Neuroscience and Behavior Vocabulary Flashcards

Myers Psychology
Terms Definitions
dopamine
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Excessive ___ receptor linked to schizophrenia. Starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson's disease
Three types of synapses
axodendriticaxosomaticaxoaxonic
CNS
brain and spinal cord
endorphins
"morphine within" natural, opitatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
thalamus
brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem; directs messages to sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Hormones
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
basal ganglia responsible for what...
movement
neural networks
interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer stimulations of neural networks show analogous learning
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Nervous System
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Which structure is most closely associated with rewards?
hypothalamus
Motor Neurons
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 062]
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Sensory neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information form the sense receptors ot the central nervous system.
limbic system functions for
learning and memory
Autoreceptors are commonly found in
Presynaptic membranes
Reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to sensory stimulus.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter that, among other things, triggers muscle contraction.
Hypothalamus
A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 073]
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Neuron
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Broca's Area
Controls language expression -- an area of the frontal lobe, usually directs the muscle movemnets involved in speech.
Astrocytes function to
provide physical support and housekeeping duties (regulate chemical compositions around neurons)
Endorphins play a role in
Analgesia and pleasure
Sensory Neurons
neurons that carry incoming informing information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Electroencephalogram
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. It is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Temporal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 076]
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
Frontal lobes
The portion of the cerbral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
Glial Cells
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish , and protect neurons.
Which of the following is not an amino acid neurotransmitter? Aspartate, Glutamate, Glycine, Indolamine, GABA
Indolamine
After release, neurotransmitters are deactivated in the synapse by
Reuptake and enzymatic degradation
Broca's Area
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Frontal Lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
What is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?
dendrite-cell body-axon-synapse
Electroencephalogram [EEG]
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 068]
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the msucles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses the body; its parasympathetic division calms.
Association Areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively destroys
Neurons the release dopamine and norepinephrine
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving energy.
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Motor Cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
autonomic nervous system
part of the PNS that controls glands and internal organs. Contains sympathetic (arouses) and parasympathetic (calms) nervous systems.
MRI [Magnetic Resonance Imaging]
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 069]
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
the ion channels responsible for the action potential require a specific potential before opening and are therefore called
voltage dependent ion channels
fMRI [Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging]
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain function. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 069]
Astrocytes also mantain a small amount of...
glycogen for later breakdown to glucose if necessary.
The wave of absolute refractoriness which follows an action potential
Keeps the action potential from spreading actively back down an axon towards the cell body
fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing sucessive MRI scans.
Na+ ions are continuously forced into neurons by
Their high external concentration and the negative resting potential
Which has the most influence on whether or not a neuron fires?
Synapses on its cell body near the axon hillock
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