Terms Definitions
roccoco art
adam smith
free market/trade
Leonardo da Vinci
Mona Lisa
Soviet leader/president who liberalized the USSR by instituting such policies as "perestroika" and "glasnost" and porgressively democratized the USSR; sought to ease tensions with the West
The Schleswig-Holstein question, as used by Bismarck to expand Prussia's border and control in North Central Europe, was a contentious issue between Prussia and
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)
Abbé Sieyes
Reflecting increased political competition and a growing hostility toward aristocratic aspirations, the Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes in1789 in his famous pamphlet what is the Third Estate? That the nobility was a tiny, over privileged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation. When the government agreed that the third estate should have as many as delegates as the clergy and the nobility combined, but then rendered this act meaningless by upholding voting by separate order, middle class leaders saw fresh evidence of an aristocratic conspiracy.
18th/19th cent. peasant, working-class of the revolution in Paris. willing to take drastic measures in order to reach their goals
spanish civil war
created authoritarian regime
Sigmond Freud
psychoanalyst who developed groundbreaking theories about human mind; id, ego, superego, sexual desire, and subconsious drives
Sistine Chapel (Vatican) & David (Sculpture)
Charles Lyell
Scottish, 1797-1875, considered the founder of modern geology, wrote Principles of Geology
Individualism: literature concerned with what?
Nature and individuality
95 Theses
statements attacking the Catholic Church's practices.
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th and 18th century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Because mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was need to secure the largest part of a limited resource. Economy sells more than it buys and secures largest share of limited resources
Johan Gutenberg
Created movable-type printing, made propaganda possible, increased literacy in people of Europe.
National Workshops
Blanc asserted that permanent government sponsored cooperative workshops should be established for workers. A compromise between the socialists' demands for work for all and the moderates' determination to provide only temporary relief for the massive unemployment.
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection (survival of the fittest) to human societies.
the "limitation of government by law"
an informal gathering held regularly in private homes and presided over by a socially eminent women; salons spread from France in the seventeenth century to other countries in the eighteenth century
16th cent. a modification of Catholicism, emphasis on personal relationship with God
northern humanism
focus on Christianity and religion
Nicolae Ceausescu
Romanian communist dictator who attempted to put down the anti-Communist movement violently; was eventually defeated and executed
1687: Newton's book which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good.
Italian city-states
center of europe's economic, political and cultural life
Aftr the diplomatic revolution of 1756 who was the main ally of france
Protestant ethics
the self denying approach to life(financial success was a sign god was on their side so they began to live frugal lives saving their money)
Prussian Junkers
Threatened to be destroyed by Frederick William I, but instead enlisted them into the army
William Shakespeare
This English playwright lived and wrote in Elizabethan times, and his works reflected the world of a strong monarchy. Some plays showed how a single flaw in a ruler can be a disaster, while others had exemplary monarchs with great power and virtue.
a time of intense reveling, including drinking, masquerading, dancing, plays, and processions that took place just before lent in Mediterranean and catholic Europe, particularly Italy. This annual tradition began in 17th and 18th century Europe, but its influence can be seen in such traditions as Mardi gras, a similar event that is practiced as almost exactly the same time as the carnival was. All members of society participated in the carnival; it was one of if not the only such event.
Realism emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Realist writers believed that literature should depict life as it exactly was. Using poetry for prose and the personal, emotional viewpoint of the romantics for strict, scientific objectivity, the realists simply observed and recorded content let the facts speak for themselves.
Constitutional monarchy
monarch shares governmental power with elected legislature or serves as ceremonial leader of government; written constitution exists as rule of law
a Tridentine decree that said that marriage was only legitimate if it was made before a priest, with witnesses.
John Locke
a English political philosopher who believed that people had basic rights that should not be overruled by the government. He served as a representative for the English Revolution.
Elizabethan Settlement
laws written during Elizabeth I's reign that commanded people to attend the Church of England
pirate of the Caribbean who governed themselves and preyed on international shipping
Dmitri Mendeleev
18th/19th cent. Russian chemist who created the period law the periodic table
Fredrick III
17th/18th cent. weak ruler detracting from royal power
Edmund Burke
18th/19th cent. Reflections on the Revolution in France. conservative. attacked French revolution, and made case for tradition and prejudice
Charles II
17th cent. re-established monarchy in England. Was bribed by Louis XIV to support Catholicism in England
type of government where the king claims the crown by divine right. controlled over all aspects of society
english monarchy 18th century
widening difference between theoretical and real power
European Union
economic union of European countries with very select membership
the scandal of President Nixon going beyond the law with his spy operations; Congress gained more influence, Vietnam became a dictatorial state, left US divided
Star Chamber
a division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.
Pragmatic Sanction
In France Charles VII created the first royal army, set up new taxes on salt and land, and allowed middle class men to influence his bureaucracy. He also asserted his right to appoint bishops in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
In his work, Positive Philosophy, he said that human history was a series of three stages, the theological, the metaphysical, and the scientific. He also produced an elaborate classification of the sciences, of which the highest would be the science of so
Auguste Comte
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in Europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Italian Renaissance
time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Counter Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
the British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the great lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.
this movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
Grand Empire
Napoleons Empire at its height was called the grand empire. Divided up into three areas, those under the direct rule of France, those under the rule of puppet regimes of napoleons relatives, and countries friendly to himself. His empire began to struggle however from the British counter-blockade of trade and searching for a scapegoat attacked Russia who had recently reopened trade with Britain.
Friedrich Engels
The pessimistic view of Malthus and Ricardo was accepted and reinforced by Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), the future revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx. After studying working conditions in northern England, this young middle-class German published in 1844, The Condition of the Working Class in England, and a blistering indictment of the middle classes. The new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of the cottage workers and agricultural laborers, according to Engels. The culprit was industrial capitalism, with its relentless competition and constant technical change. Engels' extremely influential charge of the middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty was embellished by Marx and later socialists.
Galileo (inertia)
Using the telescope, this man observed the moons of Jupiter in 1610, proving that all "heavenly bodies" do not orbit the earth. When he found that the surfaces of the moon and sun were inconsistent, with "spots" on the sun and craters and valleys on the moon, he supported the idea that the entire universe was composed of "ordinary matter" the way the earth is. This man gained a great deal of attention and support as his ideas spread, and the Catholic Church used the Inquisition to force him to recant the idea that the earth moves, and then kept him under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Nicolaus Copernicus
This man studied astronomy at the University of Krakow, and wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543 saying that the earth, and all other planets, orbited the sun.
Great Fear
a fear of bandits that induced peasants in the country to further rebel against the lords
an order formed by Angela Merici that only included women, which spread to the New World to educate and convert its people.
Social Darwinists
people who applied Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest" to sociology
price revolution
the inflation of prices in Spain thought to be caused by either the wealth from America or the population growth
Frederick William of Hohenzollern
The Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia who brought his nation through the end of the Thirty Years War and then succeeded in welding his scattered lands into an absolutist state
Raison d'état
Reason of state. actions in interest of country were forgiven by God. used by Richelieu
Great Depression
severe economic recession from 1929 to 1939 that affected the entire world economy; featured massive unemployment and pessimism
Dreyfus Affair
the conflict over the false accusation of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain of the French army
peace of augsburg
whoever controls the region decides the religion
David Friedrich Strauss
wrote Life of Jesus, which questioned whether the bible provided any genuine historical evidence and said that Jesus was a myth that arose from the particular social and intelectual conditions of early Pakistan.
Which of the following is NOT one of the Hungarian "barbarians"?
Peace of Utrect
limited the extent to which France could expand and restored the balance of powers
Factory Act (1833)
It limited the Factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours, although the act made no effort to regulate the hours of work for children at home of in small businesses. The law also prohibited the factory employment of children under nine; they were to be enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish. Due to this new act, the employment of children declined rapidly. Thus the Factory Act broke the pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers.
Edmund Cartwright (power loom)
Edmund Cartwright invented a power loom that would save on labor costs in 1785. But the power looms of the factories worked poorly at first, and handloom weavers continued to receive good wages until at least 1800
a large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the byzantine empire and later the ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul.
Belief that man is the best focus of study (because God had made man with the power to create), revival of the classics of the Greco-Romans, reviving and correcting classical works, and creating new works in the style of the classics.
Supremacy Act (1534)
Who: Henry VIII Where: England When: 1534 What: declared the king supreme head of the Church of England Why: so the King could grant himself an annulment Significance: this increased the power of the English monarch and decreased the influence of Rome. It was repealed in 1554 by Mary I and then reinstated by Elizabeth I.
Louis Blanc
a Paris journalist, editor of revue de progress and author of organization of work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization (recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie)
Concordat of Bologna
Agreement between French Louis XI and Pope Leo X that rescinded the "Pragmatic Sanction." Gave Pope first year's income of new bishops and abbots, but maintained France's right to choose bishops.
Navigation Acts
a series of laws that promoted English trade and severely threatened Dutch hold on trade
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
a French philosophe who differentiated between the idea of "the public" and the masses, excluding "the masses" from his audience because they were numerous and uneducated. He also edited the Encyclopedia
Ivan IV ("the Terrible")
an absolutist Russian tsar who destroyed the nobility and wished to control all aspects of Russian society
Thirty-Nine Articles (1563)
a document written by bishops that explained the ideas of the Anglican church.
Edward VI
Henry VIII's son, who ruled for a brief period of time, but established England as a Protestant nation.
Declaration of Independence
the document detailing the wrongs of the British government in relation to the American people, and declaring independence
Peace of Utrecht
Treaties drawn up in 1713-1714 that ended the War of the Spanish Succession
Francois le Tellier
France's Secretary of State for War. created a French professional army
five-year plans
a series of short term economic goal for the Soviet Union
Spanish Armada (1588)
fleet sent by Philip II of Spain against England, In his mind a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
The Hundred Days was
an unsuccesfull attempt by Napoleon to restore himself as a credible European leader
War of Three Henrys
war for secular power, between Henry of Navarre, Henry VIII and Henry of guise
Assembly of Notables
the group that was summoned by Louis XVI to discuss his proposed tax reform in 1787.
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention, it was created to make policies during the Reign of Terror; this committee was led by Maximilien Robespierre.
Philip of Anjou
grandson of Louis xiv who was granted the entire Spanish inheritance by Charles II and became Philip V of Spain, two great powers Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain, run by bourbons.
The Black Death/bubonic plague
Scholars dispute the origins of the bubonic plague, often known as the Black Death. It is known that ship boarded rats were constantly on the move, which allowed the disease to spread rapidly.
Habsburg-Valois Wars
a series of wars between Charles V and German princes over the right to have Protestantism in Germany. It broke apart Germany into regions, but ended in the Peace of Augsburg
Miguel de Cervantes
a Spanish writer whose main work, Don Quixote, represented the fanciful nature of Spanish ideology.
Catherine the Great of Russia
westernized the thinking of Russia. abolished serfdom for some time. Enlightened ruler
an art form that arose int he age of anxiety that sought to capture the effect of light on objects
26. A vocal element in the French Revolution, the sans-culottes were
the urban working class
Frederick William the Great Elector
laid the foundation for the Prussian state; built an army of 40,000 men to protect Prussia
Vasco Da Gama
He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and crossed into the Indian Ocean. He was a Portuguese explorer. De Gama's arrival with many spices back to Lisbon skyrocketed Portugal as a power player in the trading game.
iron law of wages
a theory posed by Ricardo that people would have to be paid just enough to keep them alive, or else the population would get too high.
economic nuances of europe in the 1950s
baby boom, birth rate increase,
The Decembrist Revolution of 1825 was
an effory of liberal Russians army officers to back Constantine forthe throne and introduce governmental reforms
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Campaign against Huguenots in order to unify France.
Book of Common Prayer (1549)
a book written by Thomas Cranmer that established Anglican Church customs
The westernization of Japan in the Meiji Era came about because
The Japanese began to realize that protection of their internal culture against western penetration required the nation to westernize and become a "power" itself
Six Acts (1817) :( England) December, 1819. Parliament adopted these repressive acts
1. restricted freedom of speech and assembly and other civil liberties 2. Increased taxes on newspapers 3. Established fines for seditious libel 4. Expanded right of search by police 5. Promoted speedy trial 6. Allowed for harsh punishment.
discoveries of the 16 and 17th centuries
era of science, everything has order, laws, fixed rules
What event spurred the Congress of Verona to meet?
Ypsilanti led a band of followers into a revolt against Turkish control of Greece
Britain's first Factory Act of 1802 failed to do what it was meant to do. There are several reasons why this act failed. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons it failed
the act set up the process of the gov't taking over faculties in the process of gov't becoming a socialist system of gov't ownership of the means of production, but the people of England weren't yet read to become socialists, so the law was never enforced.
In France, what did the Falloux Law of 1850 do?
Put all schools at all levels of the educational system under the supervision of the Catholic Church
the directory
age of exploration
Triple Entente
France, Russia, (Serbia)
rise of new monarchs
Napoleon's process of reforming nations under his control not only reformed the nation's gov't and society, but also made reforms in the nation's religious institutions. One nation in particular did not like these religious reforms, and the forced religio
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
17th cent. French Classicist playwright who created plays criticizing the bourgeoisie
International Monetary Fund; helped set down rules for the global economy
Battle of Lepanto
Spanish vs. Ottoman Empire
Nation causing gold shortage because only good desred was ogold
They hoped for prosperity, demanded the purification of the Church of England, and objected certain practices from Catholics.
Medici Family
Dominating family of Florence,acquired wealth through banking. Spent lots of money on art.
When Jean Baptist Po Quelin (1622-1673), the son of a prosperous tapestry maker, refused to join his father's business and enter theater he took the name "Moliere". As a playwright, stage manager, director, and an actor, Moliere produced comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature. In structure, Moliere's plays followed classical models but they were based on careful social observation.
Archduchess Sophia
conservative Bavarian princess who married the brother of Ferdinand I. became a rallying point for conservatives and acted quickly to crush revolution within Austria and Prussia. With nobles, forced Ferdinand to make her son heir to throne.
Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia formed the First Coalition to fight against France during the French Revolution
Conservatism stressed on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and an official church. Conservatives such as Metternich exemplified these characteristics and theological ideas through the diplomatic qualities of an empire, more specifically the Austrian Empire. The wanted to keep old traditions, ideas, values, and customs intact.
the enlightened idea that all knowledge should be based on solid evidence
a Greek philosopher and mathematician whose conclusion of a geocentric universe with rotating crystal spheres was widely accepted until the Scientific Revolution.
disgruntled soldiers in Cromwell's New Model Army who wanted to "level" social differences and extend political particpation to all male property owners
Galileo Galilei
finalize the experimental method. formulated the law of inertia. went against church by saying the moon was not perfect
Charles Darwin
18th/19th cent. evidence contradicting idea of divine creation. Believed all life had gradually evolved from a common origin. Creator of concept of Natural Selection
Friedrich Nietzsche
German existentialist thinker who proclaimed "God is dead"; believed Christianity to be "slave morality," people's only hope was to accept the meaninglessness of life and be liberated by that knowledge
US president during Great Depression and WWII; developed the "New Deal" for dealing with the Great Depression, led the US to victory in WWII
This scientist helped develop the sun-centered theory of the Universe (denounced by church)
Treaty of Lodi
alliance between Milan and Naples
Architect of cabinet government on great britain
robert walpole
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531). Relics and images were abolished. Paintings and decorations were removed and replaced by whitewashed walls. Mass was replaced by Scripture reading, prayer, and sermons. Music eliminated as a distraction. Monasticism, pilgrim-ages, the veneration of saints, clerical celibacy, and pope's authority were all abolished. Unable to form an alliance with Luther because of the different interpretations of the Lord's Supper.
Robert Castlereagh
British foreign minister, whose main goal at the congress of Vienna was to keep the balance of power in Europe. The congress met for 10 months trying to restore peace in Europe. He wanted to prevent revival of French military power.
David Ricardo
A wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist David Ricardo (1772-1823). Ricardo's depressing "iron law of wages" posited that because the pressure if population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level. Wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving. Wages would always be low according to Ricardo. Malthus and Ricardo were both proven wrong in the long run.
Service nobility
the individual noble's rank depended on the performance of government service. It demanded that all nobles, in Russia called boyars, serve either in the civil service or in the military
Just price
developing idea during the 18th century brought about by the development of markets and such things as cottage industry that the price should damage neither the buyer nor the seller. Sparks the debate of whether the government should determine and set such prices. This idea is somewhat medieval in origin, but applied to this period in which scaled down versions of consumer driven economic systems, like mercantilism, began to arise.
the idea that species are constantly developing over time
Chinggis Khan
the Mongolian leader that conquered all of Russia, slowing its development for two hundred years
a political group in the National Convention that was republican but feared "a bloody dictatorship by the Mountain"
Louis XIV
French king who personifed the absolutist ruler; in theory he shared his power with no one, but in practice he had to gain the cooperation of nobles, local officials, and even the ordinary subjects who manned his armies and paid his taxes
Antiseptic principle
18th/19th cent. created by Joseph Lister a belief that the use of a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound would destroy bacteria
Tycho Brahe
agreed with Copernicus. recorded mass amounts of data of the skies.
Emile Zola
18th/19th cent. famous realist writer who was heavily criticized for writing about "corruption of morals" and "pornography".
20th cent. style of government, where the ruler had total regulation over every aspect of life
lenin vs. marx
lenin-educated lead rev. marx-workers lead rev.
enlightened rulers
joseph II chatherine the great, frederick the freat
British passenger ship that was sunk by German submarines, killing 139 Americans and leading to American intervention in the War
popularly elected lower house of the German parliament
Battle Crécy
the 1346 battle in northern France where English long-bowmen won decisive victory over the French.
Sir Thomas More
Utopia; critical of church, society and civilization. executed for refusing to take an oath recognizing Henry VIII as Head of the Church of England
Which German thinker and writer, in his work Closed Commercial State, came up with the idea of the state being the means of human salvation; a kind of totalitarian system in which the state planned and operated the whole economy of the country, shutting i
JG Fichte
Maria Theresa
mother of Marie Antoinette, had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended the throne
Catholic Reformation
Attempt to reform abuses in the Catholic Church in the 1500's
Maria-Theresa (Aus)
Maria Theresa's long reign, led by Frederick the Great, invaded her lands and tried to dismember them. Maria was determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more efficient. Aimed at limiting the papacy's realm of political influence.
Frantisek Palacky
The leader of the Czech cultural revival, the passionate democrat and nationalist historian Francis Palacky is a good example of the "they" tendency. He was a nationalist. Francis Palacky, Mazzini, and Michelet all spoke of national mission and the superiority of one nation over the other. Palacky lauded the Czech people's adherents, which he characterized as a long struggle against brutal German denomination.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Louis Napoleon was elected because he allowed universal male suffrage, which gave him four times as many votes as the other four candidates combined. He also had the great name of his uncle. As Karl Marx stressed at the time, middle-class and peasant property owners feared the socialist challenge of urban workers, and they had wanted a tough ruler to provide protection. He also had a positive "program" for France, this program had been elaborated earlier in two pamphlets, which was widely circulated and was to guide him, through his reign. Louis believed that the government should represent all people and it should help them economically. The answer was a strong and authoritarian ruler, not parliaments and political parties. The leader would e linked to all people by direct democracy, uncorrupted by politicians and legislative bodies. Rather than doing nothing, he provided only temporary relief for the awful poverty of the poor, the state and its leader had a sacred duty to provide jobs and stimulate the economy. All classes would benefit from this.
Friedrich List
a German journalist and thinker. He promoted government's greater role in industrialization on the continent. List thought that the growth of the modern industry was most important because manufacturing was the way to increase the well being of people and relieve poverty. List was a nationalist. He wrote "wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations, the more dangerous it is to remain behind." To promote industry was to defend the nation. The practical policies that List focused on in articles and in his influential National System of Political Economy (1841) were railroad building and the protective tariff.
Jacobin club
When the National Assembly in France disbanded, it sought popular support by decreeing that none of its members would be eligible for election to the new Legislative Assembly. This meant that when the new representative body convened in October 1791, it had a different character. The great majority of the legislators were still prosperous, well-educated, middle-class men, but they were younger and less cautious than their predecessors. Many of the deputies were loosely allied and called "Jacobins," after the name of their political club. All of the members of the National Convention were republicans, and at the beginning almost all belonged to the Jacobin club of Paris. The great majority also continued to come from the well-educated middle class. But control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups-the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions.
Cardinal Richelieu
A powerful French advisor of King Louis XIII who basically ran France, during and around the time of the Thirty Years War. He gained his power through Marie D'Medici's favor, but eventually said favor and spent the end of his life just trying to survive the various plots against him.
the Medici family
Ruling family of Florence throughout the most of the Renaissance. Cosimo de' Medici and grandson Lorenzo de' Medici were the most successful heads of the family. Were great patrons of all things Renaissance.
La Rochelle
Huguenot rebellion in 1627 in La Rochelle, supported by English, was ended by Richelieu and the Peace of Alais. Centralized power in France.
Estates General
an assembly made of representatives of all three estates
Elizabeth I
a Protestant queen of England who wanted people to outwardly conform to Protestantism, but allowed them to believe what they wanted. She also encourage the arts in England.
Ottoman Empire
a huge amount of territory controlled by a sultan that included parts of central Europe and Africa and presented a major threat to the Habsburgs
Johannes Kepler
an astronomer who was highly religious yet proved a geocentric solar system using the data of Brahe. His greatest achievement was three laws of planetary motion.
personal view of life that can be changed by political, economic, or social changes in one's region
second revolution
the second phase of the French revolution, during which France became a republic and was under the rule of Robespierre
Oliver Cromwell
also known as the "Protectorate", a man who imposed military rule on England after the execution of Charles I. Cromwell had absolutist policies, although ruling through Parliament.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
a thinker during the Enlightenment who undermined its ideals with his idea that society was a negative influence and rationalism should be avoided. He believed in a general will of the people that should always be followed.
Hohenzollern family
a powerful family in Eastern Europe, that ruled in Prussia and Germany.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by the pope in 1540. Jesuits served as missionaries and educators all over the world
Hanseatic League
a league of northern European cities formed in the fourteenth century to protect their mutual intersts in trade and defense
Industrial Revolution
18th/19th cent name to describe the surge of inventions and technical changes of the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Clement VII
16th cent. Catholic pope. ignored the Protestant uprising.
18th/19th cent. heating of a liquid to kill bacteria
edict of nantes
protestants given the rights to worship, hugenots
gadget revolution
the spreading of technology to the household, including item such as washinf machines, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, dishwashers, radios, TVs and stereos
shock therapy
policy (first applied by Poland) of breaking suddenly from a controlled economy and jumping right into a free marker economy
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Who said, in Catechism of a Revolutionist, "the truth revolutionary is devoured by one purpose, one thought, one passion - the revolution... Everything which promotes the success of the revolution is moral, everything which hinders it is immortal&quo
Bakunin and Nechaiev
Tennis Court Oath
the national assembly swore to never separate and to constantly meet until they wrote a fair constitution. it came about because the third estate claimed they were the National Assembly, so they invited people from the other estates to help them write their constitution
Charles VI (HRE)
he became the Hapsburg ruler. His empire was a difficult one to rule. Within its borders lived a diverse assortment of people- Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans. He sent his entire reign working out an answer to this problem. With endless arm-twisted, he persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared they would recognize Charles's eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories.
English Navigation Acts
Passed by the English government to protect their economic interests, these laws prevented English goods from being transported by non-English merchants or on non-English ships. Thus, trade in reexports flourished as did the ship-building industry, port towns, and anyone economically associated with English long-distance trade.
James I (Eng)
Scottish man who instituted the True Free Law of Monarchies, gave less importance to "balanced polity", rejected the Presbyterian's and Puritan's pleas to get rid of episcopy, and used a system of special impositions and benevolence to get money without Parliament
Alexis de Tocqueville
de Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
separation of powers
a check on government, where different groups within the country hold influence, preventing an absolutist government
Louis XV
the successor of Louis XIV, who tried but failed to maintain absolutist authority in France.
millet system
a system in which regions were divided into "millets", which were culturally and almost political independent except for the fact they were approved by the Ottoman sultan.
Robert Walpole
the first, or "prime" minister of the House of Commons of Great Britian's Parliament. Although appointed initially by the king, through his long period of leadership, he effectively established the modern pattern of parliamentary government
Black Death
the term historians give to the plague that swept through Europe in 1346-1353
Pico della Mirandola
classics author of Oration on the Dignity of Man. positive view on man inspired by Plato
Final Solution
the plan devised by Hitler to solve the "Jewish problem"
St. Bartholomews Day massacre
Begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of fights between French Catholics and Protestants, each side wanted control over the weak French government.
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Louis XIII (Fr)
Succeeds Henry IV, ONLY 9 years old, Power of throne was laying with mother - Marie de Medici-second wife of Henry- until Louis came of age, Marie- doesn't do a good job, resents Henry- he'd been unfaithful-dismisses all of Henrys administrators, gives positions to Italian friends - French hate this -1617 she is driven out of power
Peter the Great
Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) had his own kind of monarchial absolutism. Peter was interested primarily in military power, not in some grandiose westernization plan. Peter was determined to redress the defeats the tsar's armies had occasionally suffered in their wars with Poland and Sweden since the time of Ivan the Terrible. Peter was equally determined to continue the tsarist tradition of territorial expansion. He gained a large mass of Ukraine from weak and decentralized Poland in 1667. He had ruled for 36 years yet there was only one year of peace. When Peter took control in 1689, the heart of the army still consisted of cavalry made up of boyars and service nobility. The Russian army was lagging behind the professional standing armies being formed in Europe in the seventeenth century. Maintaining an existing Russian alliance with Austria and Poland against the Ottoman Empire, Peter campaigned against Turkish forts and Tartar vessels on the Black Sea. Learning from his earlier mistakes, he conquered Azov in 1696. Fascinated by weapons and foreign technology, the confident tsar then led a group of 250 Russian officials and young nobles on an eighteen-month tour of western European capitals. Returning to Russia Peter made a fateful decision that would shape his reign and bring massive reforms. He entered into a secret alliance with Denmark and the elector of Saxony to wage a sudden war against Sweden. He went to war against the absolutist king Charles XII of Sweden and eventually won the Great Northern War. Since a more modern army and government required skilled technicians and experts, he created schools and even universities to produce them. He reformed the army and forced the nobility to serve in his bureaucracy. His new army numbered 200,000 plus consisted of another 100,000 special troops. Army and government became more efficient and powerful as an interlocking military-civilian bureaucracy was created and staffed talented people. Russian peasant life under Peter became harsher. People were drafted for the army as a form of taxation. Serfs were arbitrarily assigned to do work in factories and mines. Modest territorial expansion took place under Peter, and Russia became a European Great Power. Peter borrowed many western ideas.
Reform Bill (1832)
gives franchise and vote to the middle class
Triennial Act (1641)
a document passed by the House of Commons during the Long Parliament that required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years.
treaty of Nijmegen (1678)
a treaty between France, Spain (acting on the part of the Spanish Netherlands), and the Holy Roman Empire in which France gained territory in the Spanish Netherlands
Mines Act of 1842
a law passed by Parliament that stopped women and young boys from working in the mines
2nd estate
the nobility, who owned 25 % of the land, and often didn't have to pay any taxes
europeans gain aztec and incan empires
by technology, advantages, military, not about force
Marshall Plan
the system devised by US Sec of State George Marshall to provide aid to European nations plagued by Communism
Although the 1848 revolutions failed to permanently change governments, the Germanys did experience economic and social changes in the decades afterward. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of that economic or social change?
The number of German industrial workers decreased due to emigration, and so the remaining workers go a large increase in pay
The Babylonian Captivity
From 1309 to 1376, the popes lived in Avignon in southeastern France. IN order to control the church and its policies, Philip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to settle in Avignon. Clement critically ill with cancer, lacked the will to resist Philip.
Realists (de Balzac, Tolstoy, Zola, Flaubert, Hardy, Dreiser)
A 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be. Strict determinists; unlike Romantics
law code of 1649
a law that allowed lords to regain runaway serfs no matter how long it had been since they had run away.
war of spanish sucession
the war started by charles II because he didn't have any male heirs only sisters, so his will said that Louis' grandson will rule spain
Scotland sweden prussia austria and hanmburg tied to esstablish east india companies. alll failed what was not a reason fr the fauilure
companies lacked the support of the local nawab or majah ;leader
Grand Nat'l Consolidate Trades Union
In 1834 Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (the GNCTU). When this and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions
priesthood of all believers
a belief of Luther that no one person or place should represent the church, that it rested between a community of Christians
While the Peace of Vienna gave a long peace to Europe, the most serious error made by the statesmen at the congress of Vienna was
ignoring the nationalistic and democratic sentiments alive in Europe, causing dissatisfaction with these two groups
Essay on the Principle of Population
a work written by Thomas Malthus which postulated that there would always be more people than it was possible to feed, and that it was necessary to limit population. Malthus thought that would be basically impossible to stop people from having many children.
Which of the following, according to your text, is the position of Edmund Burke and his desire to reform the British Parliament?
) He wanted the House of Commons members to be independent and vote in their best judgment of the country's needs, not be bound to the king or their constituents, and that there should be a strong sense of party to oppose royal encroachments
The "shame of the princes" refers to land-grabbing by whom?
German nobility on the left bank of the Rhine River grabing land in the remainder of the Holy Roman Empire
French Calvinists
Philosophs believed in
What is Deism
Supreme Being
Cottage Industry
first form of Capitalism
Planet orbits are what shape
Who created the encyclopedia
Denise Diderot
Elizabeth of England's religious policy could best be described as
Moderate Protestantism
Royal societies
an honorary English society (formalized in 1660 and given a Royal Charter by Charles II in 1662) through which the British government has supported science
Prince Henry the Navigator
Financed Portugal's explorers
English Protestants that refused to join the Church of England are known as
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Famous Greek who wrote an encyclopedia of ancient science on medicine
By 1850, all of the following countries were close to Britain in industrial output except
free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tzar and service nobility
Medieval Art
religious, often showed Jesus or saints, flat, brightly colored (red with gold background) larger than surroundings; always clothed
John Knox
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
old master of the Venetian school (1490-1576)
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Who believed that humans are born essentially good, and arr corrupted by society
Who revoked the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV
What is the Royal family of France
Europeans went out looking for
Spices and Gold
William of Ockham
English philosopher and theologian, opposed much of Aquinas and rejected the Pope's power in the secular realm, nominalist, wrote "Summa Logicae"
the capital of Ukraine which the Vikings captured
Latin Christendom
Italy, France, Belgium, Rhineland and Britain where the government had fallen and the lands were taken inhabited by barbarians
A culture formed from the environment and climate of the group’s inhabitant area
Economic develepoments in the Renaissance
A revival in trade
He wrote "The Decameron" and was an italian writer who lived during the black death.
John Wycliff
Criticized the church & believed in personal interpretation of scripture. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Henry IV
Henry of Navarre; was protestant but did not wish to anger catholics. Said "Paris is well worth a mass"
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588 that failed miserably
What is the term for finding the finest parts of their beings to talk to God
the practice of moving away from home to create an independent unit in Northwestern Europe
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
“classical virtues”
The value of order, system and symmetry of the Greeks- was seen in their architecture, statues and writing
Of great importance to the Enlightenment were the salons which
All of the above
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
rioting and slaughter killed Huguenots in France, caused the War of Three Henrys; (August 25-October 3, 1527)
What led to the Spanish Inquisition
The End of Toleration
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.Treaty of Westphalia ends it.
Orbis terrarium
The circle of land controlled by the Roman empire
Politically, the period from 1715-1789 witnessed
the continuing process of centralization in the development of nation-state for efficient taxation and building armies
Who said the quote "I think therefore i am"
Renee Des Carte
Key Rivers in Europe
Development near rivers lead to the importance of certain rivers in Europe including: the Thames River (London), Seine River (Paris), Danube River (Vienna and Budapest) and Vistula River (Warsaw)
The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by
entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new manufacturing methods of inventions
Castiglione's "The Courtier" was
A very popular handbook laying out the new skills in politics, the arts, and personal comportment expected of Renaissance aristocrats
Dutch Golden Age
A period of Dutch History (1600s ) in which The Dutch Republic dominated world trade and used that wealth to become the world's center for arts and sciences. However, they were a seafaring power, NOT a military power. France will emerge in this era as the dominant military power.
Machiavelli's ideas as expressed in "The Prince" achieve a model for
A modern secular concept of power politics
European diplomacy during the 18th century was predicated on the idea that
in a balance of power, one state should not achieve dominance over another
One result of the Seven Years' War is
England becomes the number one power in Europe
Which of the following is not true of Northern Renaissance artisits
The valued the secular human form as the primary vehicle of expression
/ 274

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online