Total arteries supplying brain
Primary Sensory Area
______ Lobe
Primary Sensory Area
Parietal Lobe
Location: Post central gyrus
Function:     Detection of touch,
Conscious proprioception
Kinesthesia (Movement sense)
Dysfunction: Lack of sensation to contralateral side
the thorasic vertebrae have how many disks?
Cephalization is
the evolutionary development of the rostral (anterior) portion of the CNS, has increased number of neurons in the head and the highest level is reached in the human brain
Chronic inability to fall asleep or remain asleep for an adequate length of time.
Telencephalon (endbrain)
Anterior subdivision of the primary forebrain that develops into olfactory lobes, cerebral cortex, and basal nuclei.
Motor Area
Functional areas in the cerebral cortex that control voluntary motor functions.
Diencephalon - Hypothalamus
Maintains Homeostasis, controls BP, HR, Temp, Water, electrolyte regulation, hunger, body weight, sexual development, pituatary gland, movement of intestines
Name that disease. Impaired nerve conduction may result in double vision, involutary rapid movement of the eye, loss of balance, poor coordination, shaking tremor, muscular weakness, speaking difficulty and bladder dysfunction.
Multiple sclerosis
The ________skull position may be useful in evaluating internal auditory canals, mastoid aircells and foramen spinosum for size and shape.
Sub-mento vertex
the middle part of the diencephalon through which sensory impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex.
Spinal cord trauma: Paraplegia
Transection between T1 and L1
Basal Nuclei
Masses of gray matter found deep within the cortical white matter.
dorsal nerve root
carries sensory info TO spinal cord
Left Brain Damage
Left brain damage
Right sided paralysis and or sensory loss
Speech and language deficits
Slow, cautious behavior
Memory deficits
Helpful hints: Show these individuals how to do something, do not use language. .. Best to give commands and limit language.
the cranial meninges are continuous with ?
the spinal meninges
anterior gray horns
impulses for concentration of skeletal muscles
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
-located in the postcentral gyri -recieves info from skin, skeletal muscles and joints. also capable of spatial discrimination:indentification of body region being stimulated
Pyramidal (corticospinal) Tracts
Major motor pathways concerned with voluntary movement; descend from cells in the frontal lobes of each cerebral hemisphere.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Plasma-like fluid that fills the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally; protects the brain and spinal cord.
Region of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons.
Four Lobes of the Brain
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
What are symptoms of cerebral echinococcosis?
Headaches, paralysis, vertigo
That artery which connects the anterior cerebral arteries – allowing formation of the Circle of Willis, is:
Anterior communicating artery
mid brain
the middle of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue; mesencephalon.
circulation of CSF
fluid is formed and then circulates around brain and spinal cord; fluid is absorbed back into venous blood via arachnoid vili
ACA Occlusion- Location of Damage
ACA Occlusion- Location of Damage

Medial and Superior
the what connects the two lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
the interventricular forament
the parietal lobe is for?
general sensory input and interpretation
An injury in which the skin is not broken, often characterized by ruptured blood vessels and discolorations; a bruise.
Primary Visual Cortex
The largest of all cortical sensory areas and receives visual information that originates on the retina of the eye.
What is the function of the thalamus?
integrates sensory stimuli
Tumors of the central nerve sheath cells are most commonly located where?
8th cranial nerve
Other causes of Cortical Dysfunction

Lack of O2 to brain


Cerebral palsy
Inflammatory disease

Toxic and metabolic diseases
West Nile

Brain Tumors
Astrocytoma: Most common
Glioblastoma: Aggressive
Metastatic: Originated elsewhere

benign tumors can grow and cause damage that way even if they aren't spreading

Brain Atrophy
the gray commissure contains what?
the central canal, anterior gray horns, posterior gray horns, lateral gray horns.
- signals from propiroceptors and visual and equilibrium pathways continuously "inform" the cerebellum of the bodys position and momentum- cerebellum recieves impulses from the CEREBRAL CORTEX of the intent TO INITIATE VOLUNTARY MUSCLE CONTRACTION and the cerebellar cortex calculates THE BEST WAY TO SMOOTHLEY COORDINATE A MUSCLE CONTRACTION.- A BLUEPRINT FO COORDINATED MOVEMENTS IS SENT TO THE CEREBRAL MOTOR CORTEX AND TO BRAIN STEM NUCLEI.
- sends impulses to the CEREBRAL CORTEX to keep it conscious and alert, filters out weak and repetitive stimuli, and severe injury results is permanent unconscousness (coma)- RAS's motor funtion helps control COARSE LIMB MOVEMENTS and the reticular autonomic centers reguale visceral motor funtion such as VASOMOTOR, CARDIAC, AND RESPIRATORY CENTERS.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
A temporary blockage of the blood supply to the brain caused by a blood clot and usually lasting ten minutes or less, during which dizziness, blurring of vision, numbness on one side of the body, and other symptoms of a stroke may occur.
Where is CSF produced?
Within the choroid plexis located in the right and left lateral ventricles
spinal nerve
any of a series of paired nerves that originate in the nerve roots of the spinal cord and emerge from the vertebrae on both sides of the spinal column, each branching out to innervate a specific region of the neck, trunk, or limbs.
what is the deep groove of the spinal anatomy?
anterior median fissure
List the three tumors of central nerve sheath cells.
Acoustic neurilemoma, acoustic neuroma, Schwannoma
3 ANTERIOR DIALATIONS prosencephalon mesencephalon rhombencephalon5 SECONDARY mesencephalon remains undivided rhombencephalon divides into: metencephalon (afterbrain) myelencephalon (brain most like spinal cord)
dura mater of spinal meninges
forms a sac in continuation with dura mater of brain from foramen to S2
Cortical atrophy visualized in CT indicates:
Parkinson's, also a normal sign of aging
Diencephalon and its three paired structures:
Central core of the forebrain. THree structures are: thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
the cerebellum is made up of what?
left lateral lobe, vermis, and right lateral lobe
name the three layers of the spinal nerves
the endoneurium, the oerinuerium, and the epineurium
the midbrain.
inner covering
three distinct layers



Frontal Lobe
Location: Anterior to Primary Motor Cortex
Function:   Coordinates movement
Control of gross or postural movements
Develops programs for motor routines for
skilled voluntary actions

Apraxia: (Motor coordination dysfunction)
Disorder of skilled, purposeful movement
Not caused by deficits in primary motor cortex or comprehension problems
Motor Apraxia:
Loss of kinesthetic memory patterns so that PURPOSEFUL MOVEMENT CANNOT BE ACHIEVED 

Premotor Perseveration:
Compulsive repetition of the same movement
"Mmmmmargret" example Kathy gave
Motor Apraxia & Premotor Perseveration often comorbid due to anatomical proximity
DYSpraxia= haven't developed a skill
Apraxia= loss of skill
___________ evaluates chemical processes within the brain.
3 primary brain vesicles
prosencephalon (forebrain)mesencephalon (midbrain)rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Limbic System
Emotional brain”Involved in motivation, emotion and memory
commissural tracts
Connect hemispheres (Corpus callosum)
Autonomic System
Provides bidirectional communication BTW BRAIN & smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, gland cells
2 Divisions:

Fight or flight
Response to stimulus

Concerned with VEGETATIVE functions
Digestion, glands....
Components of Prefrontal Cortex
efferent (motor) Eyeball; Test= upward, downward, medial gaze, reaction to light.
Diencephalon - Epithalamus
Functions are unclear.
That pathologic condition which frequently results from the migration of pyogenic bacteria from middle ear or mastoid air cells to cerebral anatomy is called:
The process that develops the head
Deep grooves of the cerebral hemisphere.
parkinson's disease
neurons from substania nigra degenerate and do not produce normal amounts of dopamine; without dopamine, cerebral nuclei produce excess voluntary movement
Sensory interpretation of textures and shapes, understanding speech
Circle of Willis
2 Internal Carotid Arteries
2 Anterior Cerebral Arteries (ACA)
2 Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA)
2 Posterior Communicating Arteries
1 Anterior Communicating Artery
9 Total Arteries = Circle of Willis 
facicles are bound together by?  
the epinuerium
efferent (motor) eyeball Test= lateral gaze
Purkinje Cells
A large, drop-shaped, densely branching neuron that is the characteristic cell of the cerebellar cortex.
Connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres, enabling them to function as a coordinated whole.
True or false. Contrast currently being used for myelography, starts to be absorbed by the body within 20 – 30 minutes.
Infection of brain parenchyma (usually viral) occurs with:
Motor area of cerebral cortex
Controls voluntary movement
Three principles of memory:
Storage, processing, memory traces.
Central Nervous System - composed of the brain and spinal cord
alzheimers disease
affects memory, lesions develope in cortex during middle to late adult years
Pineal (body) gland
Secretes melatonin to regulate circadian rhythms
Ischemic Stroke
Ischemia (BLOCKS)
- 80% of all strokes
- Damage is result of BLOCKAGE of blood (O2, nutrients, waste removal) supply to brain
Vessel that supplies blood gets OBSTRUCTED (Carotid)
Foreign thing (clot) traveling in blood supply causes blockage
("Thrombosis=There" ie originates in brain)
the cerebrum is seperated into 4 lobes, name em!
the cervicle vertebrae have how many disks?
4 Adult Brain Regions
- Cerebral Hemispheres- Diencephalon(thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus) contains 3rd ventricle-Brain stem(midbrain, pons, medulla)- Cerebellum (the "little brain")
Lateral Ventricles
Large C-shaped chambers that reflect the pattern of cerebral growth.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Graphic record of the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain.
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Caudal portion of the developing brain; constricts to form the metencephalon and myelencephalon; includes the pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord.
Complete paralysis of the lower half of the body including both legs, usually caused by damage to the spinal cord.
What type of neoplasm originates in the arachnoid space?
PET imaging shows areas of decreased glucose metabolism with:
The nerves travelling beyond the spinal cord ending at L1-L3 are referred to as ________.
Cauda equina
_______ bring information to the cell body.
The brainstem houses the:
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Half of primary brain tumors are _________.
pertaining to that part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that arise from the cranial and sacral regions and function in opposition to the sympathetic system, as in inhibiting heartbeat or contracting the pupil of the eye.
The precentral and postcentral gyri
Border the central sulcus
Projection fibers
Enter the hemispheres from lower brain or cord centers
3 types of cerebral white matter
-association tracts-commissural tracts-projection tracts
Flow of Information by Lobe
(This makes sense because motor PLANNING must occur PRIOR to movement)

Parietal, Temporal, Occipital:

*Primary areas = symmetrical in both hemi's*

*Secondary areas= tend to be adjacent to their 1° areas*
the third ventricle is inferior to the?
corpus callosum
lateral gray horns
regulates activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands too!
auditory association cortex
located posterior to the primary auditory cortex and it stores memories of sounds and permits the perception of sounds
Cerebral Aqueduct

The slender cavity of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles.
Pyramidal Cell
Large neurons located in gyri that allow for conscious control of the precise or skilled voluntary movements that occur within our skeletal muscles.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid
Fluid in which the meninges float
The imaging modality of choice in the event of a prolapsed disk is:
______ account for half of all gliomas.
Malignant glioblastomas
This type of head trauma is reversible interference with brain function.
hippo campus
an enfolding of cerebral cortex into the lateral fissure of a cerebral hemisphere, having the shape in cross section of a sea horse.
formation of CSF
forms by seperation of fluid from blood in the choroid plexuses, a network of capillaries that project from pia mater into the four ventricles
Basilar Artery terminates by bifurcating into ________
Basilar Artery terminates by bifurcating into POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERIES (PCA)
the medulla oblongata does what?
regulates heart rate,
regulates respiratory rate,
swallow, cough.... 
Choroid Plexus

A capillary knot that protrudes into a brain ventricle; involved in forming cerebrospinal fluid.
Spatial Discrimination
The ability of neurons to identify the site or pattern of stimulation.
Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA)
Condition in which brain tissue is deprived of a blood supply, as in blockage of a cerebral blood vessel; a stroke.
________ is a neoplasm that is usually benign and affects hormone production.
Pituitary adenoma
The spinal cord terminates at:
L1-L3 at the conus medullaris
nervous system
the system of nerves and nerve centers in an animal or human, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia.
Gross anatomy of Cerebral Hemisphere

Lobes (From largest to smallest, superficial to deep)
Longitudinal F
Central S
Lateral S
Parietooccipital S
what is the shallow groove of the spinal anatomy?
posterior median sulcus
located on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe, most is buried in the calcarine sulcus and its job is to recieve info from the retina
A sensation, as of a cold breeze or a bright light that precedes the onset of certain disorders, such as an epileptic seizure or an attack of migraine.
What types of tumors are classified as extramedullary?
Meningiomas and neurofibromas
spinal cord is composed of ______(to brain) and _______(from brain) tracts. in the ___, bundles of nerve fibers are called _____ rather than _____
ascending, descending, CNS, tracts, nerves
Starting from that closest to the spinal cord, list the meninges layers.
Pia mater, subarachnoid, dura mater
spinal cord is __ inches long, ________________________
18, tapers slightly at posterior end
Spinal chord consists of....1Brain consists of ......2
1. a central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core and an external white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts.2. has a similar pattern to spinal chord but with additional areas of gray matter, NUCLEI IN THE CEREBELLUM AND CEREBRUM, AND CORTEX OF CEREBELLUM AND CEREBRUM
What are the functions of neuroglia or glial cells?
-provide physical and nutritional support for neurons
–clean up brain "debris"
–transport nutrients to neurons
–hold neurons in place
–digest parts of dead neurons
–regulate content of extracellular space
–Insulate neural cells
Three types of functional areas of the cerebral cortex:
Motor areas, sensory areas, and association areas.
the 4th ventricle of the brain is where?
small triangular chamber between pons and cerebellum
the spinal meninges have 5 layers, what are they?
the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, subdural space, and the pia mater
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