-German university professor & Augustinian friar
-Very conservative but anti-Semitic
-"Faith alone, grace alone, Scripture alone"
-Wrote 95 Theses after Tetzel sold indulgences
-Against all clergy abuses
-Believed salvation came through faith, not good works
-Only sacraments: baptism & communion
-Vows of celibacy = unnecessary/unnatural
-Ideas attracted: educated people, humanists, middle class & even some women
-Translated New Testament into German in 1523
-Called to Diet of Worms to recant his ideas but refused
spread Calvinism to Scotland
-Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist
-God is not actually in the bread & wine
leader-Calvin. Believed power should be passed from the people up- elected presbyteries.
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
confession of belief for Anabaptists
those who follow Martin Luther's teachings.
-Style in art, decoration & musix
-Associated w/ Counter-Reformation
wrote: Utopia-idealistic life, an imaginary life/society in the New World--represents his concerns: economic, political, social, Utopian society based on communal ownership, gave up his life opposing England's break with the Roman Catholic Church (divorce of Henry VIII)
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith alone, end to monasticism and celibacy, consubstantiation. Luther's friend, Philip Melancthon, worked on this codification with him.
|Peace of Augsburg||
1555; between nobles in HRE
pope and church officials began to live luxurious life styles
lawyer turned theologian, his ideas are the seeds to Calvinism, also called the Reformed Church. Calvin favored the idea of double predestination (God chooses some people for heaven and some for hell; this is God's free decision and nothing can be done to change it)
|Pope Clement VII||
-Son of Lorenzo de Medici
-Authorized a special St. Peter's indulgence and allowed Archbishop Albert of Mainz to keep a portion of the revenue collected in the territories over which he was bishop to pay back to Fuggers, a European banking familiy
|Protestant work ethic||
Calvinists later emphasized the importance3 of hard work and accompanying financial success as a sign that God was pleased
Protestants that fled England fearing persecution under Bloody Marry
the mass of people as distunguished from those of a clergy or a particular profession/skill
Martin Luther's list of complaints and reforms. He accused Johann Tetzel of wrongdoing in his selling of indulgences and asking people to pay for false promises of exoneration of their sins. Luther's protests spread throughout Europe, igniting the Reformation.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; resisted the spread of Protestantism.
a secular movement from the church. papacy and authority is undermined.
|Edict of Worms||
imperial assembly in which Luther argued his beliefs
|Calvinism in England||
known as Congregational Church and became religion of puritans (17th century- plymouth rock)
root word -protest. The reformation is dated from the day Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the church in Wittenberg, Germany, protesting abuses within the Catholic Church. These were a call to the Catholic Church to reform itself. The results were that the Roman Catholic Church began to splinter apart with the formation of Protestant Churches, each its own variation of the Roman Catholic Church. The era for this division is called the Protestant Reformation - 1517-1603.
|Edict of Nantes||
-Published by Henry in 1598
-Granted toleration to Protestants
-Ended French Wars of Religion
-Helped restore internal peace in France
-Prepared the way for French absolutism in the 1600s
1509-1547, 2nd of the Tudor monarchs, hard earlier been a conservative and critical of Lutheranism and reform, "Defender of the Faith,"
|Colloquy at Marburg||
Zwingli officially split with Luther over issue of Eucharist
1529, Zwingli vs. Luther, argue over Trans vs. consubstantiation.Luther says Zwingli is blasphemous,
archbishop of Canterbury who wrote the book of Common Prayer and grants Henry VIII and annulment without the pope
Was started in the 1530s by the Church and was aimed at reforming internal Church practices to combat the success of the Protestant Reformation.
|Peace of Westphalia||
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
failed to get an annulment for Henry VIII and was beheaded for it
|Priesthood of All Believers||
Luther's revolutionary idea that every believer had the ability to read and interpret theBible, that all people of faith were viewed by God as equals. This challenged the Church's position that priests had an exclusive ability to do so.
|The Diet of Speyer||
(1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects. (p. 462)
|Pope Paul III||
most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism, rather than instituting new doctrines, he sought to improve church discipline through existing doctrine
|Act of Supremacy||
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
|Duke of Alva||
Man sent by Phillip II to pacify Netherlands, establishes Council of Blood.
King kept a lot of Cath features in church. But could not please all parties & definition of English church uncertain. Under Ed. VI and influence of CRANMER it became more Protestant but under Mary there was an attempt to bring back RC. Failed and E I seeks via media or middle way. She keeps a lot of Catholic elements in services to satisfy Catholics but allows priests to marry to satisfy Protestants. Prayer book very "loose/fluid" to allow different worshippers or congregations to pick and choose. England become more Prot under E I. Closer to Geneva than Rome. Struct. & organization - medieval (more catholic-like; in relig. practise - more Protestant.) Those of Calvinist persausion would find it too catholic-like.
|the Imitation of Christ||
by Thomas a Kempis, Tells Christians to find perfection in simple life
|Against the Murdering, Thieving Hordes of Peasants||
-Pamphlet by Martin Luther
-Against fighting & revolts
-Must obey established authority
|Council of Trent||
Summoned by Pope Paul III to try and define Catholic doctrine and thwart Protestant attacks on Catholic beliefs. These meetings did not reform the doctrines but did end several currupt practices criticized by Reformers within the Church and reasserted traditional Catholic doctrine.
|things that came with luthernism||
replaced latin with german in church services. encouraged hymns. wrote "A Mighty Fortress is our God". approved mariages by clergy. didn't believe in church higharchy. believed that all occupations were vocations that could serve God & others
|Colonnade in piazza in front of St. Peter's basilica||
Bernini's greatest architectural achievement
|What were the fates of Henry VIII's wives?||
Divorced (Catherine of Aragon), beheaded (Anne Boleyn), died (Jane Seymour), Divorced (Anne of Cleaves), Beheaded (Catherine Howard), Survived (Catherine Parr)
|What did the Catholic Church reform at the Council of Trent?||
Tridentine decrees - Tametsi Decree (got rid of secret marriages amongst priests, got rid of concubines), rejected sale of indulgences as a form of making profit (can't buy your way out of purgatory), made seminaries - encouraged religious education of priests
|"Here I stand, I can do no other"||
said by Luther at the Edict of Worms