AP EURO RENAISSANCE Flashcards

renaissance
Terms Definitions
Raphael
Madonnas
Perspective
3d effects
Cesare Borgia
...
Francois Rabelais
-(1494-1553)
-Priest
-Attacked failures of Church in Gargantua Pantagruel
Paracelsus
German; medical science
Leonardo Bruni
-(1369-1444)
-Rhetorician & historian
-Wrote about history of FLorence
-Translated classical works into Latin
-Devised the term 'humanism'
Bellini
associated with Venetian School
Lorenzo the magnificent
Medici ruler
Rabelais
French satirical author; -Gargantua- and -Pantagruel-
Mannerism
reaction against High Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color
Leonardo da Vinci
The Last Supper
Sicily (Kingdom of the two)
...
Pieter Breugel
Every day duch Artist
Francesco Petrarch
-(1304-1374)
-Believed he was living at the start of a new age
-14th century humanist
-Ideas spread from person to person by hand copying
Sir Thomas More
Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII; wrote -Utopia- which presented a revolutionary view of society; executed for not compromising his religious beliefs
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer; *Don Quixote*
humanism
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Hans Holbein the Younger
Premier portrait artist
Lefevre d'Etaples
influenced by Mirandola, produced edition of the Psalms, present in religious controversy
These people believed in reviving classical teaching and text. They also abandoned scholasticism in favor of Latin, grammar, logic, rhetoric and metaphysics. Their main goal was to revive the glory of the classic age.
Humanists
The Inquisition
-Spanish Church Court
-Set up by Ferdinand & Isabella
-Determined to enforce religious uniformity
Brunelleschi
ARCHITECT, made the dome of Florence, which is cross shaped from the sky and has a large dome
Florence
Lorenzo the Magnificent was the leader of ________.
Sfumato
blurring or softening sharp lines in painting
Alexander VI
corrupt Spanish pope; aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince
Greek temple architecture
triangular pediments, Greek columns, Roman arches, domes. Simplicity, symmetry, balance.
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Charles VIII
led French invasions of Italy (battleground between France and Spain)
Girolamo Savonarola
Became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494-1498 who pledged to rid Florence of its decadence and corruption, oversaw a theocracy in Florence. When France was removed from Italy in 1498, Savonarola was imprisoned and then burned at the stake.
Lorenzo Valla
associated with textual criticism and new historiography; proved that the Donation of Constantine was fake; The Elegances of the Latin Language
This Italian city is known as "the cradle of the Renaissance" and its main language was Tuscan.
Florence
Boniface
Pope
Unam Sanctum (church had full authority)
Babylonian Captivity
"God, glory, gold"
motivations of the Spanish and Portuguese explorers
D
Which of the following can best be identified as civil servants?
A.) bailiffs B.) justices of the peace
C.) corregidores D.) all of the above
Botticelli
one of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance; developed a highly personal style; *The Birth of Venus*
Lorenzo Ghiberti
"gates of paradise", winner of the north doors competition for the Baptistery of Florence cited as the beginning of Renaissance Art
Henry VII
1. ended private armies (livery and maintenance) 2. court of starchamber (used torture to get confessions, less power for nobles because anyone can accuse anyone) 3. Limited spending (few taxes, few wars= happy parliament and happy citizens)
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
School of Athens
Raphael's fresco. It's a grandly conceived portrayal of the great masters of Western philosophy, and art historians praise it as a virtually perfect portrayal of Renaissance technique.
Sack of Rome
marks begin of Renaissance decline; unpaid soldiers/mercenaries raid Rome
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
-Published by Charles in 1438
-General superior to papacy
-French crown controlled appointment of bishops & Pope didn't get French ecclesiastical revenues
-Established Gallican (French) liberties b/c it affirmed the special rights of the French crown over the French church
breakup
The Late Middle Ages were a period of creative _______.
"Renaissance Man"
a man that is multitalented and is well educated
Christine de Pizan
Female who spread humanist themes in France
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Though I thought myself to be more of a sculptor, I was commissioned by the Pope Julius to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo?
Church
-Was a patron of arts in Italy but NOT in North
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
English Empire (&) duchy of Burgundy
The cornerstones of French nation building in the 15th century were: The collapse of the ______ _____ in France & the defeat of the ______ __ ________.
Who were some great masters of the High Renaissance?
Raphael, Michaelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Titian
Castiglione
...
First Estate
clergy
Trivium
Grammar
Rhetorical
Dialectic
individualism
stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents
Republic
-Non-monarchical gov., political power resides in the people & is exercised by its chosen representatives
Donatello
sculptor; probably exerted greates influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo; his statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature
Masaccio
painter, real, nude human figures
Giovanni de' Medici
Banker of Florence
Artemesia Gentileschi
-(1593-1656)
-Father = painter w/ important patrons
-Noted for her Judith paintings
Secularism
Breaking away from Church traditional values
Titian
(c. 1485-1576)
1. Greatest painter of the Venetian school
2. Use of vivid color and movement, in contrast to more
subtle colors and static figures of the Florentine style
Boccaccio
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Michelangelo
Sistine Chapel; sculptures: David, the Pieta
Signoria
ruling council in Florence, often controlled by the Medicis
Most Renaissance writers journeyed to this empire to study the classics because the Arabs had recovered Greek and Roman literature and restored them.
Byzantine
Johann Gutenberg
-Developed one of first printing presses
Cisneros
reformed S clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
Northern Renaissance
More concerned with theology and personal morality, Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance
Petrach
"father of the Italian Renaissance of humanism", first to characterize middle ages as a time of darkness (Christ is my g-d, but cicero is the prince of language)
Medici family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Gargantua and Pantagruel
(1532-1542) written by Francois Rabelais
a. A folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized
French society
b. Attacked clerical education and monastic orders;
championed secular learning
Donatello's David
had essence of sculptures of antiquity; celebrated Florentine heroism;simplicity and strength
Granada
part of Spain controlled by the Moors
Isabella d'Este
most famous of Renaissance ruling women; married Francesco Gonzaga, known for intelligence and political wisdom, strong supporter of the arts, ruled Mantua effectively
He wrote Gargantua & Pentagruel, which were named after legendary medieval giants, known for their strength and appetites.
Francis Rabelais
Clemet VII
Pope in Avinon of Great Schizm
dowry
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
"New Monarchs"
monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries
Marsilio Ficino
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
court of Ferrara
place of education for Isabella d'Este
Baldassare Castiglione
-The Courtier
- Discusses ideal men & women
-Believed men should be talented in many fields
Gold, Slaves, and Spices
What times of trade increased tremendously in importance during the Age of Reformation? ____, ____, & _______.
Essay Form
· The essay became a vehicle for testing new ideas
Baldassare Catiglione
Offered a manual for the manners of the modern gentleman, The Book of the Courtier: A gentleman is trained for polite company, poised and well dressed, skilled in arms and sports, capable of making music and conversation, a reader of the classics, a social mixer who is good humored, lighthearted, and considerate of others' feelings.
In Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, criticized the problems of the Church through the use of satire
A Tuscan poet who is known as the "father of humanism" and inspired other humanists with classical text and criticism of the intellect of the times
Petrarch
Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life
-Group in Netherlands
-Developed outside of Church
-Modern Devotion (men & women live separately, not monks or nuns)
-Emphasized humility, tolerance, reverence. love of neighbor, duty
-Established schools
-Educated Erasmus
-Helped poor
Lorenzo de Medici (The Magnificent)
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Church of San Lorenzo
church focused more on the individual; new classical style instead of Gothic architecture
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Only Italian city state to officially have a "king"
Chiaroscuro
...
Machiavelli
The Prince
Maximillain I
HRE, Habsburg
Gonzaga
governing family of Mantua
Desiderius Erasmus
-(1466?-1536)
-Dutch humanist of Rotterdam
-Spoke Latin
-The Education of a Christian Prince (1504)
-The Praise of the Folly (1509)
-Themes: Education & Christianity
Universal Person
a well rounded personality
Education
transition from scholasticism to Humanist education
Druer
Northern Renaissance artist
Greatest engraver of wood/metal
Brueghel
Painted common scenes like Peasant Weddings, northern painter
Savanarola
after Medicis, established a theocracy in Florence (1494-98) w/ help of France, predicted French invasions, burned at the stake
condotierri
military leaders hired by city-states to engage in warfare for them (called for Mercenary States)
Hanseatic League
Eighty Northern European cities created trading monopoly that expanded northern economies
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
(1454-1536)
1. Leading French humanist and good example of how
Northern Christian humanists focused on early Church
writings.
2. Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a
single authoritative version of the Bible. A devout Catholic, he was later seen as an enemy of the Church and was condemned for heresy
Ludovico
Milan Sforza ruler
brought french into Italy
commenda system
Contract between merchant and merchant adventurer who agreed to take goods to distant location s and return with the proceeds for 1/3 of the profit
Vasari
Medici protege, an artist, wrote about the history of art and how artists were geniuses and high in society
signori
Lords of Italian cities. As the Italian communes of the 13th century became increasingly fractiious, regional nobles saw this friction as politically advantageous and offered to become the lords of the cities. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.
Don Quixote
Written by Cervantes, it was considered one of the most influential Spanish works of literature. The story satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Sistine Chapel
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
Savanarola (Girolamo)
leader of Florence after de Medicis
Scholasticism
Law, Medicine and theology
popular in the north.
Christine de Pisa
-Early 15C
-French
-Grew up in court of Charles V of France
-Wrote biography for him
Michelangelo Buonarroti
worked in Rome; painted the Sistine Chapel; sculpted statue of David
Pope Alexander VI
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
Ferdinand and Isabella
1. Bring church under government control (most catholic of monarchs) 2. royal council (replace aristocrats with middle class lawyers to ensure loyalty) 3. expel any potential dissenters (inquisition) 4. royal army (commoners armed with pikes because afraid of potential loyalty shift with nobles)
Characteristic of Flemish style
detailed paintings; emotional; death; influenced by Italian Renaissance; oil paints
Civic Humanism
humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society
Francis I
French King
Invaded Italy and Brought art back to France.
Ended Pragmatic sanction (1438)
ended gallican Church (seperated by P.S.)
Lorenzo de Medici
the Medicis were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century; ruled gov't from behind the scenes
Julius II
known as the "warrior pope" because he was obsessed with having more power, and more land (and doing this by war and conquering) *this was not really his job though
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
(1436-1517) Grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition. A Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy and church so that many of the Church abuses that were highlighted during the Reformation did not necessarily apply to Spain. Made Complutensian Polyglot Bible, which placed Hebrew, Greek, and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
Thomas a Kempis
associated with Brethren of the Common Life
Council of Pisa
council of Roman Catholic Church to end Schizm
failed and only elected another pope.
mercenary soldiers were recruited
As the infantry and artillery became the backbone of the 15th century armies, __________ _______ ____ ______.
Which book examines Renaissance court life and conduct?
The Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione.
I wrote 'In Praise of Folly' in order to criticize the dishonest practices of some members of the Catholic clergy
Desiderius Erasmus
the Prince
do right if he can; be he must be prepared to do wrong if necessary
Lorenzo de Medici is described in what way?
Desiring of glory and excellence beyond that of anyone else. Showing favor to vernacular poetry and all of the fine arts. Under him the city was not free, but it would have been impossible to have a better or more pleasing tyrant.
Boccacio
...
Gutenberg
printing press
Cellini
Example of 'virtu'
Utopia
(1516): More's humanistic masterpiece
a. Mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to
describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an
imaginary island
b. More sees the accumulation of property as a root
cause for society's ills; a few have it—most don't
c. In order to achieve harmony and order people have
to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for
the common good.
d. War, poverty, religious intolerance, and other
problems of the early 16th century do not exist.
Copernicus
scholar, astronomer; rejects geocentric view of the universe
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
-(1463-1494)
-Florentine writer
-Leading humanist
-Oration On the Dignity of Man (1486)
-No limits on what man can accomplish
Ficino
Medici family sponsored him, translated all of Plato's diologues into Latin, wrote Theologica Platonica (platonic philosophy book).
virtu
the striving for excellence; humanistic aspect of Renaissance
Ghiberti
Gates of Paradise; bronze doors
Naples
more turbulent part of Italy
Buttechelli
"Birth of Venus"
Italian Painter
Bosch
painted the Garden of Earthly Delights, northern painter, painted hell
Leader in Renaissance Art (City) 1400s
Florence
Bocaccio
Decameron, Italian writer famous for his vernacular prose, in particular the Decameron, which reveals stories of society during the plague
Erasmus
Prince of Humanists; Moriae encomium, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight; laid the egg Luther hatched
Lollards
Followers of John Wycliff
Piety = religious power.
Johann Guttenberg
Printing Press - spread of humanism
Jacob Burckhardt
Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), argued that the revival of ancient learning in 14th and 15th century Italy gave rise to new secular and scientific values. He saw the Renaissance as the birth of modernity.
school in Mantua
run by Vittorino da Feltre
Ximens
Wrote side-notes of the bible in Latin, greek and Hebrew.
Computesian Polyglot
Church in Spain
Reconquista
-Wars of the N. Christian kingdoms to control entire Iberian peninsula
-Lasted centuries
-Goal: convert/expel non-Christians & gain political control of S.
De Medicis
Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
Artemesia Gentilleschi
Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes
New Learning
guided by Christian revelation as a pathway to a higher civilization and God; associated with More and Erasmus
1454
Treaty of Lodi for peace in Italy between Venice and Milan.
established balance of power.
peace of lodi
treaty uniting the city-states to live and trade peacefully *this eventually falls apart b/c they were not ready to fully unite
"High Renaissance"
The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined, da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
Elizabethan Age
It was the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the flowering of the English literature and poetry
Encomienda
The right to the labor of a number of Indians for a particular period of time.
What was most responsible for the extraordinary cultural developments that occurred in Italy during the Renaissance?
An abundance of wealth.
He was commissioned by the Pope to sell indulgences in order to raise money for the papacy, Albert of Hohenzollern and the Fuggers.
Father John Tetzel?
Cosimo de' Medici brought stability to what city after his rise to power in 1434?
He brought stability to Florence.
What is most accurate about Medieval Europe?
Medieval Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Renaissance Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.
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