AP Euro Second Semester Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
napoleon
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scientific rev.
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rise of prussia
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Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
Martin Luther
developed lutheranism...see print out
Communes
Northern Italian cities, associations of freen men seeking independence from local lords
Galileo
Invented the experimental method, formulated the law of inertia, provided evidence for the Copernican theory
Positivism
Auguste Comte's discipline of sociology postulated that branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or fictitious; the Metaphysical, or abstract; and the Scientific, or positive
Rationalism
Enlightenment belief that conclusions were based on reason and knowledge
counterculture
the emerging international youth culture that rebelled against all traditions past
totalitarianism
an authoritarian governmental system which involves government influence in all aspects of life, and often features secret police, terror, censorhip, and propaganda
selling of indulgences
released buyer from purgatory.
The first Liberals rose up where?
spain
Witch hunts
spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships (1560-1660)
Georges Haussmann
Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1884), an aggressive, impatient Alsatian whom he placed in charge of Paris, Napoleon III found an authoritarian planner capable of bulldozing both buildings and opposition. In twenty years, Paris was transformed. Haussmann and his fellow planners proceeded on many interrelated fronts. With bold energy that often shocked their contemporaries, they razed old buildings in order to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through the center of the city as well as in new quarters on the outskirts. Haussmann and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city, and to a large extent they succeeded. The broad, straight boulevards, such as those radiating out like the spokes of a wheel from the Arch of Triumph and those centering on the new Opera House, afforded impressive vistas were their achievements.
Junkers
The nobility and the landowning classes known as the "Junkers" dominated The Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. Frederick William I grab for power brought him into considerable conflict with the Junkers. In his early years, he even threatened to destroy them; yet, in the end, the Prussian nobility was not destroyed-but enlisted-into the army. Responding to the combination of threats and opportunities, the Junkers became the officer caste. The Great Elector weakened the powers of the Junkers
Conversos
Jews converted to Catholicism, they were eventually kicked out by Ferdinand and Isabella
Elizabethan
referring to accomplishments in the arts during the reign of Elizabeth I
David Hume
a Scottish philosopher who communicated with d'Holbach and thought that knowledge should only come from experiments, and if it cannot be directly verified it must not be true.
Anabaptists
16th century Protestants who believed that only adults could truly have faith and accept baptism
Great Schism
three different popes declared themselves the true ruler of the Roman Empire. divided Catholics and decreased the church's strength
Spinning jenny
18th/19th cent. important achievement of the industrial revolution that allowed quick production of thread.
Bolsheviks
"majority group"; faction of Russian Social Democratic Labor Party that advocated a small elitist party; came to dominate and controlt he Russian government, putting Lenin in power
Schism
a division, or split, in church leadership (1377-1418) when there were two, then three, popes.
Treaty of Versailles
Anschluss=can't unify politically with any state. German colonies divided. Article 231 (war guilt clause)
The ideology, an inheritor of the ideals of the French Revolution, that set as it political goals in the first half of the 19th century, freedoms of the press, assembly and speech, and the establishment of representative government is
liberalism
Transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
High Renaissance Artists
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian
Politiques
A small group of moderates of Protestants and Catholics who believed in the restoration of a strong monarchy that could reverse the trend of the collapse. They ultimately saved France from political disintegration.
Laissez-faire economics
The laissez-faire was the philosophy that promoted the free economy of equal opportunity for all people. Economic liberalism and laissez economic thought were embraced most enthusiastically by business groups and became a doctrine associated with business interests. Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Zollverein
Modern industry grew rapidly in Europe throughout the 1850's. Nowhere was this growth more rapid than within the German customs union (Zollverein). Developing gradually under Prussian leadership after 1818 and founded officially in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states, the Zollverein had not included Austria. After 1848, this exclusion became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. The Zollverein's tariff duties were substantially reduced so that Austria's highly protected industry could not bear to join. In retaliation, Austria tried to destroy the Zollverein by inducing the south German states to leave it, but without success. Indeed, by the end of 1853 all the German states except Austria had joined the customs union. A new Germany excluding Austria was becoming an economic reality. Middle-class and business groups in the Zollverein were enriching themselves and finding solid economic reasons to bolster their idealistic support of national unification. The growing economic integration of the states within the Zollverein gave Prussia a valuable advantage in its struggle against Austria's supremacy in German political affairs.
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), the most influential of all nineteenth century evolutionary thinkers. Darwin carefully collected specimens of the different animal species he encountered on the voyage. Back in England, convinced by fossil evidence and by his friend Lyell that the earth and life were immensely ancient, Darwin came to doubt the general belief in a special divine creation of each species of animal. Instead, he concluded, all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending "struggle for survival." After a long hesitation, Darwin published his research, which immediately attracted wide attention.
Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe, (1773-1850), was king of France from 1830 to 1848. He is often called The Citizen King. He was born on Oct. 6, 1773, in Paris, the eldest son of Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans. He sympathized with the liberal ideas of the French Revolution and joined the National Guard at the beginning of the revolt. He was proclaimed "Citizen King" of France after Charles X was forced to give up the throne in 1830 and he ruled after the overthrow of the Bourbons in the July Revolution and abdicated during the Revolution of 1848. During his reign, he became unpopular with all classes of the French people. The legitimists opposed him because they were loyal to the descendants of Charles X. The liberals disliked his increasing suppression of disagreement. Louis Philippe's reign was prosperous but uneventful, as his ministers pursued cautious policies. The Revolution of 1848 broke out partly because he refused to reform election laws. He was forced to give up his throne, and escaped to England.
Millet system
system of managing government where the Ottoman Empire was divided by religion. Leaders of each millet supported the sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
Sultanate
similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
St. Petersburg
metropolis peter the great created, capital of Russian empire for more than 200 years; nobles paid for canals, parks etc while peasants worked on the city. The navy was held here sig- showed the westernization and modernization of Russia during peter's rule and exemplified his absolute power
Henry Cort
inventor of the puddling furnace, which refined iron with coke, as well as rolling mills
James Hargreaves
the inventor of the cotton spinning-jenny
Thermidorian reaction
a response to Robespierre aggressive execution of people the sans-culottes supported and Robespierre himself was executed
Calvinism
a protestant religion founded by John Calvin
skepticism
an idea related to rationalism, in which one doubts everything that cannot be known for sure because all aspects of life are relative.
astrolabe
a device that originated from Muslims that allowed sailors to identify their latitude.
classicism
a style of painting and architecture that reflected the ideals of the art of antiquity; in classicism, geometric shapes, order, and harmony of lines take precedence over the sensous, exuberant, and emotional forms of the baroque
Germ theory
18th/19th cent. created by Louis Pasteur. germs could be contained or killed with heat
Versailles
home of Louis XIV's royal court. symbol of French power and wealth.
feminist movement of 1960s and 70s
employment, childcare,
absolutism declines...
courts more independent, challenge the king
Cheka
tsarist secret police that were re-est under Lenin; hunted down and executed thousand s of real-supposed foes
cottage industry
domestic industry, a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large-scale factory industry.
Erasmus
In Praise of Folly; problems with the church; latin translation of the New Testament; Inner faith vs. outer forms of worship
Who feared a "war of all against all"?
Metternich
William and Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after glorious revolution under constitutional monarchy
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
Indulgences
remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payments
Jesuits
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of men within the Roman Catholic Church formed under the inspiration of Ignatius of Loyola
crop rotation
Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. As the eighteenth century went on, the number of crops were systematically rotated grew. New patterns of organization allowed some farmers to develop increasingly sophisticated patterns of rotation to suit different kinds of soils. For example, farmers in French Flanders near Lille in the late eighteenth century used a ten-year rotation, alternating a number of grain, root and hay crops in a given field on a ten-year schedule. Continual experimentation led to more scientific farming. Improvements in farming had multiple effects. The new made ideal feed for animals. Because peasants and larger farmers had more fodder, hay, and root crops for the winter months, they could build up their small herds of cattle and sheep. More animals meant more manure for fertilizer and therefore more grain for bread and porridge. The vicious cycle in which few animals meant adequate manure, which meant little grain and less fodder, which led to fewer animals and so on, could be broken.
Guild system
system for specialized workers in the medieval times. It would set regulations for price and other factors to eliminate competition in the town, kept the number of people in a specific job limited,
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
The evolutionary view of biological development, first proposed by Greek Anaximander in the sixth century B.C., re-emerged in a more modern form in the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Lamarck asserted that all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment. Lamarck's work was flawed-he believed that the characteristics parents acquired in the course of their lives could be inherited by their children-and was not accepted.
Planned economy
an economic system in which the government or workers' councils manages the economy
Muscovy/Muscovite Russia
early Russia with Moscow as its capital, under Mongol rule (forced to pay tribute)
States General
the body of Dutch representatives from all of the Estates who worked together on international policy.
Union of Utrecht
seven Protestant provinces in the north of the Netherlands that broke from Spanish control.
Honore de Balzac Gustave Flaubert George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) Leo Tolstoy
French Realist writers
John Knox
a preacher who started reform in Scotland and created the Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Thomas Paine
writer of Common Sense, an Englishman who called for the American Revolution
Columbian Exchange
a term for the distribution of biosocial items between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
Mary Wollstonecraft
a political author that refuted the ideas of Edmund Burke in her Vindication of the Rights of Man. Her feminist writings were revolutionary in their calls for women to make something of themselves.
open-field system
a medieval system where farming and land was communal
raison d'etat
a French phrase translating to "reason of state", meaning that God recognizes that sovereigns do un-Christian things as a means to an end.
Atlantic System
the network of trade established in the 1700s that bound together western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Europeans sold slaves from western Africa and bought commodities that were produced by the new colonial plantations in North and South America and the Caribbean
Hernan Cortes
a Spanish explorer who captured the Aztec captial, Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City) in 1519
Fredrick William I
18th cent. crude and brutal. re-established Prussian absolutism by enforcing strict military policy
st. petersburg and peter the great...
westernize, capital moved
Simone de Beauvoir
feminist author, wrote "The Second Sex"; thought that women were born free like all people but had always been trapped by limiting conditions, believed women had to be courageous and break free of such restrictions
Louis Napoleon
also known as Napoleon III; elected president in 1848 then voted emperor; successful economy and widespread support; attempted to expand French territory -> lack of support -> progressivly liberalized empire -> new constitution with parliament and hereditary emperor
issac newton
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Great Fear
the fear of vagabonds and outlaws that seized the countryside and fanned the flames of rebellion
The writer who came up with the dialectic idea of history and its unfolding change was
G.W.F. Hagel
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Thermidorean Reaction
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror that executed Robespierre
Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
In 1713 Charles VI proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to divide and were always to be passed intact to a single heir
Gen. Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc
Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc, 1772-1802, French general. He served under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign, married (1797) Pauline Bonaparte , and took part in Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire (1799). In 1801 he commanded the French expedition to Portugal. He then headed the force sent to subdue Haiti , where François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture had established a virtually autonomous state. The French won several victories after severe fighting, and an agreement was reached. This was broken by Leclerc, who, acting on Napoleon's secret instructions, had Toussaint seized by trickery and deported to France. The natives, led by Jean Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe , rose in revolt and expelled the French, who were weakened by an epidemic of yellow fever. Leclerc died of the fever.
Bernard de Fontenelle
French man of letters; wrote the "conversation on the plurality of worlds." in this book, a sophisticated man and an elegant woman, possibly his lover, are in a large park gazing at the stars and the man proceeds to give her an astronomy lesson. Here, ideas such as heliocentricity were expressed; he knew people wouldn't want to read a boring textbook, so he wrote a romantic novel of sorts in order to get his ideas across. Significant because his writing spread the ideas of the scientific revolution to a non scientific audience.
"Imagined communities"
in the 19th century, this was the product of nationalism. This was the belief that communities seeking to bind millions of strangers together around the abstract concept of an all-embracing national identity. , a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is a community socially constructed, which is to say imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group.
Ferdinand I (Aus)
ruler of Austria from 1835-1848. After the nationalistic uprising which forced Metternich to flee, Ferdinand capitulated and promised the national factions a constitution. However, his armies remained loyal to him and crushed the revolution. He abdicates the throne to Francis Joseph in 1848.
famine foods
foods the lower classes turned to in desperation during a famine for nutrition.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559)
the treaty that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars, which ended with Spain the victor.
separate spheres
the term for the different roles of males and females
Edict of Nantes(1598)
a document published by Henry of Navarre which allowed Huguenots to practice religion in certain specified towns.
Francis Petrarch
an Italian poet who revived the styles of classical authors; he is considered the first Renaissance humanist
separation spheres
18th/19th cent. as a result of the Industrial Revolution, women were expected to be mothers and homemakers, while the men were the wage earners.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting held among the great European powers after Napoleon's defeat; est. conservatism and opposed nationalism
The Seven Years War(1756-1763)
The Seven Years' War ended with British winning full control over India and North America.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution
Louis XIV (Fr)
(sun king) had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development. King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
Middle class culture
The middle class was loosely united by a shared code of expected behavior and morality. This code was strict and demanding. It laid great stress on hard work, self-discipline, and personal achievement. Men and women who fell into crime or poverty were generally assumed to be responsible for their own circumstances. Traditional Christian morality was reaffirmed by this code and was preached tirelessly by middle-class people. Drunkenness and gambling were denounced as vices; sexual purity and fidelity were celebrated as virtues. In short, the middle-class was supposed to know right from wrong and was expected to act accordingly.
Time of Troubles
The death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584-ushered in an era of confusion and violent struggle for power. Events were particularly chaotic after Ivan's son, Theodore, died in 1598 without an heir. The years of 1598 to 1613 were aptly called the "Time of Troubles." The close relatives of the tsar intrigued against and murdered each other, alternately fighting and welcoming the invading Swedes and Poles, who even occupied Moscow. Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles and officials.
elector of Brandenburg
one of six electors that would select the Holy Roman emperor, but lacked an army and could not defend his territories.
1st estate
the clergy, who owned 10% of the land and had to pay limited taxes
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572)
riot that happened between Huguenots and Catholics after a prominent Huguenot was attacked. The massacre started the War of the Three Henrys.
Classical liberalism
a philosophy based in the ideas of the Enlightenment, including natural rights and happiness.
Stamp Act
a tax put on documents in the colonies by the British government, which made the colonists incredibly angry
napoleon's continental system focus...
to hurt british economy, not trade with them
Edict of Nantes (1598)
document issued by Henry IV of France granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France.
With regard to industrialization, after 1846 Britain differed from countries on the continent of Europe in that
Britain practiced free trade and the counties on the continent used protective tariffs
Henry VII
(Eng) Henry VI was on the side of the Tudors working to reduce nobility power. As parliament held the money for financing wars Edward IV and other Tudors used diplomacy for foreign policy to avoid costly wars, cutting the need to rely on the Parliament (nobility). Henry VII at first summoned Parliament at first to confirm laws. Though the center of authority was in the royal council. In general Henry VII rebuilt the monarchy expanded the cloth industry and marin trade sengin wool sales through the roof. He crushed the Irish invasion and secured Scotland.
Golden Century of Spain
a term referring to the prosperity of Spain in the sixteenth century.
centralization of power in the state "age of absolutism"
strong centralized army bureaucracy (govt officials seeing the implementation policies)
intendants in fr.
nobles with armies
Not a esult of the Mississippi bubble
like britain, france developed a sinking fund to pay off the national debt
Coercive Acts (US, 1773)
all of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston tea party, and which included the Boston port act, which shut down Boston harbor; the Massachusetts government act, which disbanded the Boston assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the quartering act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the administration of justice act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Seven Years War (1756-1763)
a war in which Maria Theresa tried to retaliate against Prussia for its theft of Silesia, and that eventually involved most of Europe, extending to the French and Indian Wars in America.
Both Russia and Britain, in agreeing to be part of the Congress of Vienna, had issues they were not willing to discuss at the Congress. All but one of the following were territorial issues for Britain or Russia which they were not willing to compromise on
Russia refused to discuss the Polish Partitions and the return of the land to Poland
The Trew Law of Free Monarchy
a document published by James I that outlined his view that a king ruled by divine right, and was not subject to earthly powers.
accordng to the notes on the French Revolution, which is accurate fo rthe Coup d'Etat Fructador?
results of the 1797 election thrown out, 2 of the 5 Directors are purged
What is not an element of a plantation
limited in the number of raw materuals it can produce oodstuffs or raw materials only
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