Ap Euro Industrial Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
taille means
land tax
marxism criticized...
industrial capitialist society
who renounced liberalism?
Pope pious IX
Pugachev's rebellion took place in
1773-1775
szlactha were known as..
polish nobles
corvee is known as
forced labor
when did the irish famine occur?
1845-1847
who invented the spinning jenny?
James Hargreaves
migration hard in...
germany, eastern europem russia
migration easy in...
england, france, low countries
who invented the water frame?
Richard Arkwright
most important for population&concern for governments
grain harvest
most influential "ism" over modern euro history
Marxism
who organized the Grand National Union
Owensim
what was proletariat
new industrial labor force
what is political reform known as
chartism
barshchina required
6 days of week labor
maleserfs means
number of souls in Russia
taxation of federal dues towards french peasants were called
banalities
In France, "of the sword" means
military
Jeremy Bentham
English social reformer. Supported utilitarianism.
which german state was excluded from the Zolivernn?
Austria
who wrote the "Communist Manifesto"?
Marx & Engels
when was the repeal of corn laws?
1846
who wrote 'the Organization of Labor"
Louis Blanc
best aristocracy was in what country...
Great Britain
what led to agricultural innovation
rise in prices
what was the upbringings of the revolutions of 1848 caused by
nationalism
"an urban growth from below"
Jan De Vries
what were court jews?
financers close to rulers
Karl Marx
Wrote the Communist Manifesto, which called for radical solutions to the problem of poverty, in 1848, and Das Kapital, first published in 1867, which offers a complete analysis of capitalism. Advocated communism.
Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for a private profit.
what is the Zolivernn known as
free trading union
What was the Aristocratic Resurgence?
Russian Charter of Nobility
who invented the power loom for machine weaving?
edmund cartwright
who made the newspaper, Voix des Femmes?
Prussian women
where did the largest group of employed women in france work?
on land
what was the system that prisoners were seperated @ night
Auburn system
what was the system where prisoners seperated @ all times was?
Philadelphia system
communism was..
end to private property rather than rearraqngement of society
most famous new prison was?
Pentonville Prison in london
what were the vesuvians?
most radical group of french women
who wrote "what is Property?"
Pierre Joseph Proudhon, attacked banking system
Who was Arthur Young?
Secretary of British Board of Agriculture.wrote book "annals of Agriculture"
who was the most important chartist leader?
Feargus O Connor
who made new method for melting molten ore; known as the puddling process.this person also invented a rolling mill
henry cort
Industrial Proletariat
Term invented by Karl Marx: the lowest class of industrial wage earners, who must earn their living by selling their labor.
David Ricardo
Introduced the Iron Law of Wages: the natural wage is that which maintains a worker's subsistence.
what was the method of production?
bring untilled lands under plow
what did Josiah Wedgwood do?
attempted to find costumers within royal family & sell same item for cheaper price
who was the earliest socialist pioneer?
Count Claude Henride Saint Simon
what does laisses-farie mean
let people do what they fucking want, damn
when did the first partition of poland occur & what did it do?
1772, increased jewish population
what war marked the first stage of Italian Revolution
War or 1848 between Piedmont & Austria
daimler
gasoline
Second industrial revolution
-steel
-chemicals
-oil
electricity
planes, cars, submarines
telephone, telegraph
movies, radio
diesel
oil burning internal combustion
Samuel Smiles
Wrote "Self-Help: Middle-Class Attitudes"; said that the middle class were better off if the government did not help them and they helped themselves
Sadler Commission
Parliamentary investigation/report on Child Labor
; Findings = children were overworked, frequently beaten, fatigued, sick, depressed
robert owen
successful manufacturer who testified that employing children under 10 years old as workers was bad for children and factory owners
Talleyrand
French minister, congress of Vienna- negotiated a secret treaty with Britain and Austria, France included as a 5th great power
Benjamin Disraeli
leading conservative political figure in Britain who took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867, typical example of a conservative politician making use of popular politics
Eli Whitney
cotton gin for more cotton
Congress of Vienna
Conference between ambassadors from the major powers that took place from 1814 to 1815; purpose was to settle issues and to redraw the political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France; kept there from being any major world wars until the early 20th century
James Rumsey
mechanical engineer who exhibited boat propelled by machinery in 1787
Luddites
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Agricultural Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
George III
ruler of England at the time
Flora Tristan
Wrote "Women and the Working Class"; understood the ideas of forming unions, and used the above article to try to appeal to French workers
Mass Production
The process of producing a large number of items quickly using an assembly line. Numerous identical items could be quickly and cheaply produced. Modern factory systems of production developed in the mid-19th century as a result.
Common land
-Land on which landless peasants could graze a cow or pick berries, etc.
poorhouses
emerged to provide work to those who were unemployed, conditions were often oppressive
Edmund Cartwright
invented the power loom (combined the inventions of Hargreaves and Arkwright to spin faster and finer thread)
Dykes and Flood
dyke = conservatinism
flood = change
market economy
the type, quantity and price of goods and services produced are determined in the marketplace by supply and demand
Domestic system
System in which a family would produce materials at home and then send them to the manufacturer and get a profit; also known as the putting-out system
water frame
new invention that used water power to drive spinning wheels
Commercial Revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
Spinning Jenny
more thread and yarn for the textile industry
John Stuart Mill
Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain
cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
Henry Cort
puddling
trevithick
first steam locamotive
Hayden
other Classical music artist
Charles Fourier
advocator of social utopism
Leopold I
new king of Belgium
fourier
phalanx of 1620 people, emancipation of women, no more marriage, sexual freedom, free unions
-juvenile league (9-16) perform dirty works
socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Whig
political party in Britain that supported commercial and manufacturing interests and reform (middle class)
Robert Falton
inventor of the steam boat
marxian socialism
marx's ideas that included sociology, economics, and all human history
french utopian themes but also English classical economics
all history is about class struggle,
-proletariat overthrow
-abolition of bourgeois property
War of Jenkins' Ear
-Brief conflict
-English Parliament declared war on Spain
petite bourgeoisie
lower middle class (shopkeepers and clerical staff etc.)
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
Carbonari
Veri Italians
natinoalist organization that was secret in Italy
socialism/mixed economy
govt ownership of major means of productive and private ownership of the rest exists together
-indls can invest money in certain businesses and start certain types of businesses
-govt provides for general welfare of the people
-govt plays active role in economy, wherever and whenever necessary to ensure economic strength and social justice
Liberal
Looking forward to new ideas and new structure; wanted to provide opportunities for economic growth (income); opposite of conservative
Peterloo Massacre
1819, Calvary attacked a crowd of protesters (working-classmen protesting about the rising prices of bread) at St. Peter's Fields in Manchester. This led Parliament to become more repressive and begin to restrict such meetings.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
-Returned everything to prewar conditions
-Let Frederick keep Silesia
Subsistence level
-Growing enough crops to live on, without a surplus
Transportation Revolution
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s
Manchester
The city where the first major rail line ended.
1820
Concert meeting at Touppau to put down the uprisings in Italy and SPain
Friedrich List/ National System of Political Economy
-German thinker, nationalist
-growth of modern industry is important because manufacturing increased people's well being and relieving their poverty
-railroad building
formation of a customs union called Zollverein
-allowed goods to move between German member states without tariffs while erecting a single uniform tariff against other nations
-high protective tariff
-Britain trying to make rest of world serfs
-economic nationalism
William Harter
Gave a testimony in the Testimony for the Factory Act of 1833; stated that he owned a factory, and that if the hours that people worked there went down, production would go down, and income would be decreased
Josiah Wedgewood
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive china. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
Black Hole of Calcutta
-Local Muslim ruler locked Englishmen in tiny cell, most suffocated
Motzart
used sex to sell when he didn't have patrons and was a famous writer of opera. Classical
Earl Grey
leader of the Whig Party who was one of the primary architects of the Reform Bill of 1832
Friedrich Engels/ Condition of Working Class in England
bad living environment for all working class in England
bad air, no water, dirty, crowded, damp, no pleasures but (sex and liquor)
condition cannot improve
James Hargreaves
spinning jenny
command economy
state directs economy
James Watt
perfected teh steam engine
proto-industrialization
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
1776
American Declaration of Independance
Wealth of Nations by Adam SMith
Decembrists
Russian army officers who briefly rebelled against Tsar Nicholas in December 1825
laissez faire
unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy
Edmund Burke
father of modern conservatism. noted for his emphasis on tradition
Duke of Bridgewater
-Commissioner of Bridgewater canal (first canal in Britain and maybe modern world)
Friedrich Engels
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
George Stephenson
developed the railroad locomotive to the level that made it an industrial giant (as seen in his Rocket)
Condorset
French enlightened that said we will learn to advance as population grows. more optemistic than malthus
Marx and Engels/ Communist Manifesto
-proletariat soon takeover
-abolish bourgeois property
-govt control all parts of economy
-class struggle throughout history
-cannot appeal to middle class
-unified sociology, economics, history
Richard Arkwright
British inventor of the water frame (1769), which helped revolutionize textile production.
Thomas Newcomen
inventor of the first steam engine (note: it was inefficient)
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
"Wealth of Nations"
laizzes faire capitalism is "what is good for me is good for society"
invisible hand
gov only interferes in war, justice and public works.
capital
wealth in the form of money or other assets owned by a person or organization
John Wright
Gave a testimony in the Testimony for the Factory Act of 1833; stated that, based on his observations, the work in silk factories was causing the workers to become cripples
Seven Years War
-Between British & French, fought in India
Factory Act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
Laizzes Faire capitalism
beleif that the government should be involved in politics as least as possible.
Thomas Mathus/ essay on the principle of population
population always outgrows resources
poor is the source of problems since they breed fast and bring misery
problem of the poor is themselves
putting out system/ cottage industry
- Merchant loaned raw materials to several cottage workers
-workers processed raw materials in their homes and returned the finished product to the merchant
-type of capitalism
-competitive advantages--unregulated, produce many kinds of goods, new methods
"religion is the opiate of the masses
makes you numb and uncaring
communism is athiest and is a distraction and misleading
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