Nervous System Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

nerve cell bodies
Terms Definitions
wraps fascicles
Pineal Gand?
increase heartrate
sameness (root word)
development, formation, growth
one who specializes
Central Nervous System
brain/spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system?
Schwann cells
A negatively charged ion.
RELATED STRUCTURE: Pineal GlandPosterior portion of diencephalon Associated with body rhythms such as the sleep wake cyclePineal gland (body) secretes the hormone melatonin
-Restless leg syndrome-uncomfortable feelings in the legs producing a strong urge to move them-most noticeable at night or at rest
coordinates muscle activity and refinement of movement
Defecation - sympathetic or parasympathetic?
if the cytoplasm becomes more
negative: inhibition
nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
Total paralysis; Also Called Pamplegia.
brain stem
medulla oblongata, pons, mesencephalon, diencephalon
sends messages to other neurons
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
hormone secreted by adrenal medulla; released by sympathetic nervous system
Located in skeletory muscles, tendons, joints and ligaments are what kind of sensory receptor?
*in foods like turkey
*makes you sleepy
most anterior part of the sclera
Bony labyrinth
membranous labyrinth surrounded by bone with a cavity inside
peptide hormone which helps control Ca+. acts to decrease blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclasts
A severe mental illness characterized by auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and an inability to distinguish reality from fiction
NAMEmeans the stimulis is applied
upward arrows
– production of the myelin sheath – begins the 14th week of fetal development – proceeds rapidly during infancy – completed in late adolescence
– dietary fat is important to nervous system development
Aqueous humor
Watery fluid fills anterior compartment.
-AKA counter blow-injury beneath the skull opposite to the area of impact
Aura- breeze
symptoms or signs before a seizure
Which two structures make up the central nervous system?
the minimum amount of stimulus a neuron needs to respond
visceral receptors
monitor internal tissues such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Vestibule and semicircular canals are what kind of sensory receptor?
cell body
consists of a transparent, spherical nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus surrounded by cytoplasm
Dorsal Scapular Nerve
levator scapulae, rhomboid minor, rhomboid major
an elevated ridge of cerebral cortex tissue
crista ampullaris
receptor in canals of boney labyrinth
In the cerebellum, gray matter composes the_____layer while _____ matter composes the interior
gray, white
Inflammation of the brain that is often caused by a virus.
Pia Mater
Thin inner layer of the meninges.
nervous syst. w/ fine tremors, musc. weakness, ridgity, shuffling
Cells that send pain signals to brain.Detect damage to the body.
Brief small twitches of muscle visible through the skin.
The peripheral nervous system is composed of the _
autonomic somatic
voltage-gated protein channel opens when the cell is _____ and the ___ ___ reaches a specific value
depolarized, membrane voltage
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
the delicate outermost membrane of the myelin sheath of a myelinated nerve cell.
Grey Matter
Consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
medulla oblangata
part of the brainstem that contains centers that control several visceral (automatic, homeostatic) functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion
saltatory conduction
nerve impulse jumps from node to node
Arachnoid Mater
Spidery Mother - Middle layer of membrane of brain
Circle of Willis
where the anterior and posterior circulation systems of the brain meet
trigeminal V
which cranial nerve is involved in feeling a toothache?
what section of brain aids in touch
parietal lobe
when # of cell receptors increased on cell surface
Partial paralysis of one side of the body
NAMEthis are used to integrate, send, and receive info
membrane potentials
vast number of branches coming from a few thick branches from the soma– primary site for receiving signals from other neurons-- receptors
Taste buds
Have elongated taste cells that have sensory microvilli at the tip.
Hemorrhagic stroke
-AKA bleed-occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or an aneurysm in the brain ruptures
Complete the lobe anatomy on the fifth page of the Nervous System Activities packet
the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus, functioning in the control of reflexes and such essential internal mechanisms as respiration and heartbeat
one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
nerve impulse
a progressive wave of electric and chemical activity along a nerve fiber that stimulates or inhibits the action of a muscle, gland, or other nerve cell.
One of the 3 functional divisions of the nervous system.Activation of effectors, muscles or glands.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
2 subsystems of the autonomic nervous system
Multipolar neuron
found in brain and spinal cord; many dendrites, 1 axon
Peripheral Nervous System
everywhere except for brain and spinal cord
transient ischemic
temp interference w bld supply to the brain
A series of changes which take place in a severed peripheral nerve fiber. This affects a portion of the neuron, which swells, becomes granular, and breaks up into irregular fragments which eventually disappear. The myelin sheath (if there is one) also fra
Wallerian degeneration
how do nerve impulses work
Na+ pile into nerve
Outside temporarily negative, inside temporarily positive
immediate recover (repolarization)
This travels down nerve
What is the relationship between receptors and ion channels?
Receptors may directly open ligand-gated ion channels in the postsynaptic cell membrane, causing ions to enter or exit the cell, acts as a key to the ion channels
What happens during depolarization?
sodium channels open and Na passes in
foramen magnum, lumbar
The spinal cord extends from the _____ of the skull to the _____ region of the vertebral column
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
The portion of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the motor neuron pathways that innervate skeletal muscles.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System made of?
Cranial NervesSpinal NervesAutonomic Nervous System
These merge with the basilar artery at the circle of Willis.
Internal carotid arteries
differential diagnosis - VITAMIN D
once lesion is localized, consider possible etiologies, use the signamlent (young animals - anomalous, toxic, old animals - neoplastic, species and breed) and history (acute nonprogressive (traumatic, toxic or vascular, acute progressive - infectious, inflammatory, chronic progressive - neoplastic, degenerative) and then put into categories (VITAMIN D) = vascular, infectious, inflammatory, toxic, traumatic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, nutritional, degenerative
Define the purpose and function of Cerebrospinal fluid.   (CSF)
- Flows in the subarachnoid space
- Made in the ventricles of the brain by the Choroid Plexus
- cushions and protects the brain and the spinal cord
What are spinal tracts?
the white columns of the spinal cord that provide two way conduction paths to and from the brain
Medical Specialties Related to the Nervous System - neurosurgeon
physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
What term denotes outer lining layer of body cavities?
Parietal.. e.g. parietal pleural layer
what is the outer layer of the cerebrum
made of white matter
Is the Ventral root sensory (afferent) or motor (efferent)
Ventral root = efferent - motor
what is the arrangement of the cerebral cortex?
has four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital(all gray matter)
Structures of the Nervous System - Glial Cells - the brain contains ** to ** more glial cells than what?
10 to 50 more than neurons
What does the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) consists of?
What causes the swelling in the posterior root?
Dorsal root ganglion is a collection of nerve cell bodies.
The primary purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to...
A) drain blood from the brain.
B) isolate the CNS from general circulation.
C) provdie the brain with oxygen.
D) hook areas of teh brain together.
E) do none of the above.
B) isolate the CNS from general circulation.
trunk______ cervical pairs to head, ____, shoulder, arm and _________. _____ thoracic pairs to _______. ___ lumbar pairs and ___ sacral pairs to ____, pelvic cavity and ____. ___ very small coccygeal pair.
8 neck, diaphragm12 trunk5 5 hip , leg1
dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic neurons are located?
in the gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
At rest, the outside of a nerve cell is __?__ charged. Why?
Positively.Because there are Na+ ions in high concentration
why is the choroid plexus an exception to the bbb?
it's the site of cerebral spinal fluid production-regions of specialized ependymal cells and permeable capillaries
upon, above
Subscapular Nerve
nerve root
elevated ridges
What is glutamate?
peripheral nervous system
resting membrane potential
repeated seizures (convulsions)
Oh Optic
Say Sensory
Consequence in membrane potential
ex. narc/o/lepsy - numbing seizure
preoptic area
regulates body temp
Several dendrites/one axon?
After-discharge response
Prolongs effect of stimulus
Gray Commissure
Allows connection between cells
Degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons over activity in the Basal Nuclei.
NAMEtreatment include interferon beta 1-a and 1-b, Avonex, beataseran, and copazone
An involuntary, compulsive, repetitive movement, usually involving the face or shoulders.
Telencephalon (cerebrum)
vocabulary, speech, thought, judgement, voluntary control, sensory perception, memory, and dreams
chemical that travel across synapse and influence the action of the next neuron in the series
Frontal Lobe
language, intellect, impulse control, social/sexual behavior, judgement, word meanings, problem solving, safety awareness, reasoning, motor function, memory, comprehension; pre-central gyrus-motor cortex; Broca's area
endocrine and nervous system
maintain internal corrdination
Contains axons of the same hypothalamic neurons. Is also called the Pituitary Gland.
Huntington's chorea
Hereditary nervous disorder involving bizarre, abrupt, involuntary, dance-like movements.
cytoplasmic processes that extend from the neuron cell body; similar in structure to axons, but typically form a tree-like branching pattern; comprise most of the receptor surface of a neuron
diencephalon functions
thalamus-relay and processing centers for sensory info
hyopthalamus-centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
Immobility and consolidation of a vertebral joint, or a general term for degenerative changes of a vertebral joint due to osteoarthritis.
-congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
cuases of syringohydromyelia
trauma, neoplasia, inflammatory conditions, and developmental malformations
Rods have only one pigment, which is?
Afferent Tracts
Carry sensory information to the Brain
What plexus innervates the phrenic nerve?
Cervical plexus.
White Matter
made up largely of myelinated axons
The Neuron
neurons are the nerve cells that
receive, process and forward
electrical potential
difference in the concentration of charged particals between one point to anaother
group of nerve cell bodies in PNS
A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
connects the brain stem and cerebellum together
Substantia nigra runs the vertical length of the midbrain
How does communication occur between synapses?
Via neurotransmitters.
caudate nucleus
maintains pattern and rhythm of movement
The three membranes which protect the brain and spinal cord.
-largest and uppermost portion of the brain-responsible for all thought, judgment, memory, emotion and motor and sensory functions
Ictus post-ictal
Ictus: stroke
ictus: middle portion of a stroke

post-ictal: immediate recovery period from a stroke
the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light
sodium ions
ions whose concentration is higher in the extracellular fluid
Opening of the iris which allows light to enter the eye
the abililty of a cell membrane to conduct electrical impulse. Such as skeletal muscle fibers, cardiac cells,gland cells, axolemma of neurons.
What part of the brain controls voluntary movement, cognitive functions, and speech center
Cerebral cortex
Autonomic Nervous System
Portion of nervous system that controls the viscera.
Multipolar neurons?
man processes extend from the cell body, one axon and many dendrites
Hilton's Law
Any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates that joint and skin over said joint.
Sympathetic Division
The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity or to cope with some stressor; fight, fright or flight subdivision.
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
Diagnostic Procedures of the Nervous System - what can changes in the cerebrospinal fluid mean?
disease, injury, infection
Repolarization (+30mV to -70mV)
K+ out of cell
organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves (skin, ears, eyes)
sciatic nerve
An area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field, generally surrounded by normal vision. This is also used in psychiatry as mental _______ or a figurative blind spot, wherein the patient has no insight into his or her problems.
Function of: Cerebrum (4)
consious thought, judgement, will power, reasoning
Crossed extensor reflex
extension of the contralateral limb when a flexor reflex is elicited (pinch left leg and it flexes, abnormal for the right leg to extend at that time), this reflex is important in gait of upright animals but is normally inhibited in recumbent animals, indicates a UMN lesion
basilar membrane
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells
synaptic cleft
the space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic neuron
The initial tapering of the cord below L1 is called .......
Conus Medullaris
The spinal REFLEX
the sensory neuron synapses with a neuron of the gray matter of the spinal cord at basically the same level at which it enters.
receptors reach effectors
there is no concious thought in a reflex
the sensory impulses DO NOT enter an ascending tract of the spinal cord to reach a higher center of the CNS
CFS analysis
lab test used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections, tumors and hemorrhage
The air conditioner in a house cools the room to 67 degrees and then turns off. The room starts to get hot and the air conditioner turns on again until the room hits 67 degrees, and then turns off again. What is this an example of?
Negative feedback
Structures of the Nervous System - Neurotransmitters - Acetylcholine - what does it do?
influences muscle action
Which two cells compose layer 2?
stellate cellssmall pyramidal cells
The gap between the axon and the dendrite of another neuron
synaptic cleft
DEGENERATIVE - Leukoencephalomyelopathy Neuroaxonal Dystrophy
degeneration of the spinal cord and brain, progressive ataxia and weakness, diagnosis requires histopath, there is no treatment, rare condition
cranial nerves
part of the PNS that originates in the brain and innervates organs of the head and upper body
in addition to neurons, nervous tissue also consists of ____(also called___) which do not conduct signals, but rather have a variety of supportive functions.
neuroglia (glia)
What do Neurons do?
signals cells that communicate to the body common parts
Spinal Cord Injury
Any traumatic injury to the back that can have life-altering consequences such as paralysis of the legs or the entire body.
NAMEis one that opens w the binding of a specifc neurotransmitter
chemically gated channel
neurons that send info from the CNS to muscles and glands
motor neurons
What part of the brain is the part of cortex taht receives sensory info. from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, mapped into sensory homonculus?
Postcentral gyrus.
What is a neuromuscular junction?
The place where motor fibers innervate voluntary muscle, and axon terminals release ACh.
Mental Health - Anxiety Disorders - posttraumatic stress disorder - what is it?
the development of characteristics symptoms after a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the patient or someone else
This nerve controls all movement of the eyeballs. It is primarily a motor nerve. It comes out of the midbrain and serves four of the six eye muscles, as well as the muscle of the eyelid, iris (which causes pupil dilation), and ciliary body. Damage to thes
Cranial nerve III: oculomotor nerve
DEGENERATIVE - Intervertebral Disc Disease: Anatomy
disc composed of 2 parts: nucleus pulposus is the inner component, gelatinous in the normal animal, and the annulus fibrosis which is the outer layer made up of connective tissue, the ventral portion is 3 times as thick as the dorsal portion, herniations tend to occur in the dorsal direction, there is no disc at C1-2, the intercapital ligament is present from T2-T10 and covers the width of the annulus dorsally (from one rib head to another), prevents disc protrusion in the mid thoracic region
what are the cerebellar peduncles? where are they located and what is their function?
3 pairs. attach cerebellum to brain stem. conduct impulses between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain. bundles of white matter
The structural classification of a neuron is based upon...
A) the size of the dendrites.
B) the type of chemical neurotransmitter it secretes.
C) the number of axons.
D) the number of processes that project from the cell body.
E) A and D.
D) the number of processes that project from the cell body.
What is the all or none phenmoneon?
means that action potentials either happen completely or not all
stimulus, receptor, afferent neuron, efferent neuron, effector organ
the order of a reflex arc with minimum elements
Pathology of the Nervous System - Cerebrovascular Accidents - Transient Ischemic Attack, length of attack and precursor to what?
usually passes within an hour, could mean risk of more debilitating stroke in the future
what is the major differences (3) between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
1) Sympathetic goes to many organs, while parasympathetic systems have one pre and postganglionic nerve for each organ

2) sympathetic takes place in thoracic and lumbar
parasympathetic takes place in brainstem and sacrum

3)sympathetic systems utilize acetylcholine
parasympathetic systems utilize acetylcholine and norepinephrine
Part of the nerve cell that first receives the nervous impulse is the Axon
Burning sensation of pain is called causalgia
Parasympathetic nervous system (sub of autonomic)
a set of nerves that helps the body return to normal resting state
What is the first event to occur at a neuromuscular junction?
A.P. travels down the axon terminal to the synaptic end bulb.
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