AP Euro people Flashcards

renaissance
Terms Definitions
Diderot
1713-1784
Louis Blanc
Parisian workshops
Cavour
Prime Minister of Piedmont
Frederich Nietzsche
(1844-1900), German philosopher, believed West overemphasized rationality and stifled passion and creativity, questioned all values, claimed Christianity glorified weakness, envy and mediocrity, believed pillars of conventional morality needed to be replaced
Moliere
(1622-1673), French playwright, plays that followed classical models but were based on careful social observation, made bourgeoisie the butt of his ridicule
Petrarch
(1304-1374) "Father of Humanism." Studied the psychological portrait of humans and theme of love. Laura was his "belove."
Copernicus
polish clergyman and astronomer, helped launch scientific revolution by challenging belief in geocentric theory (earth is center of universe), proposed sun as center, wrote "On the Revolution of Heavenly spheres"
Pope Gregory
He wrote the Dictatus
Locke
Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690), natural rights contract
John Constable
(1776-1821), English romantic painter, painted gentle landscapes in which human beings were at peace with their environments
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-1882), personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism of Mazzini, aimed to "liberate" the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, his Red Shirts roused the peasants and conquered Sicily
Christopher Columbus
genose navigator and explorer, 1492-obtained a sponsorship from the monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain for an attempt to reach Asia by sailing westwrd over what presumed to be open sea,
Fillipo Brunelleschi
(1377-1446) Architect that was interested in bronze and painting. Created massive dome on Cathedral of Florence (Il Duomo).
Metternich
German politician and statesman. Major figure in the Congress of Vienna, wanted to maintain balance of power
Isaac Newton
English scientist and mathematician, wrote "Principia". laws of gravity and inertia, mechanist view of universe influenced by deism
Sir Francis Drake
combined piracy and exploration
Francis Bacon
Wrote The Great Instauration. Correct scienctific method = inductive principles. He rejected Copernicus and Kepler and misunderstood Galileo.
William Shakespeare
(1564-1616), most famous playwright of all time, original characters, great understanding of human psychology, diverse plots, unexcelled gift for language, appreciated classical culture, individualism and humanism
Lech Walesa
(1943-), leader of Solidarity Movement in Poland, settled for minor government concessions, refused to use force to challenge directly Communist monopoly of power, elected president of Poland in 1989, made a clean break with state planning and moved quickly to market mechanisms and private property
Hernando Cortes
spanish explorer and conquistador of 16c, overthrew aztec rulers in Mexico, founded Mexico City as capital of New Spain,
Beaucratization
Corporations and government lead to a bigger beaucracy. howver u spell it. Involves division of labor as each individual fit into a particular role in much larger organizations.
Werner Heisenberg
A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
D' Etaples
French priest, translated Bible into French
Friedrich Liszt
German economist who develops national system
Jan Hus
He attacked indulgences and demanded reform in church morals and liturgy. However, He was burned at the stake for heresy.
Nicolaus Copernicus
This Polish clergyman and astronomist first proposed the Helio-centric Theory in his book The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, which he refrained from publishing until he was on his death bed in order to avoid persecution in the 16th century.
Cardinal Richelieu
Chief minister for Louis XIII, wanted Hapsburgs to have less power, declared ware against Spain, wanted to take Alsace from Holy Roman Empire
Edwin Chadwick
one of the commissions charged with relief to paupers, Benthamite, realized disease and death caused poverty, believed disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment, reports became the basis of Britain's first public health law, believed in the miasmatic theory of disease
Desiderius Erasmus
dutch humainst, wrote the Praise of the Folly
Collective unconsciousness
Part of the unconscious mind that describe how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience.
Valla
wrote On Pleasure, wrote On the False Donation of Constantine
Theodor Herzel
Led zionist movement, Europe not safe for Jews
Oliver Cromwell
A powerful member of Parliament. He took over after Charles I wa executed, and promptly killed anyone that opposed him
Richard II
This French king tricked the French peasants in the Jacquerie and killed most of them.
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
(1394-1460) established a school for the study of geography, sent expeditions down the coast of Africa
Henry VII
marries women in house of York- calms tension left from war of roses, lives on his own- doesn't take $ from taxes for personal well being, changes parliament's roles, royal council- middle class advisors, starts isolationism, Court of Star Chamber
Jan Van Eycke
On of the few Northern European Renaissance painters along with Rogier van der Weyden, he was one of the first artists to use oil-based paints.
Michael Romanov
came to throne in 1613 as the solution to the dynastic risis of the Time of Troubles, founded a Romanov dynasty that ruled Russia until 1917
Peter I of Russia
He attempted to westernize russia to catch up to the powers of Europe. He had many military changes and he learned from his losses to the Swedes
Henry VIII of England
fell in love w/ Anne Boleyn, wanted his marriage to Catherine of aragon anulled, had daughter Mary w/ Catherine, henry used parliament to legalize the reformation in England, married Anne Boleyn who failed to produce a male heir so he charged her w/ adulterous incest and had her beheaded, had daughter Elizabeth w/ Anne, third wife was Jane Seymour and had three more wives after her, dissolved English monasteries because he wanted their wealth,
Michele de Montaigne
he was the one who is thought of as the father of modern skepticism
Rousseau
1712-1778
Virginia Woolf
English author/feminist
Vissarion Belinsky
Russian literary critic
Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951), Austrian philosopher, argued that philosophy is only the clarification of thoughts, great philosophical issues are a waste of time because conclusions reflect the opinions of individuals
William Wordsworth
(1770-1850), literary romanticist, used language of ordinary speech, wrote poems about simple subjects, simplicity and love of nature
Masaccio
(1401-1428) Perspective Geometry in his piece "Holy Trinity"
Machiavelli
renaissance political philosopher who wrote "the Prince", believed that people were ungrateful and untrustworthy, urged rulers to study war, avoid unnecessary kindness, and alwats base policies on the idea that the ends justify the means
Rafael
This Italian Renaissance painter painted many Madonna's and depictions of the Holy Family.
Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar, attacked government of Florence (Lorenzo de' Medici), corruption of Pope Alexander VI, became religious leader of Florence, eventually excommunicated and executed by pope, shows that common people did not share worldly outlook of elite
Alexander Dubcek
(1921-1992), launched dramatic reforms in Czechslovakia, believed he could reconcile socialism with personal freedom and internal party democracy, relaxed controls and censorship, Russian troops invaded, forced to obey Soviet demands
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) Excelled in philology (study of ancient languages). Was clergy. Knew "Donation of Constantine" was forgery.
Jeremy Bentham
English philosopher and social reformer, liberal, favored equality, sep of church and state
Rene Descartes
french philosopher and mathematician, used deductive reasoning to reach scientific laws
Thomas Cromwell
-He centralized the government, divided administration into different areas, as well as being the minster of Henry VII.
Elizabeth I
cooperates with Parliament, Spanish Armada, Toleration of other Protestants and Roman Catholics. Anglican
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Against absolute rule of one man. Wants to live in state of equality and freedom.
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-1797), wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women, firm feminist, demanded education for women, advocated female participation in politics and an expansion of women's rights
Joseph Broz Tito
(1892-1980), resistance leader and communist chief of Yugoslavia, able to resist Soviet domination successfully, allowed greater personal freedom
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556) founded the Jesuit order, goal to help souls, spread Christian ideals through education
Friedrich Engels
(1820-1895), wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England, claimed industrial capitalism had caused a dramatic increase in poverty, later the colleague of Karl Marx, wrote The Communist Manifesto
Francois Villon
greatest poet of medieval France, banished from Paris for killing a man in a fight, joined the wandering bands of thieves that harassed the countryside after the 100 years war, composed ballads in thieves jargons, wrote Lais (series of bequests to friends and enemies) and The Grand Testament
Auguste Comte
Positivism, a philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science. Wrote The Positive Philosophy.
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.
Castiglione
wrote The Courtier, was about what makes a good courtier- social, polite, "Renaissance man"
Henry Bessemer
created the process of manufacturing cheap steel
Giotto
He designed the Florence Cathedral as well as painting a fresco cycle that showed the life of Christ
John Wyclif
This Pre-Reformation man spoke out against saint veneration, pilgramages, pluralism, and absenteeism.
Joseph M. W. Turner
(1775-1851), notable English romantic painter, depicted nature's power and terror
John Knox
dominated the movement for reform in Scotland, worked w/ Calvin in England, established Presbyterian Church of Scotland (strictly Calvinist in doctrine), wrote the Book of Common Prayer,
Relativity
Time and space exist as a combined continuum, time and space depend on the observer as well as the things being measured.
More
wrote Utopia- if u don't know what that is... good luck in life, was in the upper middle class,
Karl Lueger
Austrian Politician and may or Vienna, populist and anti-Semitic policies
Laura Cereta
A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas.
Thomas Hobbes
The inventor of the term "Social Contract", he wrote the Leviathan, which secularly supported absolute monarchy as the only sure way to perserve the will of the people in a single ruler. He did not beleive in Divine Right rule. The social contract cannot be changed.
King Gustavus Adolphus
Sweden aided under leadership during thirty years war. Marriage ties to Prussia
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
wrote What is the Third Estate?, argued that the nobility was a tiny, overprivileged minority and that the 3rd estate comprised the true strength of the French nation
Charles VII
forms a strong royal army, taxes land and property, creates the pragmatic sanction of Bourges
Utopia
A book by Thomas More, it describes a island where a utopian society exists.
Louis XIV
An absolute king of France, he made Versailles the greatest palace in the world, subverted the nobility's power, but led France into deficit with the costly War of the Spanish Succession. Beleived in Divine Right rule.
Elizabeth I of England
daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, became ruler after Mary Tudor (her half sister),brought religous stability to england, didn't care what people believed as long as they keep quiet about it,
Leonardo da Vinci
He painted the Mona Lisa, thought to be greatest work of all time, and also studied and drew various body parts as well as designing the first flying machine and tank.
Joan of Arc
17 yr old peasant girl, she cut her hair and dressed like a man in order to go to the french court and persuade the (uncrowned) king Charles VII to reject the rumor that he was illigeitimate, told Charles the VII that God had sent her to save France, persuaded Charles to let her lead the French army, lead France to several victories during the 100 years war, taken captive by the allies of England (the Burgandians) and turned over to the enemies for trial, tried for witchcraft (french did not intervene), convicted and buned at the stake, became a patron saint of France
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
They united Spain by marriage as well as starting the Inquisition.
Montesquieu
1689-1755
Catherine the Great
1762-1796
Rudyard Kipling
Wrote Jungle book
Martin Luther
(1483-1546), articulated the widespread desire for reform of church and deep yearning for salvation, very conscientious friar, but doubted the value of the monastic life, troubled by sale of indulgences, writes 95 Theses and launches Protestant Reformation
Louis XI
encouraged industry/ commerce, Hanseatic League- trade agreement to decrease taxation and increase trade
Einstein
german physicist, spacial relativity theories undermined newtons laws, traditional conceptions of time, space and motion, added to feeling of postwar uncertainty
Magellan
Spain
made first voyage around world
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealthy of Nations. Mercantilism. State shouldn't intervene with economic matteres.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
(1619-1683), appointed minister of finance by Louis XIV, applied system of mercantilism to France, believed France should be self-sufficient, attempted to accomplish this through state support of industries, created a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods, hoped to make Canada part of a vast French empire
John Cabot
genose merchant, discovered New Foundland, explored English coast
Gutenburg
made printing press and gutenburg bible
Lajos Kossuth
Leads Hungarian liberals in Austria
Dante Alighieri
He wrote the Divine comedy
otto I
revive charlemagnes empire, crowned emporer of romans by pope, many principalities, did not administer to territories, attempted to gain control over italian penninsula
Walter Rathenau
Jewish industrialist that sets up Germany's War Raw Materials Board, rations and distributes raw materials, produced substitutes essential to blockaded German war machine
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906), committed to form and ordered design, later work increasingly abstract and non-representational, moved toward 2-D plane
Cecil Rhodes
led British imperialism in Africa, conquered Bechuanaland (Botswana) and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe and Zambia), developed gold mines, laid the foundations for apartheid
Francois Rabelais
french humanist, wrote the comic masterpieces Gargantua and Pantagruel, stories contained gross humor,
Ubermensch
Another word for the Overman, who would embody heroism and greatness, had to do with Nietzche. Interpreted as some mode of superman or super race.
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1825-1895) British scientist and supporter of Darwinism. Became a leading critic against Social Darwinism and wrote "Evolution in Ethics" in 1893 to publish his beliefs. Believed that "human ethical progress occurs through combating the cosmic process."
Erasmus
earned living by writing which was unusual. wrote In Priase of Folly - second best seller, writen in latin, criticism of bible. his writings = precursor to Luther and reforms
Voltaire
Known for his sharp, critical tongue, this important French philosophe was imprisoned and kicked out of the country several times and wrote the novel Candide. He was Madame du Châtelet's "good friend."
Dante
This Italian author wrote his Divine Comedy in the 14th century. In it, a character with his name is led through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven.
Clement VII
Originally Cardinal Robert of Geneva, this pope was secretly elected pope by some cardinals in order to oppose Urban VI. His papacy was in Avignon and the Great Schism ensued.
John Milton
The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, defended the English Revolution
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
(1809-1865), wrote What is Property?, argued that property was profit stolen from the workers, considered an anarchist
Max Weber
Social theorist, impressed by role of reason in human society. Saw bureaucratization as feature of modern social life. Opposed Marx's concept of development, where Marx reasons capitalism driving force in social life. Noneconomic factors might account for major developments in human history. Wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Vergerio
wrote to the ruler of Carrara about instructions of young men in public office
Jacques LeFeure d'Etables
french humanist, wrote five different versions of Psalms, considered enemy of church for doing this
Jean Bodin
A French philosopher, he proposed the divine right of kings
François Rabelais
This secular French humanist wrote the humorous Gargantua and Pantagruel.
Richlieu
advisor to Louis XIII and cardinal of france
Catherine of Aragon
Queen of England that could not produce a male heir for Henry VIII
Charles VIII
This French King lead part of many invading forces into Italy around 1400.
Rogier van der Weyden
flemish painter, admired Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin, most of his work was religious, his work was particularly admired in Italy, created The Descent from the Cross
James I
He did not gain popularity, and he was also very generous with his favorites.
King Henry III of France
in the War of Three Henrys, assassinated
Two Treatises on Civil Government
this stated that the divine right of kings were wrong, and can be proven by scripture
William Roentgen
Xray.
Huguenots
The French Calvinists
Descartes
-French philosopher and mathematician
-Used deductive reasoning from self-evident priciples to reach scientific laws
Rasputin
self-proclaimed holy man, great influence over Tsarina Alexandra, treated son Alexei's hemophilia through hypnosis, murdered in December 1916
Immanuel Kant
(1724-1804), greatest German philosopher of the age, believed in freedom of the press
Alexander I
Enlightenment thinking, relaxed censorship at first. After defeat of Napoleon becomes strict
Luther
-Protestant reformer whose criticism of indulgences helped spark Reformation
-Advocated salvation by faith
-Believed Christian women should strive to become models of wifely obedience and charity
Charles II
restoration, Anglican, leaves parliament alone,dogs and mistresses. two parties (whigs and tories)
Edward Bernstein
(1850-1932), revisionist, argued that Marx's predictions had proved false, suggested socialists should combine with progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions and further economic development
J. A. Hobson
(1858-1940), criticized imperialism, felt it was caused by the needs of unregulated capitalism, argued that imperial possessions did not benefit the country as a whole, believed it diverted attention away from domestic reform, morally condemned whites ruling nonwhites
Arthur de Gobineau
reactionary french diplomat, enunciated first theory of race as major determinant of human history. Wrote Essay on the Inequality of the human races.
Bosch
northern renaissance artist, Death and the Miser, uses a peacock as a symbol of ressurection
Edmund Burke
Founder of conservatism- reacted against French Revolution
John Calvin
protestant reformer, wrote "the institutes of Christian religion", believed in omnipotence of god, predestination, and the weakness of humanity, established Geneva as a model Christian community
Geoffrey Chaucer
He wrote the Canterbury tales
William Tyndale
English translation of the New Testament
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527), wrote The Prince, showed how a ruler should gain, maintain and increase his power, concludes that humans are inherently selfish, combine qualities of fox and lion, two basic ideas: one permanent social order reflecting God's ideals cannot be established and politics has its own laws and ought to be a science
Georges Haussmann
(1809-1884), appointed by Napoleon III to reorganize Paris, razed buildings to create wide boulevards (prevent easy construction of barricades), demolished slums, created parks and open spaces, improved water supply system
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk, worked on heredity, worked with genetics with peas.
Lytton Strachey
Member of the unconventional and innovative Bloomsbury group; an openly homosexual man that was friends with Virginia Woolf until his death in 1932. This British author incorporated psychological insight into his literary works, something developed on by fellow Bloomsbury group member Virginia Woolf with her "stream of consciousness" writing
John Wycliffe
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
Boccacio
made encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology - talks about humans
Genghis Khan
A powerful Mongolian leader and military genius, this Asian warlord destroyed the Kievan Principality, forever changing the history of Russia.
Frans Hals
painted citizens in community, banquet of saint george militia company, dutch merchant, paintings look fresh to the eye
Michel de Montaigne
Modern essay, skepticism, wrote Of Cannibals (addressed telling stories subjectively and using "barbarous" when people were just different)
Count Henri de Saint-Simon
(1760-1825), socialist, believed the parasites (aristocrats, lawyers, churchmen) of society must give way to the doers (scientists, engineers, industrialists), doers would carefully guide and plan the economy through public works projects
Giorgio Vasari
painter, wrote the lives of most illustrious painters early renaissance
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
della Mirandola
nature of human kind, god given talents
Longbowmen
These English troops won the Battle of Crécy. They were much faster than the French crossbowmen and with the addtion of cannons for the first time in Europe, they won.
Henry IV
edict of nantes, limited nobles power, france
Prince William of Orange
aka William the Silent, first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, united 17 provinces in 1576
Anne Boleyn
the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I
Charles V
Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, king of the Iberian Peninsula, Ruler of the Hasburgs.
Ulrich Zwingli
A Swiss preist in the Reformation, he opposed Luther in his interpretation of the Eucharist, and gained a large following.
On the Origin of Species
Formulates the principle of natural selection, explains how species had changed or evolved over time.
Edward III
he was supposed to gain part of French land, but he was not able to since Philip the fair attempted to take back the land, starting the hundred years war
giovanni pico della mirandola
declared that humans dont have a fixed place in the universe and that they get to choose their destination in life unlike other creatures.late renaissance
Beyond Good and Evil
Ideas of not what is good and what is evil, but what the sources of judgment of what is good and what is evil. Morality is a human convention, has no independent existence at all.
Id
Internal Desire
Mazarin
Louis XIV "hero"
Bacon
-English politician and writer
-Formulated empirical method into general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism
William Gladstone
British Prime Minister, liberal
Montaigne
-French Renaissance writer who developed the essay as a literary genre
-Known for his skeptical attitude
Balboa
Portugal
first European to see Pacific Ocean
Albert Camus
Existentialism. "World absurd and without meaning, our source of hope = themselves"
John Cockerill
built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium, established modern ironworks, coal mines and built an industrial factory which produced locomotives and machinery
Pierre Bayle
(1647-1706), skeptic, French Huguenot who found refuge in the Netherlands, examined religious persecutions and beliefs of the past in his Historical and Critical Dictionary, concluded that nothing can be known beyond all doubt, believed in open minded toleration
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physiologist, worked with hypnosis, thought sexual matters were significant in his patient's problems, worked with dreams, wrote The Interpretation of Dreams.
Cereta
was a feminist, humanist, fought oppression of women, wrote letters, and wanted women to get an education
Claude Monet
founder of French impressionist painting
Charles IV
He issued the Golden bull
Johann Gutenberg
1400-1468, created the movable type around 1454, experimented in Nainz
Georges Sorel
Wrote Reflections on Violence, people do not pursue rationally perceived goals but are led to action by collectively shared ideals. Revolutionary syndicalism.
Auguste Ficke
led the general austrian women's association
Johann Tetzel
was commissioned to sell indulgences which led Luther to write his 95 theses
Marsiglio
This 14th century author of Defensor Pacis wrote that the pope should not be the supreme authority. Instead it should be held by a council of Christians. He was a Conciliarist.
Albert of Wallenstein
Catholic Czech general, beat Christian IV, wanted to create a kingdom for himself, and so religion wasn't a reason for his fighting
Benjamin Disraeli
(1804-1881), extended the vote to all middle class males, aimed to broaden the Conservative party's traditional base of aristocratic and landed support
Francesco Petrarch
florentine who lived in the 1300s, poet and humanist, he thought he was living at the start of a new age - believed he was witnessing a new golden age of intellectual achievement-the Renaissance
jules michelet
wrote about the rebirth of french greatness
St. Ignatius Loyola
became soldier of church, established Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Thomas More
civic humanist, wrote Utopia - literal transalation - nowhere - saying perfect societies do not exist - sacrafice your things for common good, share what you have
Lorenzo Ghiberti
His works were greatly based on perceptive as well as proportions.
Johannes Gutenberg
This German man, along with Johann Fust and Peter Schöfer developed the the movable type, which could print things faster.
Ferdinand and Isabella
ruled from 1479-1516, conquer spanish territories from muslims, catholic kings, columbus voyage
Ferdinand Magellan
comisioned by Charles V of spain to find direct route to the spices of the Moluccas off the South east coast of Asia, sailed southwest across Atlantic to Brazil-went south around Cape Horn into the Pacific-crossed the pacific-went west to the Maloy Archipeligo ("Western Isles"), got killed in battle w/ natives, proved earth was much larger than columbus estimated and that the earth was round,
Charles Lyell's geology
Suggests that the earth is much older than the biblical records.
Cardinal Francisco Jimenez
This man was involved in the Catholic movement known as the New Piety. He was responsible for the Polyglot Bible, a Bible in several languages, which was a manifestation of Catholic humanism.
Jacob Burckhardt
writer in the mid 19th cent, bc of his work there was signif increase in the Renaissance
Isabelle of Castille, Ferdinand of Aragon
get married and help unite Spain, send Christopher Columbus to sail the ocean blue in 1492, expel the Jews in 1492, form royal council
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