Neuroanatomy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Parasympathetic
Preganglionic-LongPostganglionic-Short
LD
Limbic System
Thoracic nerves
12
Cross-sections
the horozonal plane
medulla
consciousness/reticular formation, heartrate breathing
C6 reflex
brachioradialis
(forarm tendon)
Neurotransmitter for Photoreceptors
Glutamate
Lamina 2
Substantia Gelatinosa
Dorsal Horn
Somatosensory Recipient
Claw like shape cervical/thoracic
Clear (white) stain
Chorea
Involuntary, continuous, rapid movements of the face and tongue or distal limbs.
C8 motor
finger flexion (curling)
PNS
Cranial and Peripheral nerves
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Location?
Function?
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Location: hypothalamus (Diencephalon)
Function: trigger circadian clock
Définition :
faisceaux
Regroupement de fibres nerveuses
 
Neurones/axones > ganglions > faisceaux
posterior lobe of cerebellum
cerebrocerebellum/neocerebellum; inputs mainly from cerebral cortex via pons
Abducens
lateral rectus (abducts eyeball) defecit-diplopia, internal strabismus, loss of lateral gaze.
T1 sensory
medial (inner) upper arm
mapped to chromosome 9q13-q21.1
friedreich ataxia
Where are the Neuroglia located?
CNS
Obturator Nerve
Plexus: LumbarSpinal nerves: L2-L4Innervates: Medial thigh (passes through obturator foramen)
CNXII
hypoglossal nerve emerging from preolivary sulcus in rostral medulla
Gliosis
hyperplasia and hypertrophy of astrocytes in response to injury in CNS

= Glial Scar
Hensen's Node
Anterior-Posterior Hox gene expression
Ephrin
- responsible for repulsive interactions during cell signaling
- cell migration, axon pathfinding and cell intermingling
- part of receptor tyrosine kinases

ephrin-A2 and ephrin A-5 are in tectum
practice
habitual or customary performance; operation:
Superior
towards the top of the head
Anterior Cerebral artery occlusion
-contralateral leg weakness-contralateral leg sensory deficits-behavioral abnormalities
Paroxysmal disorders
Loss of consciousness. Epilepsy, narcolepsy, migraines
Cerebellum
uses complex sensory info. to unconsciously modulate motor activity coordination & some aspects of motor learning.
Depolarization occurs when:
The Na channels open!
C1-C4 sensory
C2, C3: head and neck
headache type affecting women more than men, with a strong familial correlation, and more common among lower classes
migraine
inflammatory cell infiltration and myelin degeneration with complement deposited on the outside of the myelinated fiber
guillian-barre syndrome
Fimbria
Literally "the fringe", a prominent band of white matter along the medial edge of the hippocampus. It is an accumulation of myelinated axons (mostly efferent) that first collect on the ventricular surface of the hippocampus (alveus).  Near the splenium of the corpus callosum, it separates from the hippocampus as the crus of the fornix.
Pseudounipolar
axonal process + dendritic process- somatic sensory fibers to spinal cord
produce myelin in the PNS
Schwann cells
What level is this section?
caudal diencephalon
fornix
paired fiber bundle with hippocampal efferents
ependymal cells transfer water and nutrients via
paracellular/transcellular
paracellular
otosklerosis
replacement of normal bone in labyrinth and stapes footplate with lamellar new bone

= fusion of stapes with border of oval window.
= conductive hearing loss ~ 40db
amygdala
an almond-shaped part, as a tonsil.
Clasp Knife Reflex
UMN damage symptom
Initial spastic muscle reflex then sudden collapse of resistance
Tracts
large numbers of nerve fibers that corse together in the CNS
fasciculi
smaller bundles of axons that are subdivisions of funiculi (column) white matter in the spinal cord; aka tracts; included long ascending fibers, long descending fibers, and propriospinal fibers
Amygdala (almond)
w/ the hypothalamus, contributes to the autonomic components of emotional behavior such as anger, fear and helps to associate memories with emotional reactions.
Subthalamic Nucleus
Part of motor circle becomes overactive in Parkinson's (normally surpressed) and it surpresses VPL & VPM (theoretically cause for parkinson's).
The bottom of the brainstem is:
the medulla.
The Hypothalamus links the nervous system to the _____
Endocrine System
Cervical Plexus
C1-C4
 
* cutaneous nerves of neck, ear, back of head, shoulders
 
* phrenic nerve
This is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and the most common familial neurodegenerative disease.
Parkinsons
neoplasms more common in females than males; seen in the 6th or 7th decade of life, rarely in children; established risk factor is radiation therapy; seizures most common complaint
meningioma
Cuneus
The wedge-shaped area of the medial surface of the occipital lobe between the calcarine and parietooccipital sulci.  Includes the upper half of primary visual cortex and parts of visual association cortex.
cerebellum - +
cauli-flower shaped brain structure located just above the brain-stem at the base of the cerebrum/skull, ie cxn of cerebrum to spinal cord; associated with postrure stability, learning new motor acts, astoring movts for quick speech
Common Peroneal Nerve
Plexus: Saccral, from Sciatic nerveNerves: L4-S2Innervates Hamstringsshort head of biceps femoris
Barorreceptor Reflex
when baraoreceptors on the cartid sinus and aortic arch send signals to the solitarius nuclus via the CN9 and 10 (GVA). These inturn will excite or inhibit the DMV and Nuc Ambiguous ------> vagus nerve ------>postgang.parasymp, if the need for vasodepression is needed (parasympathetic responseor the Anterior medulla ------> IMLCC for a vasopression response(note: this is a sympathetic response)
dentate nucleus
largest and most lateral cerebellar nuclei
afferents form superior CP ending in thalamus
Fovea
highest visual acuity
- no rods, only cones
- surrounded by macula
- 1.5 mm diameter
- all layers (except for photoreceptors) are pushed laterally so they don't interfere with photoreceptors
- on ophthalmoscope = area without blood vessels
Tanycyte
bipolar cells that link CSF to neuroendocrine events.

- radial glial that differentiate with astrocyte like properties
Radial Glia
- Scaffold that developing neurons climb on

Persists in the adult as:
- Muller cells - retina - bidirectional communication with neurons

- Bergmann Glia - cerebellum - regulate synaptic plasticity
Striae medullares
strands of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) which wind around inferior peduncle, disappearing into median sulcus.
glutamate
a salt or ester of glutamic acid.
Rôle du système entérique
Rôle dans la motilité intestinale
symptoms of cerebellar lesion
disequilibrium: inability to maintain proper balancehypotonia: decreased muscle tone and difficulty maintaining postureasynergia: lack of coordination of muscles which usually work togetherataxia: inability to coordinate voluntary movementsintention tremor: most apparent during a planned movement just prior to reaching the targetdysmetria: patient tends to overshoot or undershoot target
symptoms of MCA occlusion
-contralateral facial and arm weakness, hemiplegia-contralateral facial and arm sensory deficits-homonymous hemianopsia-conjugate deviation of eyes ipsilateral to side of lesion-Wernicke's or Broca's aphasia-may include apraxia if dominant lobe is affected
Hippocampus
Long & short term memory has efferent projection the fornix(has efferent and afferent neurons)
Thalamus (VL&VA)
Would lession in case of Parkinson's but now we have deep brain stimulation.
The Substantia Nigra provides:
Dopamine for the Motor loop!
b-amyloid gene encodes a large protein known as the amyloid precursor protein
alzheimer's disease
Aphasia
is a symptom - NOT a disease.
Stroke, 
Head injury
Dementia,
Mass expanding lession
Abscess
Anterolateral system
An umbrella term for the spinothalamic tract and closely related ascending fibers, all of which deal with pain, temperature, and to some extent, tactile/pressure sensation.  Many do not reach the thalamus, ending instead at higher spinal levels or in brainstem sites, such as the retucular formation.
Lamina terminalis
- anterior wall of 3rd ventricle- houses the anterior commissure (cord from side to side)
patient's tongue deviates to the left
left CN XII
Sacral Plexus
contains the ventral rami from spinal nerves L4-S3
Medial vestibulospinal tract
neurons from medial nucleus synapse on motor neurons that innervate trunk and neck muscles that orient head
area postrema
hole in the bbb near the obex
Presbyopia
- inability to focus on near objects with age
- lens loose its elasticity with age
Versorgungsgebiet der A. cerebri posterior
Okzipitallappen, Teile des Temporallappens
parietal lobe
the middle part of each cerebral hemisphere behind the central sulcus.
Matière blanche, description :
1. Périphérique, pas dans le cerveau2. Fibres nerveuses formant les interconnexions3. Divisée en colonnes ou faisceaux (ascendants, descendants)
substantia gelatinosa
a region of the dorsal horn that receives pain and temperature fibers
Treatments of Parkinson's Disease
Taking L-Dopa (precursor of dopamine) which crosses blood-brain barrier. Medication works for a few years but substancia nigra cells continue to die. Too much L-Dopa leads to dyskenisia. Surgery: focal lessions of globus pallidus of VL of thalamus; deep brain stimulation (permanent electrodes placed in). Also, implantation of dopaminergic neurons derived from stem cells of embryonic SN cells.
These 3 common cell abnormalities are present in Alzheimer's
Granulovacuoles, Neurofibrillary tangles, and Amyloid Plaques
8th CN is the most common site for tumor development, followed by 5th CN
schwannomas
Corticospinal tract
A collection of about 1 million axons that originate in the cerebral cortex, descend through the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, basal pons, and medullary pyramid, then reach the spinal cord, where they terminate, via the lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts.
frontal lobe - +
anterior division of each hemisphere having its part in the anterior fossa of the skull and bordered behind by the cerebral sulcus, 1/3 of each hemisphere; contains pre-motor and motor strip aka pyramidal tract which descends into the brain and spinal cord which are resp for voluntary mots
Play this game: Where is the Upper Limb nerve Lesion?? Patient could no longer flex at his elbow joint and supination of his forearm is weakened. Exam shows loss of biceps reflex and variable sensory loss of his forearm
musculocutaneous nerve
Function of vestibular system
sense of equilibrium, senses position and movement of the head, contributes to conscious perception of body position in space, functions autonomically through reflexes
What does this specimen demonstrate?
brain slice showing "older" infarct
Presence of RBC and high [protein] in CSF is a sign of
Subarachnoid hemmorhage
Normal Pressure hydrocephalus
- no rise in intracranial pressure
- reduction of brain volume
- usually in elderly only
- enlarged ventricles, sulci and fissures with flattening cortical gyri against skull
brain stem
the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus, functioning in the control of reflexes and such essential internal mechanisms as respiration and heartbeat
Pas où passe la proprioception consciente?
Voies ascendants postérieurs : faisceau grêle et faisceau cunéiforme
Blood Supply to the spinal cord
(2) posterior spinal arteries-supply the posterior third of the spinal cord
 (1) anterior spinal artery-supplies the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord
Granular layer of cerebellar cortex
contains granule cells whose axons form the parallel fibers which run in the molecular layer and synapse on dendrites of Purkinje cells; parallel fibers are excitatory
Cuadate nucleus, corpus callosum, septum pellucidum,fornix,thalamus
Primary structures adjacent to LATERAL ventricle
The Prefrontal Area deals with:
Decision making, abstract thought, and morality.
What curve is present in fetus?
one primary curvature; concave anteriorly due to diff in height of btw ant and post aspect of vertebra.
Stenosis or obstruction of this structure is the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus.
Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
Name the 2 proteins that assist in axonal transport
anterograde transport: KinesinRetrograde transport: cytoplasmic dynein
Uncal herniation can cause the following clinical signs, name their causes 3. Ipsilateral paresis
Compression of contralateral crus cerebri (Kernohan's notch)
Which cranial nerves exit the brainstem rostral to the pons?
Cranial nerves I through IV
Slowly adaptoing viseral mechanoreceptors
activated by stretch and tension. They are typical found in the smooth muscle layers of the pulmonary airways and in the smooth muscle layers of the abdominal and pelvic viscera. They are very important for that sense of fullness.
Collateral Axon branch
branch of main axon that feeds back onto soma providing modulation of cell firing
Superior Visual Field
is temporal/parietal radiation?
is above/below calcarine sulcus?
Superior Visual Field
is temporal radiation
is below calcarine sulcus
Hemiplegia with no associated sensory defects
Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts between the medulla and cortex: corona radiata, posterior limb of internal capsule, basis potin, or middle third of the cerebral peduncle. All contralateral to weakness.
Nombre de vertèbres dans la colonne.
7 cervicales (C1 à C7)
12 thoraciques (T1 à T12)
5 lombaires (L1 à L5)
5 sacrées (S1 à S5)
3 coccygiennes
PNS damage vs CNS damage
PNS damage more likely to recover well.
PNS has proteins to promote recovery and guidance tunnels
CNS has inhibitory cytokines and glycoproteins
CNS does not form guidance tunnels
Basal Ganglia are:
A part of the cerebral cortex that is surrounded by myelinated Axons!
Confusion, Delirium, and Coma
Confusion - loss of ability to sustain uninterrupted thought.
Confusion -> Stupor -> Obtundation -> Coma
this represetns the continuum
Delirium - medical term to describe the confusional state
Coma - severe loss of alertness and medical emergency
What shape are the nuclei of astrocytes?
-irregular-lighter stain- larger than oligocytes
Play this game: Where is the Lesion?? Pt II Ill name its common location on the spinal cord, you name the disease in grey matter, affect lower motor neuron only, cause flaccid paralysis
Poliomyelitis / Werdnig-Hoffmann disease
Which three sinuses combine to form the confluence of sinuses?
superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinus
What section is this and what structures can be identified?
horizontal section
2. Caudate nucleus (head)

3. Septum pellucidum
4. Lat. vent. (anterior horn)

6. Fornix

7. Interventricular foramen
8. Interthalamic adhesion

9. Thalamus

10. IIIrd Ventricle

11. Posterior commissure

12. Internal capsule (anterior limb)

13. Putamen

14. Internal capsule (genu)

15. Globus pallidus

16. Internal capsule (posterior limb)
What portion of the visual field is lost at lesion 1?
Monocular Blindness
Lesion: Optic Nerve

total blindness in 1 eye
HN XII: Aus-/Eintrittsstelle am Gehirn, Durchtritt durch die Schädelbasis
N. hypoglossus, Med. obl. vor der Olive, Canalis n. hypoglossi
The R/L Internal Carotid splits into:
The R/L MCA and the R/L ACA!
RER granules in neurons, where would we find them?
nissl bodies. Soma and dendrites
Which of the following herniations can cause compression on the brain stem that can result in coma and death? 1. Cingulate herniation 2. Transtentorial herniation 3. Uncal herniation 4. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
1 herniates under the falx cerebri and does not cause coma and death. 2. Transtectoral, 3. Uncal, and 4. tonsillar herniations can
Lateral motor systems control what? Medial motor systems control what?
Lateral motor systems are involved in limb control
Medial motor systems control proximal trunk muscles
Quels sont les rôles des voies spinocérébelleuses ventrales?
1. comme dorsales mais moins fins2. information sur les arcs réflexes3. Décussation au niveau médullaire
treatment options for parkinson's disease
* Goal is to maintain function and quality of life * Classes of pharmaceutical treatment: o Levodopa preparations o Dopamine agonists * Surgical treatment: pallidotomy and thalmotomy * Neurotransplantation
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Arcuate fasciculus?
conduction aphasia: poor repetition w/ good comprehension and fluent speech
Sudden onset of right face weakness, trace curling of right fingertips
-Diabetes
Lesion in the left motor cortex face area
Sudden onset of right face weakness, trace curling of right fingertips
-Diabetes
Embolic infarct of a cortical branch of the left middle cerebral artery
What are the signs of Upper Motor neuron lesion?
Upper = everything up (tone, DTRs, toes)
segment T10
umbilicus
L1 motor
Quads
Dynorphin
regulates nociception
opoid
Leu-Enkephalin
neuropil
neuron cell bodiesdendritessynapsesfound in gray matter
T5-T12 motor
rectus abdominus
axolemma
plasmamembrane of axon
Metencephalon
Pons + cerebellum
Gamma Motor
Intrafusal muscle fibers
Decussation occurs here:
The Medulla.
autosomal dominant ataxia
spinocerebellar ataxia
basal ganglia
striatum
globus pallidus
substancia nigra
subthalamic nucleus
Deuteranopia
Green Cone Color Blindness
arcuate fasciculus
frontal and temporal lobes
4th ventricle
between pons & cerebellum
There are ___ cerebellar peduncles
3
Characteristic triad includes inflammation, demyelination, gliosis.
Multiple Sclerosis
Intertumor calcifications are common, termed "brainstones"
Oligodendroma
repair brain or nerve system
Astrocytes
CN VII
facial nerve
emerges anterolaterally at pontomedullary junction
infundibulum
pituitary stalk connecting median emminence of hypothalamus to posterior pituitary
Neurofilament
-most common filament in neurons
-highly stable
-undergo little turnover
- Scaffolding for cytoskeleton of neuron
trkA
High affinity receptor for NGF
vesicle
a small sac or cyst.
Lamina 3 & 4
Nucleus Proprius
Dorsal Horn
Processing of somatosensory information
Aquamarine and darker blue stain below claw (L2)
Circle of Willis
includes posterior communicating arteryposterior cerebral arteryanterior communicating arteryanterior cerebral artery-normal in less than 50% of people
Alpha sensory III
Skin mechanoreceptors, thermal receptors & nociceptors
Chemoreceptor
arterial oxygen,CO2, Blood PH, drugs (Carotid body)
Caudate Nucleus
Primarily connected with prefrontal cortex and other association areas and involved with more cognitive functions and less directly in movement.
Parkinson's affects the:
Substantia Nigra (Dopamine production!)
Signs and symptoms include seizures, headaches, increased ICP, can present initially w/ intracerebral hemorrhage.
Oligodendroma.
most common acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy
guillian-barre syndrome
apraxia
disorder of learned movements, can include speech
This colliculus sends auditory afferents to the medial geniculate nucleus.
Inferior colliculus
Tibial nerve
Plexus: Sacral, from sciatic nerveSpinal nerves; L4-S3Innervates:
Chemoreceptors
Changes of oxygen, carbon dioxide tension, H+ ions. Found in structures called carotid bodies and aortic bodies
hypoglossal nucleus
LMN innervating ipsilateral tongue muscles located near the midline of rostral medulla
tuberal hypothalamus
includes dorsomedial, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei
secretes releasing and inhibitory factors into the pituitary portal system
delta fibers
thinly myelinated sensory fibers including fast pain
Ephinephrine
released by chromaffin cells
enters circulation
ultimate activates adrenoceptors
Microtubule
-13 protofilaments forming a tubule (α/β)
- associated with dynein and kinesin
- damage to microtubule = cell death
- transport between nerve cell and soma"
Most susceptible to infarction with decreased aortic pressure?
T4-T8
Voies descendants autonomiques (rôle)
centre de contrôle hypothalamique
Upper Motor Neuron Damage
Babinski Sign (bilateral)
spastic paralysis
clasp knife
Hypertonia
loss of cremasteric reflex
increased resistance to passive movement
late muscle atrophy
Posterior
behind towards the back of the body
spinothalamic tract
primary pathway for pain, temperature, and non-discriminative touch
Polymyositis
Autoimmune Muscle disease w/ or w/o atrophy, normal sensation & intact reflexes. Controlled w/ corticosteroidsSerum creatin phosphokinase is elevated due to muscle damage.
Optic II
vision, deficit anopsia check eyes individually and in different planes. light reflex
Dysarthria is:
Impaired ability to make ongoing oral-facial movements.
The reticular formation is found here:
The Pons!
treatment options for tourette's syndrome
dopamine blockers (antipsychotics)
most common neural tube defect
spina bifida occulta
Cerebellum nodulus
The vermal component of the flocculonodular lobe, the part of the cerebellum particularly concerned with the vestibular system and eye movements.
habenula
bump on the surface of the thalamuswith: habenular nucleus, habenular commissure((in the dorsal wall of the pineal stalk)
Conveys nerve impulses away from the brain
Efferent
Kinocilium
one larger cilia, movement of other cilia dtowards or away from kinocilium cause hair cell to depolarize or hyperpolarize
What structure is this?
Pacinian Corpuscle in x-section
Choroid Plexus
Ependymal cells - Group 1
Secretory, grouped by TIGHT JUNCTIONS
How does aspirin regulate pain?
It inhibits cyclo-oxygenase

cyclo-oxygenase is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of Prostaglandins.

- Prostaglandins increase pain sensitivity
Progressive weakness, muscle fasciculations and cramps
-atrophy
-Babinsky's sign
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Treat with?
Progressive weakness, muscle fasciculations and cramps
-atrophy
-Babinsky's sign
Riluzole
impulse
the influence of a particular feeling, mental state, etc.:
Retrograde Axoplasmic Transport
Affernt projections to a neuron
HRP taken up by axon terminals and transported down axon towards cell body.
 
HRP LOCALIZED IN CELL BODY=RETROGRADE TRANSPORT
anterior inferior cerebellar arteries
inferior surfaces of cerebellumparts of caudal pons
segment C8
ulnar side of hand and little finger
Peripheral Nerve Damage
Associated with sensory disturbances & autonomic in addition to weakness
Accessory XI
SCM-turns head to opposite side, Traps (elevates & rotates scap) Deficit- shoulder droop weakness in turning head.
Corticobulbar Tract
Projects to the cranial nerve motor nuclei (trigeminal, facial, ambiguous, spinal accesory) and deals with muscles of the head.
The Superior Cerebellar Peduncle connects the _____ to the ______
Midbrain to the Cerebrum.
involves death of peripheral motor neurons from the ventral horn and brainstem nuclei, as well as the bulbospinal and corticospinal neurons in the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
dysraphism almost always accompanied with hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele
chiari malformation type II
Anterior spinal artery
A single midline vessel that originates rostrally as two arteries (one from each vertebral artery), which shortly join and t hen course within the anterior median fissure along the entire spinal cord.  It receives additional blood from the thoracic/abdominal aorta through numerous anastomoses with radicular arteries.
What is white matter?
Long processes of neurons (predominantly myelinated) plus glial cells.* Functionally related processes are grouped in “TRACTS” (ex. for pain, temperature)
ganglia - +
nerve cells w/ common form,function, and connections to that are grouped outside the CNS
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Rigth optic tract
Left homonymous hemianopsia
Lateral vestibulospinal tract
neurons from lateral nucleus project to alpha and gamma motor neurons in ventral horn of spinal cord, influence muscles that contribute to equilibrium and posture, somatotopic organization
brachium of inferior colliculis
auditory fibers from inferior colliculus to medial geniculate nucleus
Gracile tubercle
function is for fine touch and proprioception.

corresponds to neurons of gracile nucleus which is one of dorsal column nuclei
Sonic Hedgehog
- NOT a homeobox gene

- influences development of serotonergic neurons - hindbrain
dopaminergic neurons - posterior midbrain
oculomotor neurons - anterior midbrain
- secreted by notochord
- acts on floor plate to induce netrin formation
is a protein
Preganglionic neurons in both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia release _______ activating ____________________
sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia release ACETYLCHOLINE activating NICOTINIC CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS
Matière grise
Cornes antérieures (origines, divisions)
1. Corps des neurones moteurs inférieurs somatiques
- muscles du tronc et des membres
 
2. Corps des neurones autonomiques parasympathiques de S2 à S4
 
3. Noyau du nerf phrénique :
- motricité du diaphragme
interneurons
or
internuncial neurons
they lie w/i the CNS and process information carried by both sensory and motor neurons
branches of internal carotid artery
opthalmic artery, anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, lenticulostriate arteries and penetrating arteries
Insular lobe
mixed function sensory & motor area of the brain
This is the largest structure in the Diencephalon:
The Thalamus
L5 sensory
lateral (outer) lower leg and top of foot
ataxia in which 10% have diabetes, and 10% reduced glucose tolerance
friedreich ataxia
Anterior horn
One of the three general divisions of the spinal gray matter, the others being the posterior horn and the intermediate gray.  Contains numerous local-circuit neurons, cell bodies of alpha motor neurons, axons of which enter the ventral(anterior) spinal nerve roots and end on skeletal muscle.
describe what causes MS
demylenation and subsiquent T cell perivascualr inflamation in the white matter of the braincan be viral or autoimmune
What nerve root do you test for if you illecit the following reflexes? 3. Patella
L4
internal arcuate fibers
decussating fibers in the medulla made of either posterior column fibers forming the medial lemniscus or olivocerebellar fibers
Efferent neurons and Interneurons
have membrane proteins that are chemoreceptors for NT
Corticospinal damage generally spares _______ relative to ________
corticospinal damage generally spares flexors relative to extensors
Quelles sont les sensations des voies spinocérébelleuses (général)?
1. Information proprioceptive inconsciente au cervelet2. contrôle de la posture et coordination des mouvements.-> division en dorsale et ventrale
Anterior
in front of ; towards the front of the body
Primary auditory cortex
located in the temporal lobe at the transverse gyri of Heschl, area 41. Bilateral lesions result in deafness. Unilateral lesion produces difficulty localizing sounds and distinguishing sounds from background noise. Hearing deficits mainly in contralateral ear.
The cerebellum also helps the ______ with:
Cerebrum with motor planning.
What are the cells of the CNS?
Neurons and Nueroglia (Glia)
cortex or neocortex
outer surface layer of the brain (or other organ)
Patient has weakness turning head to the left
right CN XI lesion
What are vestibular receptors
hair cells similar to those in cochlea
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
parasympathetic efferent nucleus in rostral medulla for thoracic and abdominal viscera
There is more convergence in:

a. Rods
b. Cones
Rods have more convergence.

Cones have less convergence = better visual acuity
Site of decussation of lateral corticospinal tract?
Pyramidal decussation at the cervicomedullary junction
Pourquoi la moelle est-elle plus courte que le canal rachidien?
1. Croissance embryonnaire plus lente du tissus nerveux que du canal osseux.
 
2. pour permettre les ponctions lombaires

niveau L3-L4 ou L4-L5


LCR

3. Fin du fourreau dural (S2)

Lieu de métastases et radiothérapie
Molecular layer of cerebellar cortex
located next to surface of cerebellum under the pia mater; large bundles of parallel fibers and dendrites of the Purkinje cells
Brodmann's Areas 1,2, and 3 house the:
Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Post Central Gyrus of the Parietal Lobe)
Cauda Equina - a collection of dorsal and bentral roots, ends at what level?
About vertebral level L1-L2.
white matter - +
substance of the brin adn spinal cord consistening of myelinatedfibers and containing no neuronal cell bodies of synapses; in a freshly sectioned brain it glistens white b/c of the high content of lipid-rich myelin
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Mammillary bodies?
Wernicke-Korsakoff's encephalopathy: anterograde amnesia (think alcoholism)
Dilation of this structure occurs via what pathways from what brain structure? Contraction of this structure occurs via what pathways?
constriction - pupillary constrictor muscles which receive parasympathetic information from occulomotor nerve, dilation via pupillary dilator muscle that receives sympathetic innervation from superior cervical ganglia
What level is this section and what structures does it display?
isthmus rhombencephali
1. Trochlear nerve (IV) decussating in the anterior medullary velum and exiting dorsally

2. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

3. Brachium conjunctivum (superior cerebellar peduncle)
4. Lateral lemniscus

5. Decussation of the brachium conjunctivum
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Cerebral peduncle
8. Cerebral aqueduct

9. Periaqueductal gray
Erlanger & Gasser
- used for spinal nerves, and can be both motor and sensory.

- A, B,C,D
- A = thickest and highest conduction velocity
Unilateral leg weakness or paralysis
Leg area of primary motor cortex along medial surface of frontal lobe
Lateral coritcospinal tract below T1 or peripheral nerves suppling the leg
Cause?
Unilateral leg weakness or paralysis
Motor cortex: Infarct in the anterior cerebral artery territory
Spinal cord: Unilateral cord trauma, compression
Peripheral: Compression, diabetic neuropathy
Quels sont les relais possibles poru les neurones préganglionnaires sympathiques?
1. Ganglions paravertébraux : peuvent remonter ou descendre par les chaînes paravertébrales.2. Ganglions prévertébraux : peuvent passer par les nerfs splanchniques (cardio-pulmonaires, abdomino-pelviens)
Periaqueductal grey matter is ____ and is found in:
A reticular formation that regulates pain perception, visceral and motor. THE MIDBRAIN.
Mr. Brown-Sequard was struck on the spinal cord that resulted in the hemisection of the spinal cord at T3 level. Give me 4 symptoms that you may find in him
1. Ipsilateral motor paralysis 2. Ipsilateral loss of tactile, vibration, proprioception senses 3. Contralateral pain and temperature loss 4. Ipsilateral loss of ALL sensation at the T3 level
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Broca's area?
motor (expressive, nonfluent) aphasia; BROca's BROken speech
Which nerves are General visceral efferent?
Cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X
The Basal Ganglia consist of three parts:
1) The Caudate Nucleus2) The Putamen3) The Globus Pallidus
What are the signs of Lower Motor neuron lesion?
everything lowered: ↓ muscle mass, ↓ muscle tone, ↓ reflexes, downgoing toes
In the Muller-Lyer Illusion, why do you see one line as smaller than the other when in fact both lines are the same size?
The line with the normal arrowheads is representative of an outside facing corner, reverse arrowheads - inward facing corner, eyes sees lines as the same, brain shrinks outside corner, enlarges inside corner
Trous de conjugaisons
-> à quel niveau se fait la sortie des nerfs spinaux?
-> comment sont nommés les nerfs spinaux?
De C1 à C8, T1 à S5.
 

Le nerf porte le nom de la vertèbre sous-jacente de C1 à C7


Le nerf spinal C8 = entre C7 et T1.


Le nerf porte le nom de la vertèbre susjacente de T1 à S5
Sudden onset of left foot weakness and right frontal headache
-Diabetes/hypertension
Right precentral gyrus, primary motor cortex, leg area
Sudden onset of left foot weakness and right frontal headache
-Diabetes/hypertension
Embolic infarct of a cortical branch of the right anterior cerebral artery
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