Nervous System 8 Flashcards

Medicine
Terms Definitions
autonomic
autonomous.
neuron
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
somatic
of the body; bodily; physical.
dendrite
a branching figure or marking, resembling moss or a shrub or tree in form, found on or in certain stones or minerals due to the presence of a foreign material.
synapse
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
axon
the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
cerebellum
a large portion of the brain, serving to coordinate voluntary movements, posture, and balance in humans, being in back of and below the cerebrum and consisting of two lateral lobes and a central lobe.
brain
the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions.
sensory neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system.
cerebrum
the anterior and largest part of the brain, consisting of two halves or hemispheres and serving to control voluntary movements and coordinate mental actions.
spinal cord
the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of the spinal column.
peripheral nervous system
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system
the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
motor neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses to a muscle, gland, or other effector.
neur/o
nerve
EPILEPSY
SEIZURE
Occlusion
Blockage
trans-
across
myel
spinal cord
dur/o-
dura mater
precentral gyrus
motor
sponges
no nervous system
narc
stupor, numbness, sleep
AMBUL/O, AMBULAT/O
to walk
Vestibulocochlear
Hearing and Balance
CN VI
Abducens Motor
And MY
 
Functionally, neurons can be..
 
 
Motor(efferent)
Sensory(afferent)
or
Interneurons (association neurons)
HERNIATE
PROTRUSION OF A STRUCTURE
CNXII
hypoglossal
motor
originates in motor nuclei of spinal cord and medulla oblongata
destination is muscles of tongue
test-stick out tongue and move from side to side
IPSP
inhibatory post snyaptic potential
III- Oculomotor Nerve
Eye movement/pupil dilation
Midbrain
Responsible for basic vital functions
Huntington's
Degeneration of the basal nuclei.
exteroception
nervous system receives information about external environment
Graded potentials decrease in intensity w (1)
distance
These people surrender responsibility for their lives to others and allow the needs of those they are dependent upon to take precedence over their own needs. They lack self-confidence and initiative, and they are extremely uncomfortable with being alone f
dependent
postganglionic neurons have sympathetic fibers that usually release ____ and parasympathetic fibers that always release ____
norepinephrine, aceytlcholine
nerve nets
neurons controlling the contractions and expansions of these cavities can be arranged in this formation, as they are in hydra
THALAMUS
OVAL STRUCTURE SHAPED THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OUR EMOTIONS AND RESPONSIBLE FOR UNPLEASANT AND PLEASANT SENSATIONS SUCH AS PAIN, TEMPERATURE, AND TOUCH
what contains the spinal cord
vertebral foramen
Vermis
holds right and left cerebellum together
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
RELEASE NEUROTRANSMITTER ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH)
myelography
radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord
This hormone stimulates the metabolic rate
TSH
Neurologist
physician specializing in diseases of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
nerve fiber, cytoplasmic process of the cell body
axon
lobes of the cerebellum
anterior and posterior
Gross impairment in normal sexual response.
paraphilia
Dendrites
receives messages and delivers to soma
Reflex Automatic Response
The peripheral nervous system transmits impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system and back to muscles or glands
The ______ nerve is responsible for many of the parasympathetic effects in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
vagus
Efferent Tracts
Carries motor impulses to the Peripheral Nervouse System
What plexus innervates the ulnar nerve?
Brachial plexus
Fasicles
bundles of nerve fibers with their endoneurium
 
Facilitation
 
The depolarization to threshold of a
postsynatic neuron...
 
 
depends on the balance between excitatory
and inhibitory input
BRACHIAL PLEXUS
SHOULDER ARM, FOREARM, WRIST & HAND
parkinsons disease
progressive loss of motor function beginning in 50s and 60s - no recovery. degenerates dopamine  releasing neurons. drugs and physical therapy is treatment.
autocrine route
hormone produced by the cell, regulates the activity of the cell that produced it (like ductless)
Cerebrovascular Disease
Brain disorder involving a blood vessel
Medulla
Uppermost portion of the spinal cord that contains all the fibers that originate in the cerebellum and cerebrum and move downward to form the spinal cord
Tract
bundle of axons located in the CNS
substantia nigra
regulates activity in the basal nuclei-motor output. (parkinson's disease)
Supplies motor fibers to the muscles of the tongue.
hypoglossal
vagus nerve
tenth cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. The vagus leaves the head and "wanders" into the abdominal and thoracic cavities
preganglionic
of, pertaining to, or consisting of ganglia.
4 regions of the brain
• Cerebrum
• Diencephalon
• Cerebellum
• Brain stem
Cranial nerve that controls the front of the tongue
Facial nerve
post ganglionic fibers
axons connecting the ganglion cells with the peripheral effectors
Which plexus serves the liver stomach intestines kidneys pancreas. ect.
aortic plexus
Oligodendrocyte
A type of neuroglial cell that forms myelin.
list examples of neurotransmitters? (4)
acetylocholine, monoamines, amino acids, peptides
Ventral horn
Gray matter of spinal cord. Contains cell bodies of somatic motor neurons.
Pia Mater
meaning "gentle mother" is composed of delicate connective tissue & is richly invested with tiny blood vessels; clings tightly to the brain.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Head and Meninges - cephalalgia, also known as?
headache
what is the functional unit of hte nervous system
neurons
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance
cerebral cortex
Another name for a motor neuron, which originates in the central motor system.
efferent
autonomic nervous system
Controls the body internally conveys impulses from the sensoty organs to the brain
LMN
cell body is located in the gray matter, cell bodies for LMNs supplying the limbs are located in the intumescences, axons travel via the ventral spinal roots and peripheral nerves to synapse on the muscles (lesion can be anywhere from spinal cord, ventral root, peripheral nerve); signs include paresis or paralysis (unable to be differentiated from UMN), weak or absent spinal cord reflexes (best way to differentiate from UMN), decreased muscle tone, marked, rapidly developing muscle atrophy due to denervation
prepuberty
the period of life just prior to sexual maturation
afferent nerve tracts
pathways for nerve impulses traveling inward or toward the brain or spinal cord
fight or flight syndrome
the changes produced by increased sympathic impluses allowing  the body to deal with any type of stress.
Sensitive to heat are what kind of sensory receptor?
Thermoreceptors
 
The compound
action potential
 
1. the stimulation of a large nerve
2. results in action potentials 
corresponding to different types of fibers
ex: motor sensory myelinated and unmyle.
3.thus a signal can travel at different
velocities
what does the lens do?
focus light on the retina
What system releases hormones into the body?
The Endocrine System
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of nerve tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord (also called Lou Gehrig Disease).
What does the thalamus do?
processes sensory infocontributes to arousallearning and memory
Migraine headache
-throbbing pain on one side of the head-preceded by a warning aura-accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound.-primarily affect women
INFECTIOUS-INFLAMMATORY - steroid responsive meningitis - arteritis
idiopathic, most common cause of meningitis in dogs, inflammation of the meningeal arteries and less commonly of teh extraneural arteries, high levels of the IgA in the serum and CSF of affected dogs suggests an immune-mediated cause, predisposed in boxers, beagles, and bernese mountain dogs suggests a genetic component, clinical signs include neck/back pain with cervical rigidity, stiff gait with pain on palpation/manipulation of the spine, often seem painful all over, fever is common, neuro deficits occur wtih chronic, untreated cases and include ataxia or paresis, depression, seizures, CSF for early evaluation, acute cases have a moderate to marked neutrophilic pleocytosis, neutrophils are not degenerate, chronic cases usually have a moderate mononuclear pleocytosis, treatment isprednisone for 1-2 weeks, dose is tabered until every other day and this dose continued for at least 6 months, evidence of response includes resolution of pain and fever, relapse may occur if therapy is discontinued prematurely, may resolve spontaneoulsy without treatment only to recur later, prompt treatment is usually effective in resolving clinical signs and preventing relapse
central nervous system (CNS)
most integration carried out in this sytem which includes the brain and spinal cord in vertabrates
to which of the 3 major groups of fiber tracts in the cerebral white matter does the corpus callosum belong?
commissural tracts
what is action potential?
the echange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron. if the action potential starts it is propgated over the entire axon potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane. a depolarized membrane allows sodium to flow inside the membrane
Microglia are (the)...
 
A) largest neuroglial cell.
B) most numerous neuroglial cell.
C) smallest neuroglial cell.
D) least numerous neuroglial cell.
E) none of the above.
C) smallest neuroglial cell.
D) least numerous neuroglial cell.
somatic nervous system
from the Greek word soma, which means "body;" transmits sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception from sensory receptors in skin, mucosa, skeletal muscles and joint capsules; in other words, provides info about the external environment, a
What is summation?
A neuron taking all of the stimulatory input and inhibitory input and adding them up to determine if it will fire an action potential
migrate
to move from one region of the body to another, as in embryonic development
main function and location of broca's area
frontal lobe. articulation of speech.
what is gray matter?
a type of nervous tissue with little myelinit comtains the somas, dendrites and priximal parts of the axons of neuronsit is the site of synaptic contact between neurons and therfore the site of all synaptic integration(information processing) in the CNS
Medications to Treat Mental Disorders - psychotropic drugs
affect the mind, emotions and behaviors
(Righting Reflexes)

Head and Neck
Keeps body facing in same direction as head/neck

ex- swerving while "rubber-necking", turning head in grapevine sequence
What is Spondylosis deformans?
The formation of bony spurs or bridges of bone across the intervertebral disc space
what are several functions of the nuclei within the medulla?
control vital body functions. like heartbeat and blood vessel diameter. most basic life sustaining reflexes. processing food.
A needle used in a spinal tap must be inserted until its tip is in the...
 
A) subdural space.
B) peridural space.
C) epidural space.
D) arachoid mater.
E) subarachnoid space.
E) subarachnoid space.
How is the rate of implulse propagation determined? (2)
(1)axon diamter (2)presence of myelin sheath
What does a radiographic finding of calcified disc within IV space indicate?
disc degeneration - not disc extrusion
2 ways to regenerate a damaged peripheral nerve fiber
-soma has to be intact-some nuerilemma has to remain
The Central Nervous System - Parts of the Brain - Lobes of the Cerebrum - what are the four lobes?
1. frontal lobe, controls skilled motor functions, memory and behavior2. parietal lobe receives and interprets impulses from sensory receptors in the tongue, skin and muscles3. occipital lobe controls eyesight4. temporal lobe controls the senses of hearing and smell as well as the ability to create, store and access new information
X-linked muscular dystrophy of dogs and cats
mutation in the gene that encodes for the muscle protein, dystrophin (important for structural integrity of the muscular cells, if this is absent muscles will start to degenerate), in humans this affects young boys, in dogs most common in golden retrievers, usually recognized between 8-10 weeks of age, signs include a generalized weakness, shuffled gait, difficulty chewing and swallowing, weakness and signs are progressive, will see diffuse muscle wasting, serum CK will be elevated 300x above normal (will show prior to clinical signs), EMG reveals repetitive high frequency discharge, muscle biopsy may be assayed for the presence of dystrophin, geneatic testing can ID carriers, lifespan is shortened due to secondary complications, usually euthanized
A neuron pool is...
 
A) a group of neurons linked by gap junctions.
B) a group of interconnected neurons with specific functions.
C) the group of neurons availabe to regeneratea damaged nerve.
D) a group of identical nerve cells
E) both A and B.
B) a group of interconnected neurons with specific functions.
31 PAIRS OF SPINAL NERVES12 PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES
HOW MANY PERIPHERAL NERVES ARE IN THE BODY??
What is the cerebrum made up of and composed of?
made up of lobes and is composed of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons
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