-Attacked failures of Church in Gargantua Pantagruel
German; medical science
-Rhetorician & historian
-Wrote about history of FLorence
-Translated classical works into Latin
-Devised the term 'humanism'
associated with Venetian School
|Lorenzo the magnificent||
French satirical author; -Gargantua- and -Pantagruel-
reaction against High Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color
|Leonardo da Vinci||
The Last Supper
|Sicily (Kingdom of the two)||
Every day duch Artist
-Believed he was living at the start of a new age
-14th century humanist
-Ideas spread from person to person by hand copying
|Sir Thomas More||
Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII; wrote -Utopia- which presented a revolutionary view of society; executed for not compromising his religious beliefs
|Miguel de Cervantes||
Spanish writer; *Don Quixote*
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
|Hans Holbein the Younger||
Premier portrait artist
influenced by Mirandola, produced edition of the Psalms, present in religious controversy
|These people believed in reviving classical teaching and text. They also abandoned scholasticism in favor of Latin, grammar, logic, rhetoric and metaphysics. Their main goal was to revive the glory of the classic age.||
-Spanish Church Court
-Set up by Ferdinand & Isabella
-Determined to enforce religious uniformity
ARCHITECT, made the dome of Florence, which is cross shaped from the sky and has a large dome
Lorenzo the Magnificent was the leader of ________.
blurring or softening sharp lines in painting
corrupt Spanish pope; aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince
|Greek temple architecture||
triangular pediments, Greek columns, Roman arches, domes. Simplicity, symmetry, balance.
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
led French invasions of Italy (battleground between France and Spain)
Became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494-1498 who pledged to rid Florence of its decadence and corruption, oversaw a theocracy in Florence. When France was removed from Italy in 1498, Savonarola was imprisoned and then burned at the stake.
associated with textual criticism and new historiography; proved that the Donation of Constantine was fake; The Elegances of the Latin Language
|This Italian city is known as "the cradle of the Renaissance" and its main language was Tuscan.||
Unam Sanctum (church had full authority)
|"God, glory, gold"||
motivations of the Spanish and Portuguese explorers
Which of the following can best be identified as civil servants?
A.) bailiffs B.) justices of the peace
C.) corregidores D.) all of the above
one of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance; developed a highly personal style; *The Birth of Venus*
"gates of paradise", winner of the north doors competition for the Baptistery of Florence cited as the beginning of Renaissance Art
1. ended private armies (livery and maintenance) 2. court of starchamber (used torture to get confessions, less power for nobles because anyone can accuse anyone) 3. Limited spending (few taxes, few wars= happy parliament and happy citizens)
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
|School of Athens||
Raphael's fresco. It's a grandly conceived portrayal of the great masters of Western philosophy, and art historians praise it as a virtually perfect portrayal of Renaissance technique.
|Sack of Rome||
marks begin of Renaissance decline; unpaid soldiers/mercenaries raid Rome
|Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges||
-Published by Charles in 1438
-General superior to papacy
-French crown controlled appointment of bishops & Pope didn't get French ecclesiastical revenues
-Established Gallican (French) liberties b/c it affirmed the special rights of the French crown over the French church
The Late Middle Ages were a period of creative _______.
a man that is multitalented and is well educated
|Christine de Pizan||
Female who spread humanist themes in France
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
|Though I thought myself to be more of a sculptor, I was commissioned by the Pope Julius to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.||
-Was a patron of arts in Italy but NOT in North
|Jan van Eyck||
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
|English Empire (&) duchy of Burgundy||
The cornerstones of French nation building in the 15th century were: The collapse of the ______ _____ in France & the defeat of the ______ __ ________.
|Who were some great masters of the High Renaissance?||
Raphael, Michaelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Titian
stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents
-Non-monarchical gov., political power resides in the people & is exercised by its chosen representatives
sculptor; probably exerted greates influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo; his statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature
painter, real, nude human figures
|Giovanni de' Medici||
Banker of Florence
-Father = painter w/ important patrons
-Noted for her Judith paintings
Breaking away from Church traditional values
1. Greatest painter of the Venetian school
2. Use of vivid color and movement, in contrast to more
subtle colors and static figures of the Florentine style
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Sistine Chapel; sculptures: David, the Pieta
ruling council in Florence, often controlled by the Medicis
|Most Renaissance writers journeyed to this empire to study the classics because the Arabs had recovered Greek and Roman literature and restored them.||
-Developed one of first printing presses
reformed S clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
More concerned with theology and personal morality, Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance
"father of the Italian Renaissance of humanism", first to characterize middle ages as a time of darkness (Christ is my g-d, but cicero is the prince of language)
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
|Gargantua and Pantagruel||
(1532-1542) written by Francois Rabelais
a. A folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized
b. Attacked clerical education and monastic orders;
championed secular learning
had essence of sculptures of antiquity; celebrated Florentine heroism;simplicity and strength
part of Spain controlled by the Moors
most famous of Renaissance ruling women; married Francesco Gonzaga, known for intelligence and political wisdom, strong supporter of the arts, ruled Mantua effectively
|He wrote Gargantua & Pentagruel, which were named after legendary medieval giants, known for their strength and appetites.||
Pope in Avinon of Great Schizm
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
|court of Ferrara||
place of education for Isabella d'Este
- Discusses ideal men & women
-Believed men should be talented in many fields
|Gold, Slaves, and Spices||
What times of trade increased tremendously in importance during the Age of Reformation? ____, ____, & _______.
· The essay became a vehicle for testing new ideas
Offered a manual for the manners of the modern gentleman, The Book of the Courtier: A gentleman is trained for polite company, poised and well dressed, skilled in arms and sports, capable of making music and conversation, a reader of the classics, a social mixer who is good humored, lighthearted, and considerate of others' feelings.
|In Praise of Folly||
written by Erasmus, criticized the problems of the Church through the use of satire
|A Tuscan poet who is known as the "father of humanism" and inspired other humanists with classical text and criticism of the intellect of the times||
|Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life||
-Group in Netherlands
-Developed outside of Church
-Modern Devotion (men & women live separately, not monks or nuns)
-Emphasized humility, tolerance, reverence. love of neighbor, duty
|Lorenzo de Medici (The Magnificent)||
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
|Church of San Lorenzo||
church focused more on the individual; new classical style instead of Gothic architecture
|Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies||
Only Italian city state to officially have a "king"
governing family of Mantua
-Dutch humanist of Rotterdam
-The Education of a Christian Prince (1504)
-The Praise of the Folly (1509)
-Themes: Education & Christianity
a well rounded personality
transition from scholasticism to Humanist education
Northern Renaissance artist
Greatest engraver of wood/metal
Painted common scenes like Peasant Weddings, northern painter
after Medicis, established a theocracy in Florence (1494-98) w/ help of France, predicted French invasions, burned at the stake
military leaders hired by city-states to engage in warfare for them (called for Mercenary States)
Eighty Northern European cities created trading monopoly that expanded northern economies
|Jacques Lefevre d'Etables||
1. Leading French humanist and good example of how
Northern Christian humanists focused on early Church
2. Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a
single authoritative version of the Bible. A devout Catholic, he was later seen as an enemy of the Church and was condemned for heresy
Milan Sforza ruler
brought french into Italy
Contract between merchant and merchant adventurer who agreed to take goods to distant location s and return with the proceeds for 1/3 of the profit
Medici protege, an artist, wrote about the history of art and how artists were geniuses and high in society
Lords of Italian cities. As the Italian communes of the 13th century became increasingly fractiious, regional nobles saw this friction as politically advantageous and offered to become the lords of the cities. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.
Written by Cervantes, it was considered one of the most influential Spanish works of literature. The story satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
leader of Florence after de Medicis
Law, Medicine and theology
popular in the north.
|Christine de Pisa||
-Grew up in court of Charles V of France
-Wrote biography for him
worked in Rome; painted the Sistine Chapel; sculpted statue of David
|Pope Alexander VI||
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
|Ferdinand and Isabella||
1. Bring church under government control (most catholic of monarchs) 2. royal council (replace aristocrats with middle class lawyers to ensure loyalty) 3. expel any potential dissenters (inquisition) 4. royal army (commoners armed with pikes because afraid of potential loyalty shift with nobles)
|Characteristic of Flemish style||
detailed paintings; emotional; death; influenced by Italian Renaissance; oil paints
humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society
Invaded Italy and Brought art back to France.
Ended Pragmatic sanction (1438)
ended gallican Church (seperated by P.S.)
|Lorenzo de Medici||
the Medicis were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century; ruled gov't from behind the scenes
known as the "warrior pope" because he was obsessed with having more power, and more land (and doing this by war and conquering) *this was not really his job though
|Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros||
(1436-1517) Grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition. A Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy and church so that many of the Church abuses that were highlighted during the Reformation did not necessarily apply to Spain. Made Complutensian Polyglot Bible, which placed Hebrew, Greek, and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
|Thomas a Kempis||
associated with Brethren of the Common Life
|Council of Pisa||
council of Roman Catholic Church to end Schizm
failed and only elected another pope.
|mercenary soldiers were recruited||
As the infantry and artillery became the backbone of the 15th century armies, __________ _______ ____ ______.
|Which book examines Renaissance court life and conduct?||
The Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione.
|I wrote 'In Praise of Folly' in order to criticize the dishonest practices of some members of the Catholic clergy||
do right if he can; be he must be prepared to do wrong if necessary
|Lorenzo de Medici is described in what way?||
Desiring of glory and excellence beyond that of anyone else. Showing favor to vernacular poetry and all of the fine arts. Under him the city was not free, but it would have been impossible to have a better or more pleasing tyrant.
Example of 'virtu'
(1516): More's humanistic masterpiece
a. Mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to
describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an
b. More sees the accumulation of property as a root
cause for society's ills; a few have it—most don't
c. In order to achieve harmony and order people have
to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for
the common good.
d. War, poverty, religious intolerance, and other
problems of the early 16th century do not exist.
scholar, astronomer; rejects geocentric view of the universe
|Giovanni Pico della Mirandola||
-Oration On the Dignity of Man (1486)
-No limits on what man can accomplish
Medici family sponsored him, translated all of Plato's diologues into Latin, wrote Theologica Platonica (platonic philosophy book).
the striving for excellence; humanistic aspect of Renaissance
Gates of Paradise; bronze doors
more turbulent part of Italy
"Birth of Venus"
painted the Garden of Earthly Delights, northern painter, painted hell
|Leader in Renaissance Art (City) 1400s||
Decameron, Italian writer famous for his vernacular prose, in particular the Decameron, which reveals stories of society during the plague
Prince of Humanists; Moriae encomium, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight; laid the egg Luther hatched
Followers of John Wycliff
Piety = religious power.
Printing Press - spread of humanism
Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), argued that the revival of ancient learning in 14th and 15th century Italy gave rise to new secular and scientific values. He saw the Renaissance as the birth of modernity.
|school in Mantua||
run by Vittorino da Feltre
Wrote side-notes of the bible in Latin, greek and Hebrew.
Church in Spain
-Wars of the N. Christian kingdoms to control entire Iberian peninsula
-Goal: convert/expel non-Christians & gain political control of S.
Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes
guided by Christian revelation as a pathway to a higher civilization and God; associated with More and Erasmus
Treaty of Lodi for peace in Italy between Venice and Milan.
established balance of power.
|peace of lodi||
treaty uniting the city-states to live and trade peacefully *this eventually falls apart b/c they were not ready to fully unite
The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined, da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
It was the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the flowering of the English literature and poetry
The right to the labor of a number of Indians for a particular period of time.
|What was most responsible for the extraordinary cultural developments that occurred in Italy during the Renaissance?||
An abundance of wealth.
|He was commissioned by the Pope to sell indulgences in order to raise money for the papacy, Albert of Hohenzollern and the Fuggers.||
Father John Tetzel?
|Cosimo de' Medici brought stability to what city after his rise to power in 1434?||
He brought stability to Florence.
|What is most accurate about Medieval Europe?||
Medieval Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Renaissance Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.