Neuroanatomy Flashcards

durch die Schädelbasis
Terms Definitions
Postcentral gyrus
coxxygeal nerves
normal sightedness
Parasympathetic segments
L1 sensory
upper thigh
Myelination (PNS)
Schwann cells
Brainstem, cerebellum, forebrain
Thalamus-(switchboard mainly sensory but some motor),Hypothalamus,3rd ventricle,epithalamus,subthalamus
radial innervates
most extensor muslces
Faces are unrecognized
Bilateral lesions of the gray and white matter of the occipitotemporal gyrus cause prosopagnosia. In particular, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, a pathway that interconnects the occipital and temporal lobes, has been suggested as the lesioned area in prosopagnosia.
damage to corticospinal tract
Unilateral facial weakness
Unilateral facial weakness
Bell's palsy, trauma, surgery
output from thalamus to cortex
arterial blood pressure (Carotid Sius)
Perineurium surrounds:
Fascicles of nerve cells.
increased incidence with those neurofibromatosis type-2
Individual details of an unrecognizable whole are able to be recognized/described
Femoral Nerve
Plexus: LumbarSpinal nerves: L2-L4Innervates: Flexors of the hip (Iliapsoas) and anterior thigh
cerebral peduncle
tightly packed corticospinal, corticobulbar and corticopontine tracts
- region of high acuity
from hypothalamus
-stored in posterior pituitary
Vasopressin = ADH
Gets phosphorylated. release vesicles from cytoskeleton
a colorless, crystalline, sweet, water-soluble solid, H2NCH2COOH, the simplest amino acid: used chiefly in organic synthesis and biochemical research.
what was anterior during early development
emboliform nucleus
wedge-shaped, grey matter found lateral to globose nucleus. Has the same inputs, outputs and functions as the globose nucleus.
Myasthenia gravis
a Neuromuscular Junction disorder. Where nicotinic ACTYL receptors of the NMJ are targeted by antibodiesWeakness affects proximal & facial muscles and you do hae reflexes and cholinergic autonomic functions
contains neurons for motor & parasympathetic output. Controls respriation & heart rate (Primitive brain)
Intention Tremor:
Cannor campen accessory movement during fine or skilled sequences. (ex, shaking as hand nears small object)
5 terminal branches of brachial plexus
Presents w/ cardiopathy (peripheral vasodilation, high output cardiac failure, peripheral edema),peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy
Thiamine deficiency
demyelination and degeneration moves inward -> signs in symptoms in upper extremity first
charcot-marie-tooth syndrome
Calcarine sulcus
Prominent deep cerebral infolding.  It originates anteriorly in the temporal lobe near the splenium of the corpus callosum and continues posteriorly into the occipital lobe, where it terminates at the occipital pole. Upper and lower banks contain the primary visual cortex.
Sacral Plexus nerves
Superior/Inferior gluteal, Sciatic, Common Peroneal, Tibial, Superficial/deep peroneal nerve
What level is this section?
interventricular foramen
Beta blockers
antagonist of B1 receptors
treat hypertension
- antagonize vasoconstriction action of Norepinephrine
Temporal Resolution
ability to distinguish subsequent stimuli from each other (time related)
released by nerve.
makes receptors on NMJ concentrate on end plate
Docking of vesicle of nerve membrane.
(partially docked)

- Binds to syntaxin.
Autonomic system consists only of _______ pathways
Les artères médullaires segmentaires (définition, origine, divisions)
Origine :

artère cervicales

artères vertébrales

a. intercostales postérieures

a. lombaires

Sont :

Grande artère segmentaire antérieure

Artère d'Adamkiewicz : donne la plus grande vascularisation de la moelle, en forme d'épingle à cheveux.

Origine entre T12 et L4

à gauche 65% du temps

near the point wehre the structure connects itht he rest of the body
long ascending fibers
carry sensory information projecting from spinal cord to thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem nuclei
Epidural(Extra) Hematoma
(pterion) Middle meningeal artery is damaged from a blow to the head. Dura is stripped away from the inner part of skull and the blood collects.can be fatal
Trigeminal Motor
motor to muscles of mastication. Deficit-weak to chew jaw deviates toward lesioned nerve.
Retina's 5 Cell Types
Photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells.
tPA is used to treat ____
Stroke clots.
S2-S4 motor
bladder, bowel and sex organs
anal and pelvic muscles
frontal plagiocephaly
premature closure of the coronal suture (a form of craniosynostosis)
port-wine stain develops in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve; seizures develop in first year of life; mental retardation and learning disabilities develop in 50% of cases
sturge-weber syndrome
lucid interval in 50% of cases
epidural hemorrhage
Cisterna Magna
A large subarachnoid cistern between the medulla and the inferior vermis.  Also referred to as the cerebellomedullary cistern.
temporal lobe
bounded superiorly by teh superior fissure and posteriorly by the occipital lobe, the center for auditory processing in the brain.
A bundle of axons in the PNS
Pain resulting from heart disease is termed angina. Radiates down shoulder and arms. Pain in the left side of the heart is felt on the left side of the body.
fastigial nucles
most medial deep cerebellar nucleus projecting to vestibular nucleus and reticular formation
Pioneer Axon
leads the way. has extensive filopodia

- in axonal growth
Magnocellular Pathway
- Dorsal (parietal) pathway
- Depth & Motion (answers Where?)
(Location & Movement)
- detects fast moving stimulus
- synapse in first 2 layers of lateral geniculate nucleus
- Magno b/c larger cells
Parvocellular Pathway
- Ventral (Temporal) pathway
- Form & Color (answers What?)
- Color vision and acuity
- projects deeper into the primary visual cortex
- synapses in layers 3-6
(deeper and in more layers than magnocellular pathway)
Commissural (white matter)
Mediates communication between areas BETWEEN hemispheres

Major Commissural = Corpus Collosum
Where do the olfactory nerves synapes?
Olfactory bulb
Décrire la vascularisation artérielle dans la moelle?
1. Une artère spinale antérieure
Origine : 2 artères vertébrales
Territoire : 2/3 antérieurs de la moelle
2. Deux artères spinales postérieures
Origine : A. vertébrales ou ACPI
Territoire : 1/3 postérieur de la moelle

 Typiquement interrompues : réseau anastomotique.

Artères radiculaires = segmentaires.

Type 1 Axoaxonic Synapse
presynaptic neuron terminal synapses on the first, unmyelinate part of the post synaptic axon (near axon hillock)
primary visual cortex
occipital lobe, area 17. Lesion results in loss of vision in contralateral visual field.
flocconodular lobe of cerebellum
vestibulocerebellum; major inputs from vestibular system
Posterior Commissure
in the midbrain at entrance of aquaduct. carries info related to visual reflexes,pupillary light reflex
Parkinson's Disease
Develops arround 50-60 years of age. Involuntary tremor, shuffling gait, flexed posture, paucity & slowness of movement. Caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrospinal cells in substancia nigra. Possibly caused by unknown environmental toxin, MPTP (in heroine), some pesticides, some have a genetic component.
The Thalamus connects nerves to form:
A Sensory Pathway
The Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle connects the Cerebellum to the ______ through the ______
Cerebrum through the Medulla
S1 motor
foot eversion by peroneus longus and brevis (lets you walk on medial borders of foot)
onion bulb formations found in nerve root
charcot-marie-tooth syndrome
Globus pallidus
A wedge-shaped nucleus medial to the putamen that gives rise to most of the efferents from the basal ganglia.
What are neurons specialized for?
Excitation or Inhibitionimpulse conduction
parietal lobe
upper and central portion of each hemisphere btw the frontal and occipital lobes and above the temporal lobe
composed of nerve cell bodies; does not have myelin coating
gray matter
Where do cilia project
cilia project into gelatinous structure called cupula
Infereior Visual Field
- parietal radiation
- above the calcarine sulcus
Subdural Hematoma
- Hemorrhage of bridging VEIN
- Crescent Shaped
- Venous System - lower pressure than arterial. = takes approx 4-6 weeks for symptoms.
- Vague Symptoms.
- Chronic rather than acute
- Trauma or Elderly
Where does the sense of smell begin?
Olfactory Mucosa
myelin sheath
a wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses to muscles and other effectors.
Divisions du système nerveux autonome :
A. sympathiqueB Parasympathique3. Entérique
muscle spindle
the receptor in the muscle involved in the muscle stretch reflex
how are pain and temperature relayed?
via small diameter, thinly-myelinated/non-myelinated, slow-conducting dorsal root ganglion cells that synapse with interneurons in the dorsal horn
Broca's area
only on left side for motor of speech
The Fissure of Rolando is also known as the:
Central Sulcus
What is spina bifida?
vertebral column is not fully developed which leads to protrusion of spinal cord. Folic acid can help!
pes cavus (high arches) and pied en griffe (hammertoes)
charcot-marie-tooth syndrome
Dura mater
The outermost of the three layers of meninges, providing crucial mechanical support for the CNS. In the cranium, it is continuous with the periosteum of the inner surface of the skull, whereas in the vertebral canal, it forms a dural sac within which the spinal cord is suspended by denticulate legaments.
the part of the brain that lies btw the medulla and midbrain
Patient's shoulder droop on the left
left CN XI lesion
Which cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
What does this image demonstrate?
Photomicrographs of a resolving cerebral infarct, showing a cavity formed by liquifactive necrosis with reactive astrocytes in the wall (left) and residual macrophages within the cavity (right).
Nerve Growth Factor
- from snake venom and salivary glands
- causes growth of neurites
- required for sensory cell outgrowth
- antiNGF = smaller Dorsal Root Ganglion
- affects Sympathetic NS but not Parasympathetic
- each cell types CRITICAL PERIOD = survival depends on supply of NGF
- Transported into Soma, regulates synthesis of NORE via
1 tyrosine hydroxlase, dopamine b-hydroxylase
Posterior spinal arteries arise from?
vertebral or posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
Quel est le rôle du parasympathique%
Conservation de L'énergie- adapte l'oeil à la vision- ralentit le rythme cardiaque- sécrétions de sucs digestifs- accélère le péristaltisme intestinal- impliqué dans le réflexe de miction : centre pontique de la miction.
when a neurotransmitter inhibits
it inhibits the neurons from sending nerve impulses
Alpha Sensory IA & Ib
Primary muscle spindles, golgi tendon organ
Brodmann's Areas 44 & 45 house:
Broca's Speech Area!! (Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Frontal Lobe)
Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvius)
The narrow channel (remnant of the lumen of the embryonic mesencephalon) through the midbrain connecting the third and fourth ventricles.  Serves only as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid descending through the ventricular system.
What does the posterior commissure connect?
Visual system stuffPretectal nucleus and superior colliculus
cell body or nuclei -+
aka soma, with dendrites branching off; comtain the DNA/RNA and various organelles, surounded by bilipid membrane
Name three characteristic clinical features of internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
1. On attempted lateral gaze, contralateral eye fails to abduct past midline; 2. Contralateral nystagmus on attempted lateral gaze; 3. Normal convergence
Where do vestibular afferents project to
vestibular nuclei - superior, lateral, medial inferior, some project directly to cerebellum
What is this an image of?
muscle fibers, denervated; ATPase staining: fiber-type grouping
What happens with lethal injection?
- Lethal Injection = KCl
-raise extracellular K+
- depolarizes excitable cells
- fails to generate another action potential b/c voltage gated Na+ channels are inactivated
Pure right sided motor hemiparesis
- decreased right palate movement, rightward tongue deviation
Left corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts in the posterior limb of the internal capsule or ventral pons
Pure right sided motor hemiparesis
- decreased right palate movement, rightward tongue deviation
Lacunar infarction of contralateral internal capsule or pons
Où décussent les voies spinothalamiques?
1. décussation des fibres dans la moelle : commissure antérieure spinale
Leukodystrophy is a class of:
Myelin diseases that damage the white matter of the brain and motor movement capability.
pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy
* Abnormal activity in at least four pathways are thought to underlie the genesis of diabetic neuropathy (see Brownlee, 2001 for a good review of this information) * Increased polyol pathway flux * Increased intracellular formation of advanced Glycation end-products * Activation of protein kinase C elevating the expression of proinflammatory molecules * Increased flux in the hexoamine pathway * All of these pathways ultimately result in vascular insufficiency, the elevation of free radical production and the loss of free radical scavengers
Splenium of the corpus callosum
The thick, rounded posterior bend (of corpus callosum) (similar to a rolled bandage), containing fibers to the occipital and temporal lobes.
The lateral cortical spinal tract carries what type of fibers, and how are they arranged in the spinal cord?
motor fibers, arms medially, legs laterally
Name the cranial nerves associated with sight, smell, hearing, and taste.
sight: optic (II); smell: olfactory (I); hearing: vestibulocochlear (VIII); taste: facial (VII) for ant. 2/3 of tongue and glossopharyngeal (IX) for post 1/3
Reticular activating system
damage to this area may result in a comatose patient due to failure of cortical arousal
What activates transcription of Hox genes?
Retionic Acid
- creates a Anterior- posterior gradient
HN V: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. trigeminus: Seitenrand der Pons, Durchtritt: V1 (Ophtalmicus) Fissura orbitalis superior, V2 (Maxillaris) Foramen rotundum, V3 (Mandibularis) Foramen ovale
Lacking of "blue" cones
Absence of blue cones is a very rare condition (gene is on chromosome #7)
Brachium of the superior colliculus
Bundle of fibers that passes over the medial geniculate nucleus to reach the superior colliculus.  Contains afferents from the retina directly to the superior colliculus and pretectal area, as well as projections from cerebral cortex to the superior colliculus and from the superior colliculus to the pulvinar.
La la la tests which CN?
XII - Hypoglossal (innervation of the tongue)
What do saccule and utricle detect
changes of head angle and linear acceleration of the head
What are the effects of opioids?
- ↓ duration of action potential from afferent neurons
- ↓ amplitude of excitatory post synaptic potential
- hyperpolarize 2nd order neuron in pain pathway
Which nerves are General Somatic Efferent?
Cranial nerves III, IV, VI and XII
The Right and Left PCA are connected to the ______ via the _______
Internal Carotid Arteries via the Posterior Communication Artery!
Describe the innervation of the extraocular muscles.
LR6SO4R3 : Lateral Rectus = CN VI, Superior Oblique = CN IV, and the Rest are CN III
Where part of the visual field is lost in lesion 3?
Homonymous hemianopia
Lesion in Optic tract or Posterior cerebral artery dysfunction
How many bones are present after fusion?
26- 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx
Corticospinal axons end where at their termination?
In the spinal cord on cells of the posterior horn, intermediate gray, and anterior horn, where some synapse directly on alpha and gamma motor neurons.  A single functional role is difficult to specify, but this is the principal pathway on which skilled volitional movements depend.
Emotion, memory
Cervical nerves
Voies ascendantes (image)
T4 sensory
nipple line
Angular Gyrus
Language fx
Ependymal Cells
Secretes CSF
Occipital Lobe
Visual, visual associative
C5 sensory
lateral upper arm
pineal gland
midline unpaired gland
loss of olfactory sensation
Progressive weakness, muscle fasciculations and cramps
-Babinsky's sign
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Treat with?
Progressive weakness, muscle fasciculations and cramps
-Babinsky's sign
lentiform nucleus
putamen + globus pallidus
sits right next to midbrain
brachial plexus divisions
anterior and posterior
rapidly progressing weakness (
guillian-barre syndrome
Choroid Plexus
Long, grapevinelike, highly convoluted, vascularized strands in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, in which most of the cerebrospinal fluid is produced.
Inferior gluteal nerve
Plexus: sacralNerves: L5-S2Innervates: Maximus gluteus
inhibits exocytosis by inhibiting docking of synaptic vesicles.
frequent miswiring of retinogeniculate connections
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
towards the bottom of the feet
filum terminale
pial-glial filamentanchors the conus medullaris to the coccyx
Neuromuscular Junction disorder
Fluctuating weakness(fatigue) w/o sensory loss
The dorsal column medial lemniscal system and the anterolateral system both have relays in somatotopically organized in this nuclei before connecting to cortex. The structures responsible for activation of cortex to maintain consciousness (reticular formation) are also routed here. Major sensorimotor processing station
Mental Stimulation impedes _________ but later on produces a more rapid progression of ____________
Cognitive decline.Dementia
lumbar plexus
*innervates thigh, abd wall, psoas muscle
major nerves: femoral and obturator
(I ice Gary's leg on Friday)
premature closure of sagittal suture (a form of craniosynostosis)
both myelopathy and axonpathy components
charcot-marie-tooth syndrome
Fasciculus gracilis
Uncrossed, large myelinated primary afferents entering the posterior column of the spinal cord caudal to T6 and carrying tactile and proprioceptive information from the leg; many of these fibers ascend to the medulla, medial to fasciculus cuneatus, to terminate in the nucleus gracilis.
Septum pellucidum
-between corpus callosum & fornix-separates the left & right lateral ventricles
one axon, one dendrite (special sensory cells)
inferior colliculus
caudal midbrain
relays auditory info from lateral mensicus to the medial geniculate nucleus via the inferior brachium
for clinical depression
- allows more available SEROTONIN in CNS
- slows down 5-HT receptor = ↓ reuptake
Spatial Resolution
ability to distinguish adjacent stimuli from each other (relating to space)
Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule
- binds to itself and causes axons to stick to one another

- bound axons are wrapped by shared glia

-Fab part of antibody can disrupt bundling of growing axons
Wernicke: Wo? Was?
Gyrus superior temporalis; sensorisches Sprachzentrum
Caractéristiques du SNA
Fonctionne sans intervention du cerveauInvolontaireEfférences (cibles ) = muscles lisses, glandes et coeur
at a right angle to the neuraxis
cerebral veins
-no valves, very thin walls-pierce arachnoid mater and inner layer of dura-includes great cerebral vein of Galen
fasciculi of dorsal columns
fasciculus gracilius: lower limbsfasciculus cuneatus: upper limbs
Wallerian Degeneration
Axonal damage that results in degeneration of the portion of the neuron that is distal to the leison
Function in very dim light (ex. moonlight) and DO NOT contribute to color vision nor vision in the daylight.
The vestibulary nucleus is found in:
the medulla
L5 motor
toe extensors (raising) by extensors digitorum longus
bacterial or viral infection of the brain parenchyma; if untreated, has a 50-70% mortality rate, and 100% have neurological sequelae
Corticobulbar tract
A large collection of fibers originating in the cerebral cortex and descending through the internal capsule (immediately anterior to the closely related corticospinal fibers, terminate in the "bulb" or brainstem, on motor nuclei of cranial nerves.  Basically equivalent of the corticospinal tract for the cranial nerve nuclei.
portion of the brain that composes part of the third ventricle, critical to the autonomous and endocrine funtion, incl rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and nutriendt intake,also exerts neural control over pituitary gland
junction between axon and dendrite or cell body
Gastrointestinal Tract Nociceptors
Made of Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors, slow adapting mechanoreceptors, Chemoreceptors. Causes: Irritation of mucosa, distention, powerful contractions, torsion, traction, bloating, cramping, impaction, appendicitis
Fasciculus cuneatus
tactile and proprioception from the arm to the nucleus cuneatus
Color Agnosia
inability to distinguish color hue
- lesion in area 17 or 18
glial scar
- During trauma or ischemia
- astrocyte form scar to isolate neurons from each other

- presence of glial scar = limits the possibility of axonal regeneration in CNS
Perivascular Astrocytes
astrocytes that maintain blood flow and osmotic balance in brain
Dark Current
- photoreceptors are depolarized and releasing glutamate in the dark.
HN VIII: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. vestibulocochlearis, Kleinhirnbrückenwinkel, Porus acusticus internus
Définitions :
Qui transmet les ordres à l'organe cible
- fibres motrices = volontaire
- sudation = involontaire
a group of cell bodies in the CNS
substantia nigra
uses dopamine as a transmitter for communication with cortex, thalamus, and striatum
ventral spinocerebellar tract
-carries information from Golgi tendon organs; axons cross in anterior white commissure and ascend in the contralateral ventral spinocerebellar tract; recross in midbrain and enter ipsilateral cerebellum via superior cerebellar peduncle (2 crossings of axons)
Masses of axons that connect the two hemispheres. Est. communication btwn the 2 hemispheres (corpus callosum is one of these)
Medial Division of Thalamus
Dorsomedical Nucleus (2-way connection to the prefrontal cortex; has inputs from the limbic system)
The Superior Cerebella Peduncle is also called:
The Branchium Conjunctivum.
The Cerebral Aqueduct connects:
The 3rd and 4th ventricles
associated with lack of folic acid during pregnancy
spina bifida
Cerebellum vermis
Most medial zone of the cerebellum, straddling the midline.
Gracile tubercle
A conspicuous swelling just caudal to the obex, located dorsomedially on the lower medulla overlying nucleus gracilis, which mediates that part of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway carrying tactile and proprioceptive information from the leg and lower body.
landmarks below the 3rd ventricle
Optic ChiasmPituitary stalkMammillary bodyposterior commissurepineal gland
This artery comes off of middle cerebral artery and supply internal capsule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
Lateral Striate
The garbage men of the CNS; they phagocytize debris within it
Where do axons from otolith organs project to
lateral nucleus
Ocular Dominance columns
organization of primary visual cortex
- arranged in alternating contralateral/ipsilateral columns
Muller cells
Radial glia in retina - bidirectional communication with neurons
HN VII: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. facialis, Kleinhirnbrückenwinkel, Porus acusticus internus
of or pertaining to the senses or sensation.
Composition du SNP :
N'inclut pas la moelleNerfs crâniens de III à XIINerfs spinaux en paires : 8 cervicales, 12 thoraciques, 5 lombaires, 5 sacrées, 1 coccygienne
fastigial nucleus
lies close to the midline of the cerebellum; receives inputs from the Purkinje cells of the vermis, vestibular nuclei, and vestibular ganglion cells. Output mainly to vestibular nuclei and reticular formation. Concerned with extensor muscle tone and adjusting posture.
Oculomotor III
all eye muscles except LR & SO. Deficits-Diplopia(double vision), external strabismus, loss of parallel gaze, Ptosis. loss of near response, dilated pupil.
Brodmann's Area 4 houses the:
Motor Cortex! (Precentral Gyrus, Frontal Lobe)
How many coccyx vertebrae are there?
4 fused (before)1 (after)
central nervous system _ +
brain and apinal cord structures
Thoracic outlet syndrome leads to loss of the compression of ____ artery and ____ trunk of brachial plexus
Subclavian, inferior (C8. T1)
space between myelin sheaths on a nerve
nodes of ranvier
What ios this an image of?
teased axon: demyelinating (Guillain-Barre)
Dandy Walker Syndrome
Foramina of Luschka and Magendie fail to develop
- Dilatation of all 4 ventricles
- congenital
Bilateral arm weakness of paralysis
Medial fibers of both lateral corticospinal tracts; bilateral ventral horn cells
Bilateral arm weakness of paralysis
Central cord syndrome: syringomyelia, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, myelitis
Anterior cord syndrome: anterior artery infarct, trauma, myelitis
Quelle est la disposition du parasympathique SNA? son rôle?
Disposition : crânio-sacréRôles : 1. conservation de l'énergie, 2. restoration des ressources du corps.
Où font synapse les voies spinothalamiques?
Les neurones des voies spinothalamiques font synapse avec les neurones controlatéraux.
The parts of the nervous system...
function together to  produce preception, thought and action.
Erb Duchene's Palsy
Damage to ventral rami of C5, C6. "Waiter's Tip" (Upper trunk injury)Happens in motorcycle or babies being born--neck area
The Thalamus functions as a:
Relay for Sensory and Motor signals.
How many sacral vertebrae are there?
5 fused vertebare (before)1 (after)
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
A long circumferential branch of the basilar artery arising just above the union of the two vertebral arteries. Supplies:
Anterior regions of the inferior surface of the cerebellum, including flocculus,
parts of the caudal pons.
these are bundles of cell bodies in the PNSWhich is for sensory?
gangliadorsal root ganglia
This nuclei confers visceral Sensory information (eg: taste, gut distension)
Nucleus Solitarius (VII, IX, X)
Which cranial nerves are associated with the cerebellopontine angle?
Vestiulo ocular reflex
reflex that keeps vision focused on a particular area in space regardless of how head moves
action potentials

1. do not spread with decrement
2. spread with decrement
do not spread with decrement
Rôle des cornes postérieures de la matière grise :
Réception et traitement d'influx sensitifs
The Gyrus of Heschl houses part of the:
the primary auditory cortex
treatment options for bacterial meningitis
# Medical emergency# First priority is sustaining blood pressure and treating for septic shock# Empiric antibiotic choice is premium, and is begun while awaiting diagnostic testing# Specific antibiotic therapy based on test results
What are the characteristics of a neuron cell body (Perikaryon)?
- large, single,central nucleus (except ANS w. eccentric)- lots of euchromatic- Nissl substance (not in axons)- organelles- pigments (lipofuscin in older cells, melanin in substantia nigra of midbrain)
In general, in stroke of anterior circle you would see what kind of deficits?
Sensory and motor dysfunction, aphasias
Name three structures passing through optic canal (one nerve, two vessels).
CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
mid-medulla (obex)
1. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

2. Hypoglossal nucleus (XII)

3. Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (X)
4. Solitary tract

5. Internal arcuate fibers coursing through the reticular formation
6. Spinal tract and spinal nucleus of V

7. Restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)
8. Medial lemniscus

9. Inferior olivary nucleus

10. Pyramid

11. Spinothalamic tract
BMP (Bone morphogenic Protein)
- induction of neural plate
- Early - suppress neural differentiation and promotes epidermal tissue
- Later - is blocked so that ectoderm can form neural plate
HN IV: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. trochlearis: Unterhalb der Lamina tecti, durch die Fissura orbitalis superior
The R/L Carotid splits into:
The R/L Internal and the R/L External Carotid arteries!
External medullary lamina of the thalamus
A thin, curved sheet of myelinated fibers (afferent and efferent) in places fenestrated and in others dense, surrounding the lateral surface of the thalamus; enclosed by a thin shell of gray matter, the reticular nucleus, which intervenes between it and the internal capsule.
What neurological symptoms would you see in thoracic outlet syndrome?
sensory deficits of medial side of forearm and hand
target of most Nucleus Ambiguous cells
These cells are special SGE fibers that go to the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and esophagus
Visceral Pain is carried on what type of fiber?
unmyelinated C fibers
- burning sensation
HN X: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. vagus, Med. obl. hinter Olive, Foramen jugulare
Subdural Hematomas occur ________ and are associated with:
Below the Dura Mater of the meninges. Associated with TBI.
Classify each cranial nerve (1-12) according to its function as a sensory nerve, a motor nerve, or both.
Mnemonic: Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Boobs Matter Most
how does the composition of CSF compare to serum (in terms of Protein, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Cl-)?
- less protein
- less cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+)
- more Cl-
- produced by direct secretion
How many bones are present before fusion?
33- 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccyx
Name five nerves and one vessel that pass through the cavernous sinus.
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI; internal carotid artery
C7 reflex
filled by
towards the tail
Va & VL
T10, T11 sensory
synthetic catecholamine
similar structure to ephinephrine
closer to the midline
Involuntary, continuous, rapid movements of the face and tongue or distal limbs.
S1 sensory
lateral (outside) foot
change in blood osmolarity
Biogenic amines
catecholamines, indoleamine, imidazoleamine, purine
building blocks of the body
short association fibers
connect adjacent gyri
Vestibulocochlear VIII
Hearing, Linear acceleration(gravity) Angular acceleration (head turning)Deficit-sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo
musculocutaneous innervates
biceps brachii and brachialis
Presents w/ confabulation, learning and memory deficits
Axon Hillock
proximal part of axon
Membranous labyrinth containing vestibular receptors is embedded in..
temporal bone
brodmann's areas
46 divisions of neocortex
"- fast RETROGRADE transport
- nerve ending back to soma
- motor protein for movement in cilia and flagella
- inactivated in soma and carried back to nerve ending
- carries lysozymes, enzymes and recycled vesicle membranes"
Inferior colliculus
Inferior colliculus
Location: Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
Function: involved in the localization of sound
High affinity receptor fro NT-3
Définitions :
Qui apporte l'information au SNC
divides the body into precise right-left halves; producing two equal mirrior image pieces.
spinal cord segment C2 & C3
Violent flinging movements caused from a disturbance in Basal Ganglia
mneumonic for eye muscles
Micro Tubule Associated proteins make _____ in cells.
Adult curvature?
primary- thoracic and sacrumsecondary- cervical and lumbar (due to height diff in IV discs)
an autosomal recessive disorders resulting in defective metabolism of copper and copper toxicity
wilson's disease
This is a non-lethal neurobehavioral disorder involving D2 receptors in the ventral portion of the corpus striatum
A prominent paired fiber bundle, mostly containing hippocampal efferents, that interconnects the hippocampus of each cerebral hemisphere and the ipsilateral septal nuclei and hypothalamus.
2 kinds of acstrocytes
protoplasmic--in gray matterfibrous--in white matter
Which wavelengths correspond to visual light on the electromagnetic spectrum?
400-700 nm
spinal accessory
anterior horn medulla to C5
sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
allows Ca2+ in
(blocked by Mg2+)
- when v. large depolarization, many EPSP = membrane induces Mg2+ to leave
Unblocked NMDA = Ca2+ enters = - long lasting physiological changes in cell
- activated during intense synpatic activity
Neuropathic Pain
pain sensation from aberrant somatosensory processing in the PNS or CNS
White matter
myelinated axons (cortex inwards, spinal cord outwards)
Anterograde Degeneration
degeneration of the neuron postsynaptic to the damaged neuron

- Wallerian degeneration
- after the axon has been cut
weariness from bodily or mental exertion.
Lateral Inhibition
Two pencil touches activate several DORSAL ROOT GANGLION cells.
In the MEDULLA, these neurons make excitatory synapses with MEDULLARY neurons. Firing of adjacent medullary neurons is inhibited using medullary inhibitory interneurons.
Stimuli percieved is better localized; however overall neuronal activity and percieved stimulation is decreased 
Sensory neurons
carry sensory infomation from the periphery into the central nervous system
cuneocerebellar tracts
dorsal root fibers from C2-T4;synapse in lateral cuneate nucleus in medulla
vertebral arteries
first branches off of subclavian arteries in neck;S-shaped siphon before entering cranial cavity
Supramarginal gyrus
Inferior part of parietal, assoc. sensory functions
Substancia Nigra
Contains dopamine producing cells to striatum (important because degeneration leads to Parkinson's disease). Early on can give precursor of dopamine to treat symptoms. Projects to caudate and putamen.
Krabbe Disease:
Affects development of myelin in infants.
L4 motor
foot inversion (lifting) by tibialis anterior (shin muscle)
neuritic plaques (or senile plagues) contain A-beta amyloid
alzheimer's disease
Presents w/ sensory loss, optic neuritis, weakness, paresthesias, oculomotor dysfunction, limb weakness, ataxic gait and other cerebellar signs, intranuclear ophthalmoplegia
Multiple sclerosis
most prevalent form of hereditary ataxia
friedreich ataxia
Corticopontine Tract
Very large collection of fibers originating in the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and even limbic lobes, and descending through the internal capsule (anterior and posterior to the corticospinal/corticobulbar projections) to nuclei in the basal pons, from which axons pass to the contralateral cerebellar hemispheres through the MIDDLE CEREBELLAR peduncles.
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Optic chiasm
Bitemporal hemianopsia
lumbosacral plexus
The plexuses originating from the ventral ramii of the lumbar and saccral regions of the spine.
aqueduct of sylvius
connects third and fourth ventricles
Pacinian Corpuscle
receptor for vibration
- high frequency
- low sensitivity
Botulinum Toxin
- blocks Ach release
- blocks synaptobrevin (Ach can't dock)
- diplopia, dysphasia, dysphagia dry mouth

= botox injection
when lesion next to cell body
- swelling and movement of cell organelles away from the cell body
- reduce limbs to flipper like appendages

1. primary effect = neurons
2. secondary effect = bone growth

metabotropic or ionotropic
Ionotropic - CATION receptors
- inhibitory in the brain and brainstem
- 2 GABA to bind
- mediates FAST IPSP
-metabotropic - indirect K+ channels open thru 2nd messenger
- mediate slow inhibition of postsynpatic neuron

-anti-anxiety drugs
inhibits Amygdala (responsible for fear/anxiety)
the act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding.
Où fait synapse le parasympathique?
Les neurones postganglionnaires parasympathiques font synapse au niveau de 3 paires de ganglions crâniens-> ont des organes cibles : gnaglions entériques /intrinsèques
posterior cerebral arteries
portions of temporal lobemedial aspect of occipital lobe (visual cortex)posterior and lateral parts of thalamus and rostral midbrain
climbing fibers
originate from neurons in the inferior olive; synapse mainly on dendrites of Purkinje cells in the molecular layer; send collateral axons to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons; excitatory
Posterior Cord syndrome
damaged dorsal column tract. no vibration discriminate touch sensory. Ipsilateral in derms at & below leison
on left, meaning of speech, on right, decodes environmental sounds, can be affected by alcoholism
Intralaminar Nuclei
Collections of nuclei embedded in the internal medullary lamina. Widespread connections within the CNS. Involved in sensory-motor integration with the limbic system.
The two types of stroke are:
Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
cortical atrophy most marked in the parietal lobe
alzheimer's disease
normally preceded by an intestinal or upper respiratory tract infection
guillian-barre syndrome
A thin but extensive layer of gray matter beneath the insula, separated from it and the underlying putamen by the extreme and external capsules respectively.  Has reciprocal connections with cerebral cortex, but incompletely understood functions.
Benedikt's Syndrome
--Caused by damage to red nucleus/CN III in midbrain; usually vascular, can be tumor--IPSI occulomotor (CN III) palsy --> "down n out"; ptosis; absent pupillary reflex; eyes don't move together. --CONTRA cerebellar intention tremor in hand and foot b/c opposite cerebellar hemisphere goes thru red nucleus.
In thoracic outlet syndrome, when the patient turn his head toward the opposite side, you notice the dissapearance of _____ (what physical finding?)
radial pulse
Schwann Cells, satellite cells
Glial cells of the PNS
inferior frontal gyrus
opercular and triangular parts form broca's area (language fx)
safety factor
every excitatory signal is ~5x as strong as is needs to be. therefore it can still move thru an demyelinated area
small clear vesicles
- AcH, serotonin, glycine
- recycled locally (at the synapse)
- low nerve stimulation (10Hz) causes a rise in Ca2+ near active zone and causes exocytosis
synaptic cleft
the small gap, measured in nanometers, between an axon terminal and any of the cell membranes in the immediate vicinity.
Voies corticospinales antérieures (rôle)
s'occupe de la musculature du tronc.
Cauda Equina
the dorsal and ventral roots of the lower lumbar and sacral spinal segments.  Roots surround the conus medullaris and occupy the lumbar cistern
deep cerebellar nuclei (4)
1. fastigial nucleus 2. globose nucleus 3. emoboliform nucleus 4. dentate nucleus
major branches of vertebral arteries
anterior spinal arteries, posterior spinal arteries, posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, medullary branches
Blood Supply to Thalamus
Branches from the internal carotid (anterior choroidal) and posterior cerebral arteries.
Cingluate Gyrus senses:
Pain and receives signals from the Hypothalamus and projects them through the Fornix
most common form of progressive motor neuron disease
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Edinger-Westphal nucleus
A column of small nerve cell bodies near the midline of the oculomotor nucleus.  Its neurons form the efferent arm of the direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes. Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons effect (via postganglionic neurons in the ciliary ganglion) contraction of the pupillary sphincter to constrict the pupil. Also part of the efferent arm of the near reflex.
cerebrum - +
the major portion of the brain, consisting of two hemispheres, that contain the cortex and it's underlying white matter as well as the basal anglia and other basal structures
Patient's uvula deviate to the left
right CN X lesion
What structure focuses light onto the retina? Which muscles control this structure?
lens, ciliary muscles
Excitatory M receptors
M1, M3, M5
via phospholipase

M1, M3 = brain
M3 - secretory and smooth muscle
Unilateral face and arm weakness
Face and arm area of the primary motor cortex over the lateral frontal convexity. Cause?
Unilateral face and arm weakness
Middle cerebral artrey superior division infarct
a sea horse with two forefeet, and a body ending in the tail of a dolphin or fish.
Par quoi est influencé le système entérique?
1. influex postganglionnaire sympathique2. influex postganglionnaire parasympathique
Descending fiber tracts
Cell body is located in higher brain centers and axons descend down (i.e brain-->spinal cord)
Anterograde degeneration/demyelination will occur below the injury
anterior spinal arteries
each joins its mate from the other side and runs caadually along ventral midline of spinal cord; anastomose with radicular arteries
Blood Supply to Internal Capsule
Branches from the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries.
Arcuate Fasciculus connects ____ to _____ via______ fibers:
Broca's area Wernicke's via association fibers.
due to obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct secondary to masses or viral infections, or structural abnormalities such as the chiari malformation or dandy-walker syndrome
hydrocephalus in the child
Branchium of the inferior colliculus
Auditory afferents from the inferior colliculus on their way to the medial geniculate nucleus.
these cells are formed at the top of the neural tube and give rise to many other kinds of cells
chain ganglia
Nucleus aMbiguus confers Motor innervation of what part of the body?
pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus (IX, X, XI)
If you suspect a lesion in both Broca's and Wernecke's areas, a lesion in which artery could be the cause?
Middle cerebral artery
locked-in syndrome
- not enough blood supply (i.e. due to stroke) to ventral portion of pons

-horizontal eye movement and facial expression (along with all other voluntary muscle actions) will be non-functional
Which cranial nerves are General visceral afferent
Cranial nerve IX and X
Expliquer les rameaux communicants du système sympathiques
Les rammeaux communicants blancs sont préganglionnairesLes rameaux communicants gris sont post-ganglionnaires -> empruntent le trajet des nerfs spinaux.
Medulla oblongata
lies @ the base of the skull and is directly continuous w/ the spinal cord
Brodmann's Areas 17 & 18 house:
The Primary Vision Cortex (Occipital Lobe)
Body of the fornix
Upper arched cable formed by the union of the crura beneath the septa pellucida in the midline.
Name the 4 kinds of neuroglia and their function
oligodendrocytes: mylenate CNS cellsastrocytes: long projections that anchor neurons to other things (end feet) microglia: macrophage of the immune systemependyma: secrete CSF
True or False: Upper motor neuron lesion of the face causes contralateral weakness of lower face only
TRUE, this lesion causes contralateral weakness of the lower face only
3 types of nerves based on number of axons and dendrites
Multipolar, Bipolar, Unipolar
Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)
- protein in CNS that promotes survival of DRG
- very similar to NGF
- can rescue cells from neuronal death if administered
2 lateral motor tracts?
4 medial motor tracts?
Lateral motor tracts: lateral corticospinal & rubrospinal
Medial motor tracts: Anterior corticospinal, vestibulospinal, reticulospinal, tectospinal
HN XI: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. accessorius, Med. obl. hinter Olive, Forman jugulare
The Pre-Motor Area (PMA) is in:
front of the Primary Motor Cortex.The PMA is important in fluency and dyslexia.
what causes shingles? where does it live?
varicella zoster, lives in DRG neurons
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Cerebellar vermis?
Truncal ataxia and dysarthria
Sudden onset of right hand weakness
- Afib
Left precentral gyrus, primary motor cortex, hand area
Sudden onset of right hand weakness
- Afib
Embolic infarct, small cortical branch of the left middle cerebral artery, superior division
Where are the axons of motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system located?
In the intermediolateral cell column of the intermediate gray of spinal cord segments T1-L2,3
Where do you find gray matter?
a. central part of spinal cord b. brain stem (portions)c. cortical tissue (cerebellum and cerebrum)
Describe the route of CSF from the superior sagittal sinus to the internal jugular vein.
superior sagittal sinus => confluence of sinuses => transverse sinus => sigmoid sinus => internal jugular vein (via jugular foramen)
site of origin, level of termination and function of reticulospinal tracts? Medial or lateral?
Site or origin is pontine and medullary reticular formation, terminates throughout entire cord and does automatic posture and gait related movements. Medial
Name the foramina of exit for each division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V).
Standing Room Only: V1 = Superior orbital fissure; V2 = foramen Rotundum; V3 = foramen Ovale
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