Neuroscience and Behavior 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ions
electrically charged atoms
endorphins
"morphine within." natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.
GABA
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter, undersupply linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia.
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
sympathetic nervous system
arouses the body
Aphasia
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Plasticity
The brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
Interneurons
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with the muscles, glands, and sense organs
plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
hypothalamus
neural structure below the thalamus; directs maintenance activities like drinking and temperature, helps govern the endocrine system via pituitary gland, linked to emotion
Interneurons
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs.
Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse to the post synaptic cell where they bind to...
postsynaptic receptors
In immunocytochemistry, the labeled ligand is
An antibody
Reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that, among its funtions, triggers muscles contraction
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Broca's area
controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Lesion
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
dendrite
the bushy, branching extentions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 074]
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Lesion
Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord.
within the forebrain 2 components:
Telencephalon and diencephalon
Which gland or glands directly influence the SCL and the SCR?
Sweat glands
PNS
Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
Endocrine System
The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
The scan that monitors the brain's use of glucose is a _________ scan
PET
Occipital Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 076]
parietal lobes
the portions of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (Some of these psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists)
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spianl cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival funtions.
Corpus Callosum
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Bregma is
The point of intersection between two major skull suctures, and a common reference point for rat stereotaxic brain surgery
Which of the following is not an autonomic nervous system response? Heart rate, blood pressure, EEG, electrical conductance of the skin, pupil dilation.
EEG
Brainstem
the oldest and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; is responsible for automatic survival functions.
EEG
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. Are measured by electrodes.
Temporal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which recieve auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass on to other neurons or to muscles or glands
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The ___ secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress
Reticular Formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Association Areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Adrenal glands
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The ______ secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
The telencephelon includes most of the ______________ hemisphere and is covered by what structure? What major brain parts are located in this region?
cerebral hemisphere; cerebral cortex.Limbic system and the basal ganglia. (both of which are subcorticol- deep within these regions).
Adrenal Gland
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenal secrete the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline) which helps arouse the body during times of stress
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arrouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Sensory Cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
What is controlled by the right hemisphere?
emotional, visual, spatial reasoning
CT (computer tomography) scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. Also called a CAT scan
Limbic system is located... major functions... structures.
Just beneath the neocortex. motivation and emotion. amygdala and hippocampus.
What is the most common method of making lesions to the neocortex in biopsychological experiments?
Aspiration or suction
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
The corpus callosum is....
a band of nerves that connects the right and left hemispheres.
what is connected to the hippocampus and the structure that connects them
mammilary body and the fornix
In comparison to metabotropic receptors, ionotropic receptors produce effects that
Develop more rapidly and are less diffuse
An approaching action potential to the terminal buds causes an opening in what ion channel?
Calcium. Calcium ions rush into the cell and play an important role in the release of neurotransmitters. without calcium, the neurotransmitters are not released.
What happens to the synaptic vesicles once neurotransmitter has been released?
they remain fused to the membrane and are recycled along with the rest of the membrane by a process called pinocytosis.
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