Nervous System 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Protective membrane.
intercellular junctions
increases visual activity.
white matter
myelinated axons
(Outer layer)
Pia mater
Leptomeninge("thin membranes")
The delicate membrane that forms the deep layer of meninges.
Lines the exterior surface of the CNS and spinal nerve rootlets and roots.
Fuses with epineurium at the intervetebral foramina.

Dentate(denticulate) ligaments: Lateral tooth-like extensions of pia that attach to the dura between the segmented nerve roots.

Filum terminale internum: Terminal strand continuation of pia beyond the conus medullaris. Forms the core of the cauda equina. Finally fuses with the filum terminale externum.
gray matter
neurons cell bodies
neuroglia in the CNS
ependymal cells
Coordination of skeletal muscel movement and the maintenance of equilibrium.
Two almond shaped neural clusters
Emotions and emotional memory
controls hunger, thrist, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
cells that produce myleins sheaths(that surround axon)….Oligodentrocytes produces mylien of CNS…..Schwann cells produce mylein of PNS)
provide insulation around axons; called myelin sheets
does everything opposite of sympathetic; sense of relief
development of forebrain; vast majority of brain; outside layer-cerebral cortex; mammals have six sheets of layers on cortex called neo cortex
nodes of Ranvier
gaps b/w Schwann cells
Elements of the forebrain
diencephalon, telencephalon("end brain")
Motor Function
Provides movement. Sends nerve impulses to other body regions by using effectors
Intergrative Function
Signals are brought together. creates:sensations, memories, thoughts, and perception
What then?
They synapse onto ganglion cells
In chemical synapses, the nerve terminal contains thousands of membrane-bound vesicles full of chemical messengers known as what?
three parts to hindbrain
medulla; pons; cerebellum
A Neuron
Is facilitated when it receives subthreshold stimuli and becomes more excitable.
Midbrain functions
coordinates reflex responses to sight and sounnds.
Carry impulses from the central nervous system and out to all the muscles in the body. Impulses carried by motor neurons cause the muscles to contract. Impulses caused by motor neurons may cause the body to move because many muscles are attatched to bone.
Dorsal/Ventral Primary Rami
·         Each spinal nerve will immediately divide into its branches.  A branch is a ramus & since it is the first brance, will be called a primary ramus
Reticular formation
Center for controlling arousal and sleep
System of eneurons distrubuted throught the core of the brainstem that filters sensory input
Schwann cells
supporting cells located in the peripheral nervous system
a chemical substance (such as DOPAMINE or ACFETYLCHOLINEA) that transmits nerve signals across a synapse
receives and relays messages from the sense organs
photorecpetor in retina used for low intensity and darkness
part of the limbic system, almond shaped located deep within the temporal lobes, has roles in the processing and memory of emotional reactions
which basic division became a dominant feature in the evolutionary ladder?
preganglionic neuron
neuron of the sympathetic and parasympathetic division efferent motor pathway. It has its cell body in the CNS and sends an axon to an autonomic ganglion. It releases ACh at its synapses.
sensory receptors
nerve cells that pick up information.gather information by detecting charges inside and outside of body.
Located within the CNs between motor and sensory neurons.
What does it do?
It absorbs one wavelength
The three semicircular canals are each perpendicular to the other two and are filled with a fluid called what?
blood brain barrier
prevents direct contact between capillaries and brain. In order for neurons in brain to function properly, can't have things in blood.
parts of the forebrain
cerebrum, olefactory lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus
Cauda Equina
Formed be dorsal and ventral roots seperated from the end of the spinal cord.
Roots still exit from their respective intervetebral formamina
effector cells
muscle cells or gland cells which perform the body's responses
any factor that causes a nerve signal to be generated
a single long extension from cell body that sends signals…starts at cell body ends at synaptic terminals
Drug that binds to a specific receptor in the postsynaptic neurons of the brain
Which are the simplest animals with associative activity?
flatworms (platyhelminthes)
Central Nervous System
Consists of brain and spinal cord.
Processes all of the information from the rest of the nerves in the body.
Sends messages & governs actions.
What is the action potential described as?
An all-or-none response
What do proprioceptors transmit?
They transmit information regarding the position of the body in space
What happens to the voltage-gated Na+ channels then?
They close
What does it do?
It inactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
corpus callosum
brain is divided into two hemipsheres and is connected by this.
A hole within the dark-colored circular structure (the iris) it is between the cornea and the lens. It allows light to enter the eyeball
Cranial and Caudal Neuropores
Temporary open connections between the central canal and the amniotic cavity at the cranial and caudal ends of the neural tube.
Dorsal (posterior) median sulcus:
Component of spinal cord.
  A shallow, longitudinal groove along the dorsal midline
what is the outer layer of the cerebrum called?
cerebral cortex
What is a neuron?
A cell that carries information through your nervous system
What type of reflex is the knee-jerk reflex?
monosynaptic reflex
cerebral hemispheres
half of the cerebrum left and right hemi.
What occurs in polysynaptic reflexes?
In polysynaptic reflexes, sensory neurons synapse with more than one neuron
What are the vast majority of synapses called in the human?
Chemical synapses
What are nerves?
They are essentially bundles of axons covered with connective tissue
Long term memory
becomes permanent; seems to have no limit; continue to review stm memory until it goes to ltm.
a dark pigmented layer against the inner side of the sclera, it contains the blood vessles that supply nutrients to the eyeball
Which of the Three Brains is Most Powerful
The Reptilian brian!
difference between afferent and efferent neurons
afferent carry sensory, and efferent carry motor
what is the CNS made up of
brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system
Part of the PNS, somatic motor neurons stimulate the skeletan muscle to contract, in response to conscious command or reflex actions.
What are the four lobes?
They are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
What does the cortex do?
It processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses and is important for memory and creative thought
What is the lens?
It focuses the image onto the retina
What does it function as?
It functions to interpret sensory information, form motor plans, and it also functions in cognitive function
What are neurons?
They are the functional units of the nervous system
What does it function as?
It functions to interpret sensory information, form motor plans, and it also functions in cognitive function
What is this process known as?
It is known as repolarization
Concentration of Potassium and Sodium in Neurons
Potassium is concentrated inside the cell
Sodium is concentrated outside the cell
Chlorine is coenctrated outside the cell as well
what is the structure of a brain (colors)
outer-gray cell bodies……inner white (myelinated axons)
Similarities of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions?
In both, the efferent motor pathway involves two neurons: preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron.
What do Schwann cells produce?
They produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system
What is a classic example of this?
It is the withdrawal reflex
What is the synapse?
It is the gap between the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell
What are examples?
It acts to lower hart rate and to increase gut motility
What are efferent neurons?
They carry commands from the brain or spinal cord to various parts of the body such as muscles or glands
is the "white" of the eye. It protects the inner part of the eye and serves as a surface for the attatchment of muscles.
Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Cells and Neurotransmitting
At the terminal of the presynaptic neuronm neurotransmitters are put into synaptic vessciles
Action potential depolarizes plasma membrane, opens channels and allows Ca+2 to diffuse into terminal
Rise of Ca+2 concentration causes synaptic vessicles to fuse with terminal membrane
Neurotransmitters bind to postsynatpic channels and allows potassium and sodium in which changes the resting potential
what are the parts of a neuron
axons (surrounded by myelin sheath), dendrites, cell body (soma)
cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
Considered the blood of the CNS, it is isolated from bloodstream (immune privileged), and it is located in the brain ventricles.
motor neurons aka efferent(to)
goes to your body from the brain and spinal cord
Where does light continue from there?
It continues through the lends, which is suspended behind the pupil
What is this period of time called?
It is called the refractory period
What is myelin produced by?
It is produced by cells known as glial cells
What does the eye do?
It detects light energy as photons and transmits information about intensity, color, and shape to the brain
What do the rays then do?
Then they travel through an opening called the pupil
What does the neurotransmitter diffuse across?
It diffuses across the synapse and acts on receptor proteins embedded in postsynaptic membrane
Spina bifida cystica (and the 3 categories)
chaacterized by fluid filled sac that pertrudes.

Meningocele: spinal cord remains in place. Defect in dorsal midline. Enlarged subarachnoid space. May or may not have neurologic effects. Dura/arachnoid become incorporated in skin.

Meninggomyelocele: Displacement of spinal cord. There will be neurological defects.
Myelocele: Most severe. Incomplete neural tube. Spinal cord is open and form at the wall of the cyst. (right under surface of skin)
what is the function of the myelin sheth?
insulating membrane and speeds up nerve impulses
how many # and % of neurotransmitters make it across synaps
thoursands …not all (can either diffuse out or by enzyme)
facilitation (actions of a neuron pool)
impulses come in and excite the neuron pool but no impulses go out
What regions do sound waves pass through?
They pass through the outer ear, which consists of the auricle (pinna) and the auditory canal
What does this imply the ANS is an important controller for?
It controls blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility, excretory processes, respiration, and reproductive processes
What are the dendrites of another neuron known as?
They are known as the postsynaptic neuron
how exactly does AP change the Na K gradient
causes depolrization(Na in leads to more + charge inside)….K channels respond by allowing K to move out which causes and super - charge…latter back to normal - charge
What is interwoven around the taste buds?
A network of nerve fibers that are stimulated by the taste buds
What does rotation of the head do?
It displaces endolymph in one of the canals, putting pressure on the hair cells in it
What type of effect can the neurotransmitter have on the receptor?
It depends on the receptor, but it could be an excitatory or an inhibitory effect on the postsynaptic cell
Travels along sensory neurons to the spinal cord up the spinal cord to the brain via interneurons for interpretation.
How many regions is the spinal ford divided into?
In the direction of the brainstem to the tail, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
What does vibration of the ossicles do?
It exerts pressure on the fluid in the cochlea, stimulating the hair cells to transducer the pressure into action potentials
difference between Action potential and resting potential when it comes to Na/K concentration
at RP, the Na is out and K is in via Na-K pump (that actively transports 2 Na out and 2 K in)….AP makes them want to diffuse away from concnetration (Na moving in. K moving out
What does this do to the net charge inside the neuron?
It causes a net negative charge to exist inside
process of
Pterygopalatine ganglion
spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
motor output
the response
Norepinephrine release?
Chromaffin cells
cytoplasm of axon
sticky substance (root word)
sensory portion of SN
tarsal plate
dense connective tissue
muscle or nerve fiber
Inflammation of the meninges.
-esthesia (2)
sensation / perception (suffix)
Impulse conduction
a.  unmyelinated fiber
b.  myelinated fiber
*creates feeling of euphoria
*Affects norepinephrine
position of joints and muscles
provides connection between medulla and cerebelum
branching or resembling a tree
Parasympathetic nervous system
"rest and digest"
treatment of hemivertebrae
decompression and stabilization
Inhibitory inputs cause __________ by making the cell more negative?
Chemicals released from neurons that stimulate other neurons
Cerebral Hemisphere
Make up most of brain
Active Transport
the sodium potassium pump works 
constantly to move
sodium out of the cell
and potassium into the cell
slowly progressive decline in mental abilities
Membrane Potential
Voltage across the plasma membrane.
Paralysis on half of the body.
Voluntary all effectors are skeletal muscles
Neuron cell body contains the ________, cell bodies are in the ____ or in the trunk and are protected by bone.
regions of the brain
cerebrum, diencephalon (thalamus,hypothalamus), mesencephalon, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
help to maintain concentrations of vital ions in the fluid around the neurons, protect neurons, and provide insulation that allows signal to move rapidly.
12 cranial nerves!
olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, hypoglossal
a star-shaped neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin.
the movement of the membrane potential of a cell away from rest potential and in a more positive direction
influence next neuron to continue or stop activity
Convergent neurons
Many inputs lead to one output
50. What does the presynaptic terminal release?
contains tracts for transmission of impulses from one part of CNS to another
white matter
Ependymal Cells
*Neuroglia in CNS*line the fluid filled spaces of the brain*help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid
inability to focus well on close objects; farsightedness
CT wrapping that binds groups of fibers into fascicles.
what section of brain aids in balance
To cross the synaptic cleft requires the actions of
Protrusion of the membrane of the brain or spinal cord through a defect.
NAMEis a substance w high eletrical resistance
neuron capacity to react to various chemical and physical agents
3 parts of the diencephalon
epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus
Nerves which resemble a horse's tail.
cauda equina
Define: Parapledia
2 effected parts that cannot move
TOXIC - botulism
intoxication with a neurotoxin (exotoxin) produced by Clostridium botulinum, toxicoinfectious botulism in horses especially foals (organism grows in the GI tract with subsequent in vivo production of toxin, shaker foal syndrome), never been seen in cats, thre are 8 types of antigenically distinct botulism toxins (A, B,Calpha, Cbeta, D, E,F,G), intoxication in dogs almost always due to type C, toxin inhibits the release of Ach at the neuromuscular junction resulting in rapidly progressing flaccid tetraparesis and hyporeflexia, cranial nerve dysfunction is common, treatment, antitoxins are available that neutralizes the circulating toxin but are not effective after the toxin has entered the nerve terminals which occurs soon after the toxin is absorbed into circulation, toxicoinfectious botulism is treated with penicillin, most affected dogs recovery within 14 days
noting or pertaining to an involuntary response to a stimulus, the nerve impulse from a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an effector.
glial cell
neuroglia - cleans protects, repairs and clears debris
Action Potential
The local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
autonomic nervous system
transmits action potentials from CNS to smooth/cardiac muscles -- involuntary
Efferen NS
transmission away from the brain, away from CNS...*MOTOR*
association fibers
when neurons in wernicke's area send impulses to neurons in broca's area, what are the white matter tracts that are utilized?
initial segment
short section of nerve fiber between axon hillock and first glial cell
sensations of throat and larynx and of thoracic and abdominal organs; swallowing, voice production, slowing of heartbeat, acceleration of gut movements
Fainting again is syncope
Causalgia is again burning pain
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consist of the _____ and _____ nerves.
cranial and spinal
axon hillock
specialized region of the axon that connects the initial segment of the axon to the soma
What are the functions of the Hypothalamus?
-body's thermostat
-regulates hunger, thirst, and many other basic survival mechanisms
-source of posterior pituitary hormones & of releasing hormones that act on the anterior pituitary
-sexual & mating response
axon of neuron
single, long sending portion of neuron
-axon collaterals
-synaptic end bulb, synaptic vesicles
-sensory (afferent) neuron
-motor (efferent) neuron
one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
of or pertaining to sacred rites or observances.
Synaptic Vesicles
Tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse
Define indirect receptor mechanism.
NT's that act trhough second messengers.
the spinal cord has how many pairs of spinal nerves trough which nerve impulses enter or leave the spinal cord.
canal of schlemm
drains the aqueous humor of the eye
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves & ganglia that lie outside of the brain & spinal cord.
Lumbar Puncture
A procedure where a hollow needle is inserted into the patient's spine for a number of reasons such as drawing CSF, injecting dye or draining fluid to relieve pressure.
Frontal lobe (anterior to precentral gyrus) Controls learned motor skills of a patterned nature (typing, piano playing); plans the movement Damage to this area leads to loss of skill, although patient continues to have voluntary function
Dorsal root ganglion
contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons
peripheral nervous system
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
paralysis of all four limbs or of the entire body below the neck.
What happens during depolarization?
The channel proteins open to allow sodium into the cell
What movements does the musculocutaneous nerve allow?
Movement of the biceps, brachialis, and cutaneous.
Treatment Procedures of the Nervous System - Anesthetic -
medication used to produce anesthesia
Which structure in the pons has to do with norepinephrine?
Locus coerulus
look at the chart for the different lobes and fissures of brain
lobes and fissures
What is the difference between antagonist and inhibition?
Inhibitor -prevents the cell from releasing chemical, therefore there is an increase in volume/production. Antagonist - increases the rate at which the chemical "circulates", but does not cause an increase in volume
Stages/steps of a nerve impulse
-stimuli causes Na+ to come into cell
-influx causes adjacent gates to open, creating a nerve impulse
-depolarization occurs
Damage to this will cause respiratory arrest
The spinal cord above C3
What are voltage gated channels?
channels that open when the cell membrane reaches a particular voltage
How are Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes different?
Schwann cells only wrap around a portion of one axon, while oligodendrocytes wrap several axons
bare nerve endings and muscle spindles
What receptor types would be activated by walking on hot pavement?
Medications to Treat Mental Disorders - Antidepressant drugs - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, how do they work?
reduces the reentry of serotonin into nerve cells
Where are white communicating rami located?
At levels T1-L2 (origin of the SNS)
The Central Nervous System
the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
What are the dorsal roots of the spinal cord?
Afferent fibers carrying impulses from sensory receptors.
Mental Health - Anxiety Disorders - obsessive-compulsive disorder - what is an obsession?
a persistent idea, thought or image that causes the person anxiety or distress
8. What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
The Central Nervous System - Meninges - the arachnoid membrane, what does it look like and what is it?
resembles a spider web and is the second layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
what are the parts of the peripheral system
the parts outside of the CNS. mainly the nerves of the spinal cord and brain
shallow grooves
spinal nerves
dura mater
electro encephalogram
have braches, collaterals
Loss of memory
Multiple Sclerosis-progressive autoimmune disorder -inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath-scars the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves-disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses-patient is in pain plus physical and cognitive problems
Obturator Nerve
adductor group, gracilis
occipital lobe
vision is enterpreted
Shoulder, arm, and throat movements (motor)
Temporal lobe
auditory and olfactory
membranous system of fluid-filled chambers and tubes
Stimulates Adrenal Medulla - sympathetic or parasympathetic?
inter = inside
-receive stimuli from internal environment of the body
(pressure, pain, chemical changes)
hormones, neuropeptides, and other messengers that modify synaptic transmission
Abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain.
-burning or prickling sensation usually felt in hands or feet-can be a drug side effect or the first symptoms of peripheral neuropathy
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
primitive brains, more complex than nerve net, made up of clumps of nerve cells
nerve cell process that trasmitts impulses away from the cell body
In the parasympathetic division, the preganglionic fibers are long and end in the .......... ganglia in or near the target organ.
Primary auditory cortex
*lateral temporal lobe
*interpret sounds into pitch, louness, and location
afferent nerves
nerves carrying just sensory fibers
space with two membranous sacs (utricle and saccule)
The process whereby the membrane potential of a cell moves back toward its resting value.
NAMEare classfied according to diamter, degree of myelination, and speed of conduction
nerve fibers
cell wall of oligodendrocyte and schwann cell
Transfer impulses to the cochlear nerve. Can be destroyed by one minute of sound over 100 decibels.
removal of part of the skull
neuron dendrites
-branched receiving portion of neuron
-receive stimuli from environment or other neurons
-vary in number (more dendrites = more stimuli can be received)
How is 5-HT removed from the synapse?
limbic system
the hippocampus and the olfactory cortex, cortex's lobes and sections of the thalamus and hypothalamus, form this ring around the brainstem. This generates emotions.
Nerve Impulse
propagation of action potential along nerve
Periosteal Layer
dura mater; attached to inner skull
Sympathetic Division
pregang. in t1-l2
post gang. in sympathetic trunk
collateral gang. in abdominal caivty
The biochemical process of adding a phosphate group to a molecule.
Delicate middle layer of the menignes. The arachnoid membrane is loosely attached to the pia mater by web-like fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space.
The area where a neuron communicates with another cell
Many block ion channels from opening or closing
Caused by polio virus from fecal contaminated soil and water. Attacks motor neurons so that impulses fail to reach the target tissues. Paralysis of skeletal muscle.
surgical interruption of part of the sympathetic pathways for the relief of chronic pain or to promote vasodilation
Long thin mylinated branches then send signals of what's happening?
a dividing wall, membrane, or the like, in a plant or animal structure; dissepiment.
Cranial Nerves
Nerves that connect the brain with locations mainly in organs of the head and upper body
Potassium ion
principal cation present in the cell along with several negative ions
posterior root ganglion
contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
Broca's Area
frontal lobe; specialized area on left side of frontal obe involved in ability to speak; at base of pre-central gyrus motor cortex; left hemisphere only; meeting of temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes; damage results in inability to speak (know what to say, just cannot say it)
__ pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord.
What is the Hindbrain?
posterior part of the brain
A junction between a neuron and its target cell (another neuron, muscle, or gland). Signals between neurons and other cells are communicated across synapsese.
What are activation gates?
are closed in resting state
Autonomic Motor Nerve
nerve that stiumlates contraction of smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
falx cerebri
fold of dura that runs between cerebral hemispheres
When a cell is _________it moves away from the threshold
what are the two parts of the diencephelon
spinal cord
the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of the spinal column.
sensory neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system.
4 CNS amino acid neurotransmitters
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamate, and aspartate
Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve, Sensory Nerve, Sense of Sight
Pia Mater
Holds blood vessels on the surface of the brain
What is Cranial Nerve III?
The oculomotor nerve, "eye mover".
effector organ (tissue)
organ/ tissue that produces an effect, e.g. contraction or secretion
The loss of the ability to carry out purposeful movements without paralysis.
Look at page 2 of the Nervous System Activities packet. Place the functions in the correct part of the brain.
a part or member of an animal body distinct from the head and trunk, as a leg, arm, or wing:
nerve fiber
a process, axon, or dendrite of a nerve cell.
39. The region of the CNS that is white matter consists mainly of what type of axons?
myelinated axons
bipolar neurons
what kind of neurons are found in the head and are always part of an afferent pathway?
what is white matter?
nervous tissue that makes up the spinal cord; contains abudance of myelinated axons,w hich give it a bright, pearly white appearancecommunication between levels of CNS
Sympathetic Nervous System
Times of stress and emotion, fight or flight
medulla oblongata functions
relays sensory info to thalamus and to other portions of the brain stem, autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive system)
ANOMALOUS - Syringomyelia and hydromyelia
syringomyelia: development of one or more fluid filled cavities with the spinal cord, hydromeylia: accumulation of fluid within an enlarged central canal of the spinal cord, difficult to differentiate between so often named syringohydromyelia, caused by trauma, neoplasia, inflammatory conditions and developmental malformation, most important is Chiaria I malformation which is an underdeveloped occipital bone that induces overcrowding of the caudal fossa which interferes wtih the circulation of the spinal fluid and can result in hydrocephalus and/or syringohydromyelia of the cervical spinal segments, causes progressive ataxia and paresis, scoliosis and spinal pain is possible, most commonly seen in toy breeds especially Cavelier King Charles, radiographs and myelographs will be normal, MRI is most useful to identify cavitation in the spinal cord, signs may improve with corticosteroids, srugery to decomparess the caudal fossa
what is a effector?
muscle that make the action of reflex arc
When a neurotransmitter is not bound to a extracellular receptor then (1)
the gated channel is open
what are motor/efferent neurons for
conduct impulses away from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
The R. Cerebral hemisphere interprets what image?
Left medial retina and right lateral retina
What are the ventral (anterior) horns of the spinal cord responsible for?
Location of motor neurons, reflects the amount of skeletal muscle innervated in area.
Structures of the Nervous System - Reflexes - name three external reflexes
coughing, sneezing and reactions to pain
After sensory information has reached the primary brain lobe where does it go?
- information is sent to the association areas which will process particular features in the sensory input
What are the functions of the nervous system?

1. Sense changes in environment
2. Interpret changes
3. Respond to changes in environment
Space between nerve cells called the Synapse
Part of the brain that controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels is the Medulla oblongata
Neurotransmitters are the _____ of the nervous system.
chemical information. over 25 known to work int eh human body. may be excitatory or inhibitory.
What is the primary sersory area of the cerebrum and what are its functions?
The primary sensory area is the SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe. The right side of this cortex receives input from the left side of the body and vice versa.It functions in sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, & pain.
What are the two functions of the spinal cord?
transmit impulses to and from the brain.And integrates the spinal cord reflexes.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Cerebrovascular Accidents - Hemorrhagic Stroke, also known as?
a bleed, occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures
sub-threshold stimuli
work, action
meninges (root word)
Transient Ischemic Attack
VIII- Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Hearing, balance.
pain and temp.
5 mph
focal seizure
localized epileptic seizure
respiratory control centers, cardiovascular control centers, part of the brain stem, fiber tracts connecting higher brain structures an spinal cord. digestive system control center.
medulla oblongata
cell body
location of the nucleus
left side of the brain?
Types of neurons
Sensory(afferent)carries impulses toward CNSMotor(efferent)carries impulses away from CNS
smallest glial cells. phagocytic, engulf cell debris, wastes, and pathogens.
branched, short, multiple projections of neuron
conduct impulses to the cell body no myelin sheath
Unipolar neurons
One process, pseudodendrites, afferent neurons
What structural classification is an Association neuron?
Group C fibers
Smallest diameter, and unmyelinated
the cavities found in the brain
area in retina where image arrives
has only cone- no rods
Parkinson's disease
Slowly progressive, degenerative, CNS disorder characterized by slowness and rigidity of movement, rhythmic muscular tremors and postural instability.
Conduction velocties vary (1)
widely amoung neurons
Loss of motor function and/or sensation.
Cerebral palsy
permanent nonprogressive damage to motor control areas of the brain

spastic paralysis
What happens if 5-HT reuptake is inhibited?
What are the consequences of inhibiting 5-Ht re-uptake?
branch from cell body that conducts impulses towards cell body
"lower brain" that consists of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblangata; help in function of homeostasis, coordination, and conduction of information
Pain receptors are what kind of sensory receptor?
part of cerebral cortex hidden under lateral fissure and temporal lobe
anterior eye chamber
contains aqueous humor, continuously secreted by epithelia cells in posterior chamber, passes into anterior chamber and then into veins of eye
The PNS includes_____nerves and _____nerves.
cranial and spinal
The largest cerebral lobe is the...
A) frontal.
B) occipital lobe.
C) parietal.
D) insular.
E) temporal.
A) frontal.
The central nervous system organ that is found in the skull, controlling many bodily functions.
blood-brain barrier
blood vessels that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep others out
Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
This is where voluntary actions such as movement, speech etc. occur
voltage-gated channels
(ion channels in neuron membrane)
open or close in response to change in membrane potential
the period of permanent cessation of menstruation
the middle of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue; mesencephalon.
blind spot
where the optic nerve passes through the optic disc; there are no photoreceptors
The inside of the neuron cell is positive or negative relative to the outside?

Three Principal Components of Neurons

Cell body or perikaryon


Nerve fibers
Nerve fibers include a solitary axon   and numerous dendrites
Motor/Efferent Neurons
neurons carrying impulses from CNS to muscles, glands, and/or viscera; cell bodies of motor neurons always located in CNS (have very long axons)
trigeminal V
which cranial nerve is involved in chewing gum?
what section of brain aids in vision
occipital lobe
T3- thyroid hormone- less than T4 - increases BMR - almost all tissues have receptors
Antianxiety Agent
Drug used to supress anxiousness and relax muscles
T or Fcurrent can travel over long distances
Six Types of Neuroglial Cells
CNS: oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, astrocytesPNS: Schwann cells, satellite cells
A group of mental disorders which are chronic, impair functioning, and are characterized by psychotic symptoms involving impairment of thought, perception, feelings, and behavior. There are six specific criteria which should be present for a diagnosis of
what makes up the hypothalamus3
posterior pituitary gland
pituitary stalk
gray matter within the 3rd ventricle
automatic nervous system (def)
def: involuntary / automatic body functions
The movement of K+ out of the cell after the influx of Na+ is called?
42. What type of neurons conduct action potentials toward the CNS?
sensory (afferent) neurons
Anterior Circulation to Brain
internal carotid arteries; enter skull at carotid canal; divide into anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral arteries which serve the anterior and middle section of the cerebrum
Sympathetic pregang.
T1-L2 to ventral root to spinal nerve to ventral ramus to white communicating ramus to either sympathetic trunk/chain or collateral ganglia
GABA (Gama-aminobutyric acid)
most predominant inhibitory NT in CNS - binding to GABA receptor cause hyperpolarization (inhibition) - ex) sedative, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants
If a drug addict stops taking a drug, they may experience a period of illness called ______________.
If the cord and meninges protrude through the defect, it is called spina bifida cystica.
spina bifida cystica
what are three examples of stress induced conditions
heart disease
digestive problems
reduced resistance to disease
motor neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses to a muscle, gland, or other effector.
Central Canal
The narrow cavity in the center of the spinal cord that is continuous with the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain
What part of the brain seperates the 2 lateral ventricles?
Septum Pellucidum
Gustatory/tase receptor cells
found in taste buds that form pockets in the epithelium of the papillae, usually on the tongue
Which side of the Pituitary Gland does the hypothalamus have control over?
Anterior Pituitary Gland
What is the electrical gradient?
the electrical and chemical gradients taken together
Golgi Tendon Reflex
if muscle is stretched to where tendon will tear, muscle relaxes
DEGENERATIVE - Intervertebral Disc Disease - Radiography
not very sensitive, changes are subtle, general anesthesia is needed, perfect positioning is imperitive (superimposition of ribs, transverse processes, wings of ilium), articular processes look like 1/2 moon, intervertebral foramen looks like horse's head, disc space appears like a space b/c the disc is soft tissue density, diagnostic findings: narrowed disc space (disc will extrude into canal so no longer in disc space causing vertebrae to come closer together, compare to adjacent ones), wedged-shaped disc space, narrowed intervertebral foramen, narrowed space within articular facets, opacity within IV foramen, calcified disc within intervertebral space (indicates disc degeneration but NOT disc extrusion (might notice on rads but might not be clinically significant), plain films are not accurate enough for surgical planning, for surgery need to do myelography, CT or MRI
The amount of change in potential is directly related to ?
Intensity of Stimulation
such changes are graded
What is the parasympathetic nervous system? and where are the parasympatheric neurons located?
dominates control of many visceral effectors under normal everyday conditions(homeostasis); gray matter of the brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord
Psychological Therapies to Treat Mental Disorders - cognitive therapy, what does it do?
focuses on changing thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions and actions
What do SNS and ANS stand for?
Somatic nerv sysAutonomic nerv sys
what are the divisions of the brain
(medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain)
(hypothalamus, thalamus)
The nervous system is divided into what 2 systems?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral nervous system
The Sympathetic Nervous System is involved in the fight or flight response. The Parasympathetic Nervous System is involved in relaxation.
Each of these subsystems operates in the reverse of the other (antagonism). Both systems innervate the same organs and act in opposition to maintain homeostasis.
Diagnostic Procedures of the Nervous System - myelography
radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium
How does the CNS intepret whether something is cold, hot, hard soft, sweet, sour
different neurons code for different things, if the specific neurons, for example green light neurons are sending a lot of action potentials, then the object must be green.
what are some parts of the cerebrum and other brain areas that are included in the limbic system?
limbic lobe, dendate gyrus, amygdala, septal nuclei, ofactory bulbs
The Central Nervous System - Parts of the Brain - Brainstem - midbrain and pons, what do they do?
provide conduction pathways to and from the higher and lower centers of the brain
What causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic space?
Calcium ions flow into the nerve cell and cause the release of the neurotransmitter
The cerebrum has many ridges and grooves called?What are the deepest sulci called?
ridges are called gyri and the grooves are called sulci. fissures
Where and What does White matter do in the Spinal Cord?
- lies on outside
-functions in linking the CNS to sensory and motor neurons of the PNS
What does the sodium-potassium pump do?
It uses one molecule of ATP to move 3 sodium ions out of the cell while simultaneously moving 2 potassium ions into the cell
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