Nervous System Vocab Words Flashcards

sensory neuron
Terms Definitions
tri-
three
Norepinephrine
excitatory
hypo-
below
cephal
head
-mnes
memory
occipital lobe
vision
dermatome
spinal nerves
MENING/O, MENINGI/O
meninges
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
Nerve impulse?
Bioelectric Signals
foc/o-
point of activity
Agraphia
Inability to write
frontal lobe
motor coordination, speech
Dopamine
*monoamine
*excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter
"feeling good" neurotransmitter
*associated with Parkinson's
Fissures
Grooves seperating cerebral convolutions
Arachnoid membrane
Subarachnoid space
contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
CSF also found in ventricles of the brain
pinna
the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
Stimulates secretory activity of pancreas? - sympathetic or parasympathetic?
PSD
Hyperpolarized?
membrane potential becomes more negative than resting (Action potential less likely to occur?
crista ampullaris
receptors in semicircular canals
Reflex
Autonomic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body.
syncop/o
to cut off, cut short
Asperger's syndrome
-less severe austism-normal intelligence but have impaired social interactions and non verbal communication
neuron
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
axon
long, slender extension that transmits an impulse from the cell body to another neuron or to an organ
Mechanoreceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to mechanical stimuli.
What is the additive effect called?
Summation
Synapse
place where signals are transmitted from one neuron (presynaptic neuron) to another neuron (postsynaptic neuron)
musculosutaneous
which nerve stimulates muscles that flex the forearm?
macula
receptor in the vestibule, sensations of gravity and linear acceleration
the cranial nerves conduct impulses between the _____and structures in the _____,_____ and ______
brain;head;neck;thorax
Seizure
Sudden disturbances in brain function sometimes producing a convulsion
PONS
Bulging area located between the midbrain and medulla oblongataContains conduction tracts leading in two directions (Pons means "bridge"); houses respiratory centers involved in breathing rhythm connected to the cerebellum through tracts called the middle cerebellar peduncles
Axonal Transport
nutritional and structural molecules reach the distal processes
tuberal area
produces inhibitory and releasing hormones that target endocrine cells of pituitary blood pressure
***Encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain, most frequently caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito.
sensory neuron
(afferent neuron)
axon sends impulses to the CNS
afferent = toward
acr/o
extremities (hand & feet), top extreme point
negative
charge inside of a resting neuron cell
synaptic terminals
specialized endings that relay signals from neuron to other cells by releasing neurotransmitters
DENDRITES
NERVE FIBERS THAT BRINGS THE IMPULSE INTO THE CELL.
Peripheral nerve fibers may be surrounded by?
myelin sheaths
Branching Dendrites
Branching dendrites carry   impulses from other neurons   (or from receptors) toward the   cell body.
Weirnikes Area
temporal lobe; speech, junction of frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes; allows you to sound out words; only in left hemisphere
sympathetic
which division of the autonomic system has short preganglionic axon and long postganglionic axon?
Lens
held in place by suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary muscle/body, posterior to conrnea and iris, forms anterior boundary of viteous chambers
parasympathetic control
Corpus Callosum
major commissure connecting the 2 hemispheres at its base
ASCENDING TRACTS
CARRY SENSORY INFORMATION TO THE BRAIN.
Glia
Also called neuroglia; Cells that form support and nourish nervous tissue. Some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid and others assist with phagocytosis. They do not conduct impulses. Three types of glia are astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia.
CNS tissue which contains a predominance of nerve cell bodies and non-myelinated axons
gray matter
fissure
deep depressions or inward folds of the the brain
Anterior of eye
Everything in front of lens.
carotid endarterectomy
removal of the atheromatous plaque lining the carotid artery to increase blood flow and leave a smooth surface
Trigeminal
Sensation of the forehead eye and moves muscles like the masseter and the pteyrgoid
somatic
pertaining to or affecting the somatic cells, as distinguished from the germ cells.
parkinson's disease
a common neurologic disease believed to be caused by deterioration of the brain cells that produce dopamine, occurring primarily after the age of 60, characterized by tremors, esp. of the fingers and hands, muscle rigidity, shuffling gait, slow speech, an
Axon hillock
specialized region of the axon, which connects the inital segment of the axon to the cell body; region where voltage-gated sodium channels open and generate an action potential when some stimulus has depolarized the membrane to the threshold. Synapses close to this region are more likely to have stronger effect on membrane potential. It is also the region that represents an average of the depolarization due to summation of all EPSPs and the hyperpolarization due to summation of all IPSPs.
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Nerve cell that carries impulses toward the central enrvous system; initiates nerve impulses following receptor stimulation
27. What part of the neuron carries impulses away from the soma?
axon
sciatic nerve
arises from sacral plexus. splits at knee. goes to lower leg and feet. descends through thigh to hamstring.
Supporting Cells of CNS
neuroglia ("nerve glue"; supports, insulates, and protects neurons); many types; cannot transmit impulses; lose ability to divide
dura mater
its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull
Gullain Barre Syndrome
autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on axons are destroyed results in decreased nerve impulses loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness
Selective Permeability
The characteristic of a cell membrane that permits some particles to cross it, but prevents other particles from crossing.
Nucleus
A group of neuron cell bodies grouped together in the CNS
What do the vertical lines indicate?
the action potentials
Which part of the hindbrain deals with motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, and learning?
Cerebellum
auditory cortex
area of the temporal lobe that receives info concerned with hearing
Where do motor norves belong to?
somatic nervous system
describe a three neuron arc
sensory neuron
synapses with
interneuron in the spinal cord
interneuron synapses with
motor neuron
brain
the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions.
interneuron
any neuron having its cell body, axon, and dendrites entirely within the central nervous system, especially one that conveys impulses between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron.
cerebrum
the anterior and largest part of the brain, consisting of two halves or hemispheres and serving to control voluntary movements and coordinate mental actions.
nerve
one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
somatic nervous system (SNS)
part of efferent division(voluntary or involuntary)
 
controls skeletal muscle contractions
 
conscious control
Bipolar Neurons
Have a single axon and a single dendrite extending from opposite sides of the cell body (found in eyes, nose, and ears).
GRAY MATTER
TWO PAIRS OF COLUMNS, DORSAL & VENTRAL HORNS, SURROUNDED BY A LARGER AREA OF WHITE MATTER
What are proprioceptors?
These respond to internal stimuli, are especially linked to skeletal muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments.
Subdural hematoma
A collection of blood trapped in the space beneath the dura mater, between the dura mater and arachnoid layers of the meninges
Ions flow along thier (1) when they move toward an area of opposite charge
eletrical gradient
A burning pain, caused by injury to a nerve.
causalgia
structure of spinal nerves
contains dendrites of sensory neurons and axons of motor neurons
ramus
a branch, as of a plant, vein, bone, etc.
motor neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses to a muscle, gland, or other effector.
28. What are the bulb shaped ends of the axon called?
presynaptic terminals
in front of
in what way is the light focused toward the retina in nearsightedness?
Concentration (mM)/L of K+ in intracellular and extracellular fluid.
Inside cell=150. Outside cell=5.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
"not quite enough blood reaching the brain"
 
Symtoms similar to stroke, such as partial loss of vision and weakness in arm. However, symptoms last less than 24 hours. People who get TIA's are at greater risk of getting a stroke.
axons of sensory neurons
aka afferent fibers, extend from a sensory receptor to the spinal cord or brain
Neurons are classified on the basis of their function as...
Motor, Sensory, Association
What is the functional role of nervous system "signals"?
Communication for receiving, intergrating, and sending information
what does the Endoneurium do?
ct that surround each axon, separates each axon so they don't interfere, also supplies nutrience and electriods
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord protected by the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid.
(1) is established by the total amount of current flowing through the membrane
therehold for the action potenital
what do sensory/afferent nerves do
conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain
In the sympathetic division, postganglionic nerve fibers leave paravertebral ganglia by 3 routes. List the 3 routes
1. They may pass directly through the paravertebral ganglion into a whit eramus communicans and synapse with a postganglionic neuron which then passes into a gray ramus out to the effector organ.
2.  They may synapse at the same level at a higher or lower level from where they leave the cord. They would pass intoa  whit eramus communicans and then up or down the paraverteberal ganglion chain to synapse with a postganglionic neuron. The postganglionin neuron leaves via the gray ramus to  innervate the effector organ.
3. The preganglionic neuron will pass through the paravertebral ganglion chain intoa  whtie ramus communicans and out of the ganglion chain to synapse in a prevertebral ganglion with a postganglioninc neuron.
What are the ventral rami of the thoracic spinal nerves responsible for?
Innervates muscles surrounding ribs, anterior lateral thorax, and abdominal wall muscles.
Structures of the Nervous System - Neurons - Efferent Neurons, also known as?
motor neurons, carry impulses away from the brain and toward the muscles and glands
Where do messages normally get blocked/transferred?
at the synapse (place where two neurons connect)
-synaptic gap
-->action potential
51. What is a neurotransmitter and what does it do?
a chemical messenger that functions to open or close channels
Where are there more nerves found?
More nerves in the arm causes the spinal cord to be larger there.
What is a nerve impulse?
is the action potential of a axon of a nueron
What is the epithalamus and what is its function?
The epithalamus is the most superior portion of the diencephalon. The pineal gland extends from its posterior margin. It is involved in onset of puberty and the biological clock.
When do ions flow along thier eletrical gradient?
when they move toward an area of oppostie charge
Structures of the Nervous System - The Nerves - what is a tract?
a bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord
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