Neurology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cerebellum
(Location)
Motor/Muscle Memory
(Location)
Cerebellum
Lorazepam
Ativan

GABA potentiator
Epilepsy
Prions are...resistant
Protease
efferent nerves
motor nerves
Bromocriptine
Parlodel

Dopamine Agonist
Parkinson's Disease
Dysautonomia--prog
GRAVE, mortality >90%.
Describe the Putamen Stroke:
CONTRA-Lateral:...Hemiparesis...Sensory Loss...Hemianopsia.(loss of viz. field for 1/2 viz field for one or both eyes)(HEMORRHAGIC not ischemic)
without feeling or sensation
anesthesia
Carbamazepine
Tegretol, Carbatrol

Na Channel Blocker
Epilepsy
Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS related neoplasm
Ventral Ramus
Plexus: Jumbled, tangled mess
Astrocytes
Where do astrocytomas arise from?
Sensory changes
Response to stimuliNeglect syndrom(carotid artery may cuase:Ptosis, visual field deficits,palor/petechiae of conjuctiva, amaurosis fugax(brief blindness), hemianaopsia
Speech + Language =
Frontal Lobe
inability to understand written words
alexia
The parietal lobe's postcentral gyrus
sensation
Intradural--def
Extramedullary - meningioma, nerve sheath tumor, neuroepitheliomas
Kindling
Phenomenon in which repeated sub-convlusive stimuli can result in seizures and eventually the seizures become autonomous.
Resting Potential
-70mV
 
Relative charge when neuron is NOT sending a signal
The most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating dz of the CNS.
Multiple Sclerosis
Huntington's disease
Autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance that occurs during age 30-50 and is characterized by a gradual onset and progression of chorea and dementia.
The 4 types of Ischemic strokes?
ThromboticEmbolyicTIARIND
Temp is mediated by?
Lateral spinothalamic tract
paraplegia
smmetric paralysis of both lower extremities
Dysautonomia--incidence
Horses: Grass sickness, cats and dogs
Brachial Plexus avulsion--incid
dogs, cats, and birds
Concussion--tx
Manage life threatening inj. (shock, card., lungs, abd. head). Immobilize patient to prevent further displacement of any unstable spinal injuries (ambl. animals in small cage, nonambl. strapped to a board.) Medical tx Methylprednisilone sodium succinate (Solu Medrol or Solu-Delta-Cortef) prednisolone s.s. ASAP w/in 6 hours of injury, 2 hrs. later hit w/ another dose or CRI, treat for 34-48 hours, benefit vs. risk (GI hem.) Other glucocorticoids such as dex. are NOT NOT NOT indicated. DMSO and other med. txs have been supported but not really evaluated.
Concussion--prog
similar to that given for intervertebral disc d'se although dogs w. absent deep pain perception rarely recover after trauma.
Good pharmacotherapy for patients who are impulsive or who have high novelty seeking behaviors
bupropion
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome.
Characterized by progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, retinal pigmentary degentation, cardiac conduction defects, cerebellar ataxia, myopathy and elevated CSF protein. A mitochon. myopathy.
capillary telangiectases
small caliber, multiple within the normal brain
30-50% of pts w/ normal-hydrocephalus show improvement w/ what?
Ventricular shunting
Rheumatoid Arthritis
What type of arthritis usually involves C1 with synovial thickening?
PCR
What microbiology test would you use to test for HSV in the CSF?
Diagnosis: Degenerative Diseases: Alzheimer Disease
Diagnosis: Degenerative Diseases: Alzheimer Disease
 
 
source:
brs pathology p.370-372
1/3 of all strokes are this kind.
embolic
client awakens to vigorous shake or painful stimuli but returns to unresponsive sleep...the nurse would note the clients alertness as?
stupor
3 functions of CSF?
1) shock absorption/mechanical support
2) electrolyte buffer/ venous pressure buffer
3) CNS lymph system/ ionic regulation of CNS
copying or producing th esame effects as those of parasympathetic nerves; "to mimic"
parasympathomimetic
a protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the bloodstream into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid
blood-brain barrier
upper motor neuron lesion
increased tone, atrophy, hyperreflexia
ex: brain attack or cerbrovascular accident
Vital Signs
Pulse and blood pressure are notoriously unreliable parameters of CNS deficit,Any changes are late consequences of rising intracranial pressure
Hemivertebrae
failure of vertebral body to form completely--screw tailed, brachycephalic dogs--tx: decompress and stabilize
Vertebral infections--path
Most commonly result from hematogenous spread, but can be caused by a foreign body or penetrating would. Staph. intermedius is the most common organism. E. coli, bacteroides, strep, and others, brucella canis, aspergillus, coccidioides. Osteomyelitis of L2 to L4 with sparing of the disc spaces is usually caused by actinomyces secondary to migration of a grass awn
Bacterial Meningitis--Prog
neurologic deficits often resolve with prompt therapy but may persist or progress despite treatment
Concussion--dx
Exam: limit in nonambul. pats. to voluntary movement, palpation of the spine, spinal cord relfexes, deep pain perception, and cr. n. examination until an unstable fracture/luxation is excluded by RDX. deep pain perception is most important.
Spinal Cord Trauma
Secondary injury, Compression and Concussion
Botulism--dx
requires identifying the toxin in the feed, blood, vomitus, or feces. No specific pathologic lesions.
Acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (coonhound paralysis)--path
inflammation, demyelination, and varying degrees of axon degeneration in the ventral nerve roots and peripheral nn.
Intradural--dx
RDX: n. sheath tumors may cause enlargement of the inervertebral foramen. MYELOPGRAPHY: contrast media may flow around mass (golf tee sign)
Multiple Cartilagenous Exostoses--path
benign proliferative lesions of epiphyseal regions; abnormal differentiation of cartilage cells; any bone can be affected; growth lesions stop when epiphyseal plates close
2 ways to assess suicide
Sequentially and directly.
Static perinatal encephalopathy can cause...
Dystonia and athetosis
Treatment window for congenital cataracts
Before 2 months
Working Memory
(Function)
Lasts only for a few seconds,
Takes information to process and make decisions
Which gender is torticollis more common? Typical age of onset?
Females. 30-50yo.
MC location of brain abscess?
Frontal or temporal lobe
Subdural
What type of hematoma is the least worrysome?
Myesthenia Gravis
An autoimmune disease due to the development of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors on the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction.
List the usual sites of Cerebral Saccular Aneurysms (Berry Aneurysm)...List the TOP THREE
Internal_Carotid..(40%).. .Anterior_Cerebral..(35%).. .Middle_Cerebral..(20%)... ."IAM_Berry"
What represent the simplest level of organization within the CNS?
Individual neurons
a slumped posture may indicate?
hopelessness or powerlessness characteristics of depression or organic brain disease
Which CN is not located in the medulla?
7, 9, 10, 11
7
a type of neurological cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervoussysrem; its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath
oligodendrocyte
spastic hemiparesis
arm is immobile against body,w ith flexion of shoulder, elbow, wrist, fingers, + adduction of shoulder
-leg is stiff
Abnormal Findings
With a sensory cortex lesion, the person cannot localize the sensation accurately, even though light touch sensation may be retained.
X-linked Muscular Dystrophy of Dogs and Cats--TX
no effective tx
Concussion--incidence
Any age. Common causes incude motor vehicle trauma, falls, bite wounds, and gunshot wounds.
Vertebral infections--dx
Radiographs show collapse of teh disk space and lysis of adjacent vertebral end plates with varying degrees of osteophyte production. CBC may be normal or inflammatory. Blood cultures are successful in recovering the causative organism in ~50% of cases. Positive urine cultures are significant only if Staph is isolated. Always screen for Brucella.
Sciatic Nerve Injury--path
pelvic fractures, during or afer retrograde placement of intramedullary pins in the femur, or injections of irritative substances near the n.
Sacrocaudal dysgenesis
Malformation or agenesis of the sacral and caudal vert seen in Manx cat; inherited autosomal dominant; taillessness, incontinence, absent anal and urinary sphincter tone, paraparesis with bunny hopping
Secondary injury--path
can result in myelomalacia. Release of free radicals, excitatory neurotransmitters, calcium, prostaglandins.
6 features of temperament (innate core of personality)
Activity level
Soothability
Attention span/persistence
Fearful distress, including the tendency to approach or withdraw from people
Irritability
Mood (e.g., friendly and happy or unfriendly and sad)
A common onset of PD is a resting tremor that starts asymmetrically or symetrically in UE?
Asymmetrically
Describe cerebellar sx experienced by pts w/ MS.
Dysarthria, ataxia, and tremor
Black
In a T1 MRI scan with Gadolinium, what color will the ventricles show up as?
Expressive Aphasia
What is a motor problem where words can’t be formed or expressed?
upper motor neurons
Increased spasticity will be seen in upper or lower neuron lesion?
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Meningocele
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Meningocele
 
source
brs pathology p.363
A client has a murmur, HTN, or a dysrhythmia what type of stroke would you suspect?
embolic
WHAT IS PARKINSONS DISEASE?
CHRONIC AND PREGRESSIVE MOTOR SYSTEM DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY TREMOR, RIGIDITY, BRADYKINESIA AND POSTURAL INSTABILITY.
autonomic nervous system
controls with out thought, BP HR. Receive afferent sensory impulses to regulate body fx.
Which of the following is NOT a possible cause of NMJ ds?
-Virus
-Sensory loss
-Genetic
-Autoimmune
Sensory loss
Central nervous system (CNS)
includes the brain and spinal cord
Vertebral infections--incidence
large breed dogs most commonly. Rare in cats and horses
Acquired myasthenia gravis--inci
fairly common in mature dogs, esp. GSD, golden retrievers, and labrador retrievers. Uncommon in cats.
What is ataxia?
sensory deficits caused by loss of proprioception
Thought stoppage
Patient learns to slap forearm or snap with rubberband when certain thoughts occur. Can be used for sexual dysfunction.
The kineticness of movement is can be effected by dysfunction of what area of the brain?
basal ganglia
What meds are used to tx HD pts w/ schizophrenia-like sx such as hallucinations or delusions?
Risperdal
Name 4 cardinal clinical features of GBS.
1)Progressive symmetric muscle weakness 2)Absent or dec. DTR 3)Severe low-back pain 4)Dysautonomia
CN X - vagus
Which cranial nerve deals with swallow function?
Mannitol
If a pts ICP was over 20, what drug would you give to diurese the pt?
Grade IV
What is the grade for the most rapidly producing tumor?
Transient blind spots may be an early indictor of ?
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Gated potentials do what?
Changes in the membrane potential that cannot spread far from the site of stimulation. Affecting only a limmited portion of the plasma membraneOccur in all cells in response to enviormental stimuli triggering specific cell functionsGated potential in membrane of a gland cell may trigger a gland secretionAffects to small of an area to have a effect on large cells (skeletal muscle fibers)
WHAT IS THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
LOWER PORTION OF THE BRAINSTEM, CONNECTING THE PONS AND THE SPINAL CORD. IT CONTAIN MAJOR CENTOERS FOR CONTROL OF RESPIRATORY, CARDIAC AND VASOMOTOR ACTIVITY.
What type of movement should be used to test the reflexes?
quick, brisk strike.
Bony components of the spinal canal?
2 pedicles, 2 lamina, vb
Tactile Discrimination (Fine Touch)Abnormal Findings
lesions of the sensory cortex or posterior column
Sciatic Nerve Injury--def
damage to the proximal aspect of the sciatic nerve causes monoparesis w/ inability to flex the stifle.
Fibrocartilagenous Embolism (FCE)--incidence
most common in large and giant breeds of dogs between 1 and 6 yrs. Of age. Schnauzers and Shetland sheepdogs also seem over represented. Rare in chondrodystrophic breed and cats.
Aortic Thromboembolism (Saddle Thrombus)--prog
50% of cats w/ incomplete obstruction will improve w/in several wks. Recurrences are common.
Sequential order of drug treatment for 5 drug classes with treating RLS.
Dopaminergic agents (ropinerole), levodopa, benzos, opiates, antiepileptics (gabapentin).
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF).
Characterized by myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and myopathy
What are meds used to tx narcotic withdrawal?
Oral methadone and clonidine
Clinical findings in brain abscess of temporal lobe?
Wernicke aphasia, homonymous superior quadranopsia, mild contralateral facial muscle weakness
Frontal lobe
Pain in the dura of the brain will be referred to which lobe?
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Spina bifida cystica
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Spina bifida cystica
 
source
brs pathology p.363
The sodium potassium exchange pump does what?
Ion pump exchanges exchanges three intracellular sodium ions for two extracellular potassium ionsSodium ions are ejected as fast as they enter Net loss of possitive charges cause an excess of negitive charges (from negitivly changed protiens)
Diencephalon= thalamus and hypothalamus
part of the autonomic system which is part of the peripheral nervous system
responsible for regulating the water balance, appetite, vital signs, sleep cycles, pain perception and emotional status
complete transcetion of spinal cord
complete loss of all sensory modalites below leel of lesion
Non-neurologic conditions that might cause pelvic limb weakness/paralysis
1. hip dysplasia 2. bilateral cruciate tear 3. pelvic fractures 4. polyarthritis 5. prostatitis 6. pancreatitis
4 adult risk factors for depression
Past history of major depression, last-year difficulties, independent(unrelated to individual's behavior) stressful life events (2 months before the depression), or depressive episodes in the last year.
What conditions have been linked to reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus?
Chronic stress, depression, and aging
COMT inhibitors tolcapone, entacapone with Parkinsons
Decrease the removal of L-dopa and therefore augment its effects and allow for reducing the dose requirements of and response fluctuations to Sinemet.
Lead to more sustained plasma levels of L dopa with improved transport into the blood and blood brain b
What diagnostic finding is present in 90% of GBS pts at 1 wk /p onset of sxs?
Elevated CSF proteins w/ normal CSF/WBC count
Babinski's test & Hoffmann sign
Which two tests are used to check for upper motor neuron disease?
oculomotor N.
 
*would look for dilated/fixed pupil & ptosis
Which nerve would you worry about with transtentorial herniation?
Gated potential and action potential are what in reference to a gun?
gated potential is pressure on the triggeraction potential is the fireing of the gun
WHAT PERCENT OF BLOOD FLOW DOES THE BRAIN RECEIVE?
ABOUT 20 PERCENT PER MINUTE.
THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
The basal ganglia gray matter buried deep within the two cerebral hemispheres that form the subcortical associated motor system (the extrapyramidal system) , They control automatic associated movements of the body, (e.g., the arm swing alternating with t
Thoracolumbar disk signs in order
1. pain 2. kyphosis 3. paraparesis 4. paraplegia 5. descending-ascending myelomalacia
3 genetic factors that determine familial involvement for mania
Higher if patient illness has early onset, higher if more than one relative has it, and not affected by the patients gender.
One of first pathways to myelinate in fetal brainstem
MLF (vestibular system). fully funcitonal by mid-gestation. (Controls many newborn reflexes, such as Doll’s eye (VOR) and Moro.)
What is the surgical tx of choice for essential tremor?
Deep brain stimulation (permanent electrode placement in thalamus)
Multiple Myeloma
 
* and sometimes prostate cancer
What can be determined from an xray if punched out, bony, lytic lesions appear?
When testing cranial nerve 7 the nurse should assess the clients ability to ?
the clients ability to smile, frown, wrinkle forehead, show teeth, puff out cheeks, pursed lips, raise eyebrows, and close eyes against resistance.
what reinforcement techniques should be used if testing the arm reflexes?
have the client clench his or her jaw or squeeze the thigh with the opposite hand then strike the tendon.
What is the path of Degenerative Myleopathy?
Mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene--genetic and maybe environmental
Why would you use atropine for ECT medications?
(or glycopyrrulate) To prevent bradyarrhythmias or asystole.
Name 6 risk factors for Alzheimer's dz.
1)Old age 2)Family hx 3)Low education level 4)Female 5)Head trauma 6)Genetics
Changes in vision could be the cause of ? list 3
a dysfunction of cranial nerve II (optic), increased cranial pressure, or brain tumors.
CT and PET scans of an anorexia nervosa patient
Cerebral atrophy that may return to normal with immediate weight gain...or not. Hypermetabolism in caudate.
1. How long have you had it?
2. What do you think it is due to?
3. Where is it at?
4. What is it like?
What four questions should you ask about a headache?
Where are glial cells derived from? What is the one exception?
The nerual tube and crest of the ectodermal tissue of a developing embryo. The microglia are derived from the hematopoietic (blood producing stem cells)
What are you going to see on a rad to make you think IVD?
1. narrowed disc space 2. wedge-shaped disc space 3. narrowed IV foramina 4. opacity within IV foramina 5. calcified disc within IV space (indicated disc degeneration NOT disc extrusion)
ventricul/o
ventricle
Occipetal Lobe
(Location)
Pregabalin
Lyrica

GABA analog
Epilepsy
Classical conditioning
Pavlovian
a nerve cell
neuron
Rotigotine
Neupro

Dopamine Agonist
Parkinson's Disease
Infectious-Inflammatory
Vertebral infections, Infectious/Inflammatory myelitis, Bacterial Meningitis and Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis
Diagnosis: Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia Gravis
 
Pathophysiology
Antibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors attack and reduce the number of receptors.
 
 
Statistics
- Affects women more often in their second and third decades
- Affects men more often in their sixth and seventh decades
 
History
 
ID:
- middle aged woman
- old man
 
HPI
- proximal muscle weakness after repetitive motion
- classically, patient notices weakness after combing hair (raising arms repeatedly) in the morning
- Symptoms worsen as the day progresses and improve with rest 
 
Physical exam
 
Findings:
- Bulbar (particularly eyelid muscle) weakness
- proximal weakness

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
source:
pocket notebook EM p.208
brs pathology p.347
parkinsonism
defect of extrapyramiadal tract
-tremor, rigidity, slower speech, immobile
Sumatriptan
Imitrex

Triptan (Serotonin 1b/1d agonist)
Migraine
Vaginismus
Tightness in the vagina.
How are spinal nerves numbered?
ampicillin
Treatment for L. monocytogene meningitis?
Cranial nerve IX
absent gag reflex
MS =
demyelinating of the PNS
cerebellar ataxia
staggering, wide-based gait; difficulty with turns;uncoordinated; positive Romberg sing
Cerebellar System
Coordinates movement, maintains equilibrium, and helps maintain posture, The entire process occurs on a subconscious level
Cyclothymic disorder
Mild drepression plus hypomania
What is the prognosis for MG?
Dystonia
Involuntary impaired muscle tone with spasmotic or twisting movement resulting in sustained, contorted postures which is considered non-moving.
PNS
peripheral nervous system12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
Early signs and symptoms of MS
-Unilateral
-Weakness
-Incoordination
-Paresthesia
-Positive LHermitte's sign
-B/L babinski
-Cerebellar ataxia
-Optic neuritis
paresis
weakness of muscles rather than paralysis
Degenerative Lumbosacral stenosis--DX
MRI and computed tomography
Compression--def
caused by displaced vertebra, bone fragments, extruded disc material, or foreign body
What personality disorder may have vague speech?
Histrionic.
Myclonic-atonic seizures
Particular variant of generalized Myoclonic seizures in which the jerk is immediately followed by an atonia.
Autistic disorder
Impairments in reciprocal social interaction (eye contact, gestures), basic communication (mute or echolalic), stereotyped, repetitive and restricted patterns of behavior, interests and activities.
cerebellum lesion
hydrocephalus ataxia of gait dysmetria of arms speech changes
What is AKA pseudodementia and is present in ~25% of elderly?
Depression
white
What color does blood show up as on a CT?
0-5
How many lymphocytes should you find in normal CSF?
Diagnosis: Demyelinating Diseases: Multiple Sclerosis
Diagnosis: Demyelinating Diseases: Multiple Sclerosis
 
 
source
brs pathology p.369
What are the 2 types of strokes?
IschemicHemorrhagic
Parkinson's gait
shuffling gait, turns accomplished in very stiff manner.
stooped over posture w. flexed hips and knees.
seen in Parkinson's because of effect on basal ganglion
PCA supplies?
Interpeduncular branches = cortex and white matter of the lat/inf frontal lobe, cortex and white matter of the parietal lobe, superior temporal lobes and insula. Face and upper extremity
a chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another: it has a stimulant effect on some parts of the body such as the skeletal muscles, and a depressant effect on other parts of the body su
acetylcholine
coarse fasciculation
occur with cold exposrure or fatigue
Pupillary Response
Abnormal Findings, Cranial nerve III runs parallel to the brain stem.
Multiple Cartilagenous Exostoses--CS
progressive, often asymmetrical, focal spinal cord lesion in immature animals
Acquired myasthenia gravis--path
develop circulating ab directed against the Ach.
Vertebral infections--def
Spondylitis = infection of the vertebral body; discitis = infection of the disc space; discospondylitis = infections of the disc space and adjacent vertebral body
Intramedullary -DX
RDX: usu. normal. MYELOPGRAPHY: myelographic lines may diverge on all views
Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis--CS
neck/back pain with cervical rigidity, stiff gait, with pain on palpation/manipulation of the spine. Affected dogs often seem painful all over. Fever common. Neurological deficits occur with chronic, untreated cases and include ataxia or paresis, depression, seizures
Acquired myasthenia gravis--def
failure of neuromuscular conduction due to reduction in number of Ach receptors at the neuromuscular jxn.
Gene associated with depression
Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism on chrom. 17.
3 inflammatory myopathies
Polymyositis (assoc. with autoimmune disorders), dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis.
Afferent Neurons (Sensory)
from skin/sensory organs -> central nervous system
A rest tremor that is suppresed briefly during voluntary activity.
Parkinsonism tremor
MC etiology of aseptic meningitis?
Enterovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus
tonsillar herniation
What injury will present with flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest, and bradycardia?
Diabetic Neuropathy
What condition has a stocking and glove pattern of burning or numbness?
If the NONdominant hemisphere is involved what is lost?
spatial fuction (impaired)
What is en example?
Acetylcholine= it usually promotes action potentials but inhibits cardiac neuromuscular junctions
Cranial Nerve XI
Spinal accessory

motor
innervate the neck muscles( sternocleidomastoid and trapezius) that promote movement of the shoulders and head rotation. promotes some movement of the larynx.
A dysfunction of the higher cortical region would manifest as?
Language deficits
a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinla cord to other parts of the body; a nerve is macroscopic
nerve
lower motor neuron lesion
loss of tone, atrophy(wasting), fasciculations, hypoflexia
ex: herniated intervertebral disk
Point Location
Touch the skin, and withdraw the stimulus promptly. Tell the person, "Put your finger where I touched you." (You can perform this test simultaneously with light touch sensation),
Tick Paralysis--Prog
good and recovery occurs w/in 1-2 days. Exception is in Australia w/ intoxication due to Ixodes holocyclus. A hyperimmune serum is available for tx. Prog = guarded as death from resp. paralysis may occur despite tx.
Compression--incidence
Any age. Common causes incude motor vehicle trauma, falls, bite wounds, and gunshot wounds.
Fibrocartilagenous Embolism (FCE)--path
Source of the fibrocartilage is probably the intervertebral disk. The path. Of FCE is poorly understood, but the fibrocart. Enters the arteries, veins, or both, supplying the spinal cord resulting in ischemia and infarction of the spinal cord.
Canine Cervical Spondylomyelopathy--Prog
variable--is worse for dogs with long-standing signs or multiple sites of compression
Protoconversation
(cooing with a social partner) from 2 months.
Pervasive developmental disorders
Delays and deviance in social, communicative and cognitive development, with onset typically before 3 years. These include Autistic disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder NOS, Asperger’s disorder, and Rett’s disorder
Usually occurs during pregnancy or childhood, char. by involuntary contraction of muscles of the trunk and extremeties, impairment of memory/speech.
Sydenham's or acute chorea
What is the diagnostic criteria for ALS?
El Escorial criteria
Headache
What will be the main symptom of a patient with a hypertensive stroke?
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
What would you suspect if a pt presented with the "worst headache I've ever had and a stiff neck"?
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Meningomyelocele
Diagnosis: Neural tube defects: Meningomyelocele
 
source
brs pathology p.363
What is a cholinergic synaps?
any synaps that reaches Ach
WHAT IS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS?
DISEASE THAT INVOLVES INFLAMMATION OF CERTAIN NERVE CELLS FOLLOWED BY DEMYELINATION, OR THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MYELIN SHEATHS, WHICH IS THE FATTY INSULATION SURROUNDING NERVE FIBERS.
W/ damage to the dorsal horn at C6 which sensation will likely be spared in that dermatome?
Spinal Nerves
The 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from the length of the spinal cord and supply the rest of the body, Named for the region of the spine from which they exit: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal “Mixed" nerves because they conta
Canine Cervical Spondylomyelopathy--CS
acute or chronic; ataxia and abnormal proprioception in all limbs; caudal cervical neck pain, neck flexion; atrophy and weak reflexes in thoracic limbs; chewing of thoracic limbs, lick granulomas
Suprascapular n. injury--CS
horses, never may be entrapped in connective tissue that developes n the region of the suprspinatus.
Vertebral infections--tx
At least 8 weeks of abx administration based on C/S. If cultures are negative, treat for staph with cephalosporin or penicillinase-resistant penicillin (oxacillin, cloxacillin). If no improvement within 10 days, re-evaluate therapy. Surgery to obtain tissue for culture and perform curettage is indicated in cases refractory to medical therapy. Decompressive surgery may be necessary in cases with substantial meurological deficits.
Acquired myasthenia gravis--prog
generally good and many dogs will undergo spontaneous remission, evident by a decrease in ab titier. Prognosis is guarded for animals w/ aspiration pneumonia or persistent weakness.
Perineal reflex is testing what segment and nerve?
pudendal nerve and S1-S3
What spaces are most commonly affected by Wobbler syndrome?
C5-6 and C6-7
Phenytoin with ECT
An anti-epileptic agent, in case a seizure occurs after the ECT.
Enter your front text here.
Enter your back text here.
Up to 2/3 of patients with REM sleep disorder developed...within 10 years.
Parkinsons
What is the ophthalmic finding of Wilson's dz?
Kayser-Fleisher rings (green-yellow rings at limbus of cornea)
What are the 4 main classes of MS?
1)Relapsing-remitting 2)Primary-progressive 3)Secondary-progressive 4)Progressive-relapsing
Palmar Drift Test
What test is used to check motor strength by asking the pt to extend his arms with palms up and keep them there?
Subarachnoid hematoma
What type of hematoma is caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm?
Pituitary Tumors
What is the most common tumor in 25-34 year olds?
Difficulty speaking, indicates damage to what area of the brain?
Broca's area located within the frontal area of the brain.
A action potential carries what along an axon at speeds ranging from 18-140 meters per second?
It carries nerve impulses
WHAT ARE STRUCTURAL LESIONS IN AMS?
TUMERS, CONTUSIONS ETC DEPRESS CONSCIOUSNESS BY DESTROYING OR ENCROACHING ON THE SUBSTANCE OF THE BRAIN.
bright hematemesis is associated with ?
bleeding esophageal vacies
ulcer of the stomach or duodenal
In traumatic lesions to the s.c., the area that suffers greatest injury is?
The central gray
Corticospinal or Pyramidal Tract.
Motor nerve fibers originate in the motor cortex and travel to the brain stem, where they cross to the opposite side (pyramidal decussation) and then pass down in the lateral column of the spinal cord
Brachial Plexus avulsion--tx
no tx. Amputation of limb may be required b/c of damage d/t dragging. And self mutilation.
Bulimia age of onset compared to anorexia.
Occurs later. 20s-30s.
3 autonomic systems that can be activated in a cluster headache
Trigeminovascular activation (CGRP involved), cranial sympathetic activation, internal carotid artery dilation.
What does the acronym SMART stand for? How many points does it include?
Self Management And Recovery Training. 4 points.
Name 2 types of positive phenomena.
Lg. myelinated fibers (pins and needles sensation) and sm. myelinated (burning sensation)
Cluster headaches
What type of headache comes for 2 or 3 days, then goes away, then can come back 2 months later and do the same thing?
If reflexes are rated as a 2+ they would be considered?
Normal usual response
How mant other neurotrasmitters are there? and what are they?
At least 50 Some amino acidsPetidesProstgalandinsAtpSome disolved gasses
To test tactile discrimination the nurse would?

Stereognosis
have client close eyes
place a familiar object in clients hand
ask client to identify object
repeat on the other side.
For treatment-resistant and rapid cycling manics what may be a good drug for treatment?
Valproic acid (may be better than lithium)
What is the location of Microglia?
Derived from myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow and then migrate to the CNS
Pervasive developmental disorder NOS
Not all the required criteria for AD are met.
What tx is reserved for myasthenia crisis or b/f thymectomy?
Plasma exchange + IV immune globulin
Cerebellum
 
*and basal ganglia
If the gait in a pt is abnormal, what part of the brain would you worry about?
Yes, it would have tumor markers
Would a lumbar puncture give you information about a brain tumor?
Synaptic activity: What is a action potential/ nerve impulse?
They are transmitted from presynaptic neurons.
WHERE IS THE SPEECH AREA LOCATED?
IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM.
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
A fully alert, normal person has a score of 15
cervical disc signs in order
1. pain 2. neck flexion 3. thoracic limb lameness 4. tetraparesis 5. tetraplegia 6. respiratory arrest
% of US and % of women affected by depression
13% and 21%.
Zone of proximal development
This is where a skill advances most. When it is too difficult for a child to master on his/her own, but can be done with guidance and encouragement from a more knowledgeable person.
What is the genetic basis for HD?
CAG repeat encoding of huntingtin by chromosome 4
CT
 
*MRI's cannot be done with metal implants
What type of imaging scan should be ordered for a pt with MS and atrial fibrillation who also has an implanted pacemaker?
Double or blurred vision could be the cause of a dysfunction in what cranial nerve?
cranial nerve III (oculomotor, IV (trochlear), or VI (abducens),
A stoke results when ?
blood supplies to an area of the brain is disrupted.
What is the pathway when you check the patellar reflex?
tap the patellar ligament-->stretches the mm spindles of the quadriceps mm-->sensory fibers ascend via the femoral nerve and dorsal roots to synapse on LMN located in L4-6-->motor fibers exit via the ventral roots and are carried by the femoral nerve to the quadriceps
Opioid system involved how with food intake?
Regulating rate, duration and size of meals. Beta endophin facillitates feeding behavior.
What is the difference b/t preimary and secondary progressive MS?
Primary - (rare, MC in men)slow but continuous decline in neurological fxn. Secondary - begins as relapsing-remitting followed by steady decline.
Ringing in the ears or hearing loss could indicate??
a dysfunction of cranial nerve VIII (acoustic).
Schizophrenia must be present for how long?
At least 6 months. Otherwise its schizophreniform if greater than one month.
No, the frontalis muscle is impaired
Will a pt with Bell's Palsy be able to wrinkle their forehead?
What is a tau protein and what disease is associated with their damage?
A microtubule protein that is abundant in the neurons of the CNS. They interact with tubulin to stabilize microtubules and to promote tubulin assembly into microtubules. Alzheimers disease.
What do you want to ask when you are doing a neuro exam?
1. is there a neurologic lesion? 2. Where is the lesion? 3. How severe is the lesion?
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