ap euro terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jacob Fugger
rule by aristocracy
blaise pascal
father of probability.
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Impressionist Artists
Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas
Benedict de Spinoza
philosopher from Amsterdam;excommunicated after rejecting tenets of Judaism;believed in pantheism, and rejected Descartes's ideas
wrote "Historical and Critical Dictionary", concluded there is no absolute truth- skepticism
Important politician and philosopher who wrote on the fall of the Roman empire.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
berlin conference
1885, Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium
Lorenzo Valla
did textual analysis of classics
thinkers pursue scholarship in the humanities, inspired by ancient Greeks and Romans.
Calvin's teaching (based on his interpretation of Romans 8: 28-30, Ephesians 1: 3-14, and 2 Timothy 1:9) that by God's decree some persons are guided to salvation, others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to His purpose and grace. (p. 470)
Paris Parliament
says no to the taxes
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique". Founded NOW (National Organization for Women)
Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
Dalimil Chronicle
a late medieval Bohemian history showing strong Czech hostility to Germans
feudal dues nearly all French peasants were subject to
inventor of the movable metal type press
French general who fought in the American Revolution
Caspar David Freidrich
considered the greatest german Romantic painter. Focused ont power of nature. Inspired viewer with a sense of mystery and awe.
famous doctor - physician to emperor marcus aurelius
munich conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Tycho Brahe
Date Alive: 1546 - 1601
Occupation: Astronomer
Contributor of: Scientific Revolution
Contributions: Brahe provided important, extensive observations of planets that were used by many of the scientists including his assistant, Johannes Kepler, who proved planets orbited around the sun in an oval pathway.
WW2 alliance whose main members were Germany/Italy/Japan
Confession of Augsburg
(1530) Meeting that formulated official Protestant Lutherian thought. German Princes laid out beliefs
Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style
Popolo grasso
"fat people" the elite, wealthy merchants and manufacturers and nobles in Florence
ruler who places political unity above conformity to religious dogma. compromised religiously to make sure there was no civil war.
Gregory VII
Which pope was a cluniac reformer
United Provinces
What northern provinces become in 1581, Declare independence from Spain in "Act of Abjuration", This influenced future documents
English Nationalism
Inspired by War of the Roses
A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchases would have his time in purgatory reduced or cancelled.
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Thermidorian Reaction
Named given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
Japan's competition with western countries for "Manchuria" province of China led to a direct conflict with Russia, where the Japanese found themselves victorious and excited to have repelled European expansion
Russo - Japanese War
Wassily Kandinski
Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
Treaty of Versailles
-Big four: Pres. Wilson--U.S, David Lloyd George--Great Britain, Clemenceau--France, & Orlando--Italy
-Wilson wanted League of Nations
-Germany resented the treaty. They lost territory, were forced to demilitarized, and received an impossible reparations bill.
-Treaty=League of Nations
Hitler's goals
He wanted to declare the superiority of Aryan race, create more living space for them, and make himself eternal supreme dictator for life
Priesthood of all Believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvanists condemned Anabaptists fr their
belief in church-state separation
Invasion of Russia
Russia didn't like fr. liberal politics and Continental System hurt their timber economy. Used scorched-earth policy on Fr. army. Fr army went from 600,000 to 100,000
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
system in which ruler claims sole and uncontestable power. absolute monarchs not limited by constituional restraints
Which country had a monopoly on the spice trade
Bartolomeu Diaz
Bartolomeu Dias, in an attempt to reach Asia, was the first to travel around the southern tip of Africa, opening the eastern coast to trade. He may have reached Asia as well if his crew had not mutinied.
The Great Expedition
[1851] 1st world's fair & an industrial fair developed by Prince Albert and held in Crystal Palace.
Significance: Showed that Britain was the workplace of the world.
Robert Owen
Turned a mill in New Lanark, Scotland into a model socialist community. Tried it in New Harmony, Indiana, failed.
Battle of Agincourt
1415; The English again defeated the French using their longbows, despite their smaller numbers. The French knights dismounted and charged across a muddy field to the elevated position held by the English. They could hardly move in their armor, and 5,500 men were taken prisoner by the much smaller English army. The English were afraid that the prisoners might rally and fight back, and killed 4,500 of them.
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
A solid fuel made by heating coal in the absence of air so that the volatile components are driven off. The use of powerful, steam-driven bellows in blast furnaces helped iron-makers switch over from limited charcoal to unlimited coke in the smelting of pig iron after 1770.
Da Vinci
One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
Catherine of Aragon
The youngest child of Ferdinand and Isabella, she married Henry VIII of England and became the queen of England.
Nuremburg Laws
Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent
madame geoffrin
one of the most famous salons; gave encyclopediasts financial aid and helped save their enterprise from collapse.
Henry VII
first Tudor king of England from 1485 to 1509, head of the house of Lancaster in the War of the Roses; defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field and was proclaimed king; married the daughter of Edward IV and so united the houses of York and Lancaster (1457-1)
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point for Germany in the war.
Dowager Empress Tzu His
Extremely strong Chinese Empress, Held together nation
Ruhr Crisis 1923
When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations
Niccolo Machiavelli
The author of The Prince, it was about political power and how a ruler should maintain and increase their power. He was a humanist that explored the problems of human nature and man's selfishness to advance their own interests. (p.429)
Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin's major work that established the theology and doctrine of the Calvinist churches; first published in 1536
The treaty of Locarno
treaty made by Stresseman to stabilize the borders with France and Germany and allows Germany to enter the league of nations
Seven Years War
as a result of this France surrendered all of its North American territory
The 30 years war
1. struggle for dominance in central europe
2. 1st continent wide war
3. culmination of religious wars
4. Last war fought over mainly religion
Prince Henry the Navigator
This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
the Papal States
capital was Rome, under the control of the church, church had to contend with powerful noble families
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Noblesse d' epee (sword nobility)
The class of traditional or old nobility in France in the middle ages and early modern periods. Synonymous with 'noblesse de race' and 'noblesse ancienne'. Term used due to right of nobles to wear a sword, much in the same aspect as 'Officer of the Sword'.
Defenestration of Prague
The first act of the Thirty Years War that occured in Bohemia in 1618 when the Parliament of Bohemia threw two emissaries from the Holy Roman Empire out of a window.
St. Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the society of Jesus, he was originally a Spanish knight that ventured on a pilgrimage, where he was Spiritually enlightened. Wrote the Spiritual Exercises.
Japanese "opening" of Korea
The Japanese had a war with China and ended up gaining Korea, which they opened to trade; Japan became an imperialist power
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
Grand Alliance - members & goals
The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
-Freedom of the Serfs in Russia
slow process over 50 years to pay back but slowly became free
First Estate
Sculptor of David
who combined flags
james 1
Two treats on GOV
Second International
The ___________ ______________--a federation of national socialist parties--lasted until 1914.
Having more than1 church position
Napoleons painter--painted the famous portrait of Napoleon's coronation
center of the Italian Renaissance
think Da Vinci, Michelangelo, etc.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract, Emile
nicholas copernicus
father of modern astronomy. heliocentric view (earth moves around the sun). book: on the revolution of the heavenly bodies 1543. error: planets move in circles around the sun.
Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971), Became Soviet Leader after Stalins death
payment for damages after a war
the principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve as well as possible the purpose for which they were made. (p. 930)
British defeated by African tribes, (Sudan)
Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.
European community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993.
The period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II
a massive uprising by French peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation
Isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
world is more important - forget spiritual and religious things - focus on present
German states who as chancellor of West Germany worked to reduce tensions with eastern Europe (1913-1992)
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
Peter the Great
czar for Westernization and modernization
Modern World View
Defined by science and progress
WIlliam E. Gladstone
(1809-1898) Along with Benjamin Disraeli, he exemplified the particular path the British government followed in maintaining social peace; a British statesman that was a classical liberal who believed in free enterpriseand disliked state intervention
Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
what type of society was the rennaisance
a tax on government officials in France to keep their offices hereditary
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan to rapidly advance through northern France in hope to knock France out of the war in just 6 weeks, then shift the army to the East via railway to defeat Russia
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Hitler.
William Gladstone
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
Enlightened Despotism
A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known Enlightened monarchs.
1. He drafted the peasants, reformed the government, and improved communications. 2. The peasants lost out because the land was converted from selfsufficient farms to large, private landholdings to grow cash crops for export.
Muhammad Ali
An occurrence in Russia that lead to the increase of its stature in world power standings and revitalized the economy and industry
"The Eastern Question is not worth the healthy bones of a single Pomeranian musketeer."
France 1515-1547 Francis I
ruled with cooperation of nobles
This is doctrine by Martin Luther says that the substance of the body and blood of Christ coexist with the substance of the bread and wine of communion. This conflicted with the Church's doctrine.
Openfield method
Small cultivators who lived in village communities still farmed much of the soil. Each farmer tilted tiled an assortment of unconnected strips. The two or three field system of rotation left large portions of land fallow and unproductive each year. Animals grazed on the common land in the summer and on the stubble of the harvest in the winter. Until at least the mid-eighteenth century, the whole community decided what crops to plant. The entire system discouraged improvement and favored the poorer farmers, who need the common land, and stubble fields for their animals. the village method precluded expanding pastureland to raise more animals, in turn, produce more manure for fertilizer.
Pop art
Images taken from popular culture and transformed into works fo fine aret
German social legislation
Bismarck placed high tariffs on imported goods, and tried to stop socialism with government measures that banned the socialist party
wrote Principia in 1687. Made the 3 laws of mechanics and law of gravity. He also invented calculus.
Episcopal movement
when bisops were assembled in a council they were more powerful than pope, staved off by pope presiding over their sessions
polish abor union founded in 1980 by lech walesa and ana walentynowicz. solidarity contested communist party programs and eventually ousted party from polish government
John Wycliffe
He was an Oxford theologian who believed that the church was wrong both in its doctrine and its practices: the value of the sacraments depended on the priest administering them, and if someone sinned they were no longer worthy of religious power. He also believed that Christ was not really a part of the Eucharist and that indulgences shouldn't be given because they didn't do anything. He also believed in predestination and that the church shouldn't be wealthy.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Louis Blanc
A Social Democrat who believed in the right to work. Believed in national workshops.
The art of language, or study of words and their origins and meanings, which was a main focus of humanists, or a"humanity". Lorenzo Valla used this to prove that the Donation of Constantine was, in fact, a much more recent forgery and a papal lie.
Henri-Philippe Pétain
French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
Revolution of 1830
revolt in France in July, 1830, against the government of King Charles X. This was sparked by the middle classes opposing charles's attempts to return to the ancien regime because they wanted more voice in the government.
Robert Clive
This man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Jan van Eyck
Considered one of the best Northern European artists of the 15th century (one of the leading painters of the Northern Renaissance)
Great White Walls
This was a policy of discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out of countries
Declaration of Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
Elements of Fascism
Statism: The primacy of the state Militarism - war is good; if you survive, you've passed the ultimate test; you must have war Limited Socialism - not all about the workers and their rights; but the workers must be dependant on the state; not traditional socialism Directed Capitalism - as long as the business is in the interest of the state, they have no problem with your property and/or capitalist goals Extreme Nationalism - Only individuals who are willing to sacrifice for the state are glorified.
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
Council Pisa
1408; It was to determine a pope. So the council deposed both rival popes and elected a new pope, which created more trouble because now Europe now had 3 popes to worship. This created a divided religion since all there popes though they were the main pope.
Maurice of Nassau
used religion as a pretext to execute chief opponent, Jan Van Oldenbarneveldt. the representative of the procince of Holland in 1618. After this Nassau resumed the war in 1621 and for more than 20 years, his family remained in command.
Blood and Iron
This was an important speech made by Otto von Bismark in 1862 order to motivate the parliament to increase military spending. The jist of the speach was that might is not acheived through ideals and group decisions, but through blood and iron.
Dien Bein Phu
the site of a major French military defeat in 1954 in Vietnam
1. worried about loyalty of the workers
2. uses assassination attempt as an excuse to oppose socialism
Bismarck's attack on Socialism
Uncertainty Principle
The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote "On the Dignity of Man" which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
war of the roses
an English war fought between York and Lancaster, whose symbols were a white rose and red rose, respectively. It was a dynastic struggle was finally ended in 1485 by Henry Tudor of the Lancastrian faction defeated his enemies. He initiated a new era as Henry VII, first of the Tudor dynasty.
The 1st and 2nd Morocco crises in the early 20th century almost brought about a war between
France and Germany
Great Britain 1884 Reform Bill
Right to vote to tax paying men
Catherine 'de Medici
She was the mother of Henry III and she a major political influence. She ordered Henry of Guise to kill Coligny, which led to the Massacre and the war of the three Henrys.
Liberal v. Conservative Parties in Britain
The conservative party in Britain was put down when the king threatened to make more liberal seats to pass bills that the conservatives were vetoing
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
Arianism and the Council of Nicaea
- debated Jesus relation of God the father and God the Son
- Arianism is the idea that Jesus was neither fully man or fully god; against the trinity idea that God is three people (the father, thef son, and the holy spirit
- conflict arose at the council of Niceae they favored Athanasius; the idea of salvation. Christ was made a man and then created Divine
In general, during the plague, the clergy:
cared for the sick and buried the dead
Russo-Japanese War
the middle class
"struggle for civilization," Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church.
The Great Purges
See #6
Soviet leader following Krushchev; re-Stalinized USSR, undid Krushchev's reforms; crushed Czech liberalization movement; released Brezhnev Doctrine
broke with Christian building traditions
James Hargreaves
Invented the Spinning Jenny
a philosophical attitude associated esp. with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre, and opposed to rationalism and empiricism, that stresses the individual's unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choi
Provisional government
The temporary government established after the abdication of Nicholas II (1881 to 1970), from March until Lenin s takeover In November 1917
wrote the Book of Common Prayer
Gabriel Marcel
Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
argued for major innovations, launched an all out attack on stalin, was under the failure cuban missle attack as well
Walther Rathenau
was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
King Ferdinand
Takes away defeated Protestant princes' land
Tried to unify Germany under Hapsburg power
Anthony Eden
Opposed Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became Prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957.
Iranian revolution
Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US
the idea that powerful countries should expand to have other territories to supply the mother country with raw materials for their industry; the more territory a country has, the more powerful it is
The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
French Classicism
The style in seventeenth-century art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine.
Fought against Spain in the Eighty Years War and the Dutch won independence from them, the city was religiously tolerant and held both many Catholics and Protestants. formed the basis of a worldwide trading network and was the leading financial center of the world.
Ruled by oligarchies, free to expand and absorb country nobility.
Art historians use the term __________ to denote the style associated with seventeenth-century painting, sculpture, and architecture.
the progressive relaxation of cold war tensions between East and West.
-Chartist Movement
wanted universal male suffrage, annual elections, secret ballots, and salaries for parliament members. But this movement, unlike the one against the Corn Laws, ended up in failure
Schmalkaldik League
A defensive alliance of Lutheran princes in the Holy Roman Empire.
wrote the the social contract (man agrees to follow the general will which is what is best for people = max freedom)
1867 Meiji Restoration
Patriotic samurai overthrew the discredited shogun and restored the emperor to power
a combination of parts into one whole
atheist-thought God was a product of ignorance, fear, and superstition
-affimed reason and freedom
bohemian phase
Without heirs, Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary.[20] Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the League of Evangelical Union).[21] However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics,[22] and in 1617, Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian estates to become the Crown Prince, and automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia.
The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice) as his representatives to Hradčany castle in Prague in May 1618. Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. According to legend, the Bohemian Hussites suddenly seized them, subjected them to a mock trial, and threw them out of the palace window, which was some 50 feet off the ground. Remarkably, they survived unharmed.
spain in rhineland, bohemia controlled by hapsburgs, re-catholicism of bohemia
Edmund Burke
Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the
Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden, Lutheran, Great warrior/leader, Senses Protestantism in Germany declining, Wanted to save Protestantism, Concerned about Hapsburgs uniting and having a lot of power, Needs money(gets it from Richelieu 1631)
Helmut Schmidt (Social Democrat)
Brandt's successor as chancellor
Marshall Plan
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin.
Grigori Rasputin
a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs. They rivaled the Ottomans.
General Cavaignac
French general and temporary leader of France (1802-1857) he was the head of the Constituent Assembly and also ran for president of France but lost to Napoleon III.
Pablo Picasso
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
Treaty of Adrianople
Ended the Russian-Turkish war. Gave the Russians a protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia. Allowed Russia, France, and Britain to decide the fate of Greece.
Constitution of 1795
constitution created during the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory
Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. merged a centralized epiiscopal system that she firmly controlled with broadly defined protestant doctrine.
Maria Theresa
ruled the Habsburg empire under the Pragmatic sanction and preserves the Habsburg state
Jacques Boussuet
A French author that claimed that kings ruled by divine right.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran, his invasion of Kuwait led to the Gulf War (born in 1937)
war in _______ = Piedmont and France vs. Austrians --> After Cavour had Plombieres agreement with Nap III he provoked an invasion of Austrian troops and triggered France's involvement. Two fierce battles, Solferino and Magenta shook Napoleon's confidence. Settlement of Villafranca won Lombardy for Piedmont but Venetia stayed with Austria
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
Tehran, The Big Three
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin. (United States, Britain, and USSR). The first meeting of the leaders took place in Tehran, the capital of Iran, in 1943. The most important decision made at this first meeting was the one that chose Europe's west coast as the main point of attack, instead of the Mediterranean. That meant in retrospect, that Soviet forces would occupy Eastern Europe and control its destiny. At Tehran in 1943, the Western allies did not foresee this clearly, for the Russians were still fighting deep within their own frontiers, and military considerations were paramount.
Johannes Kepler
discovered that the paths of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather that circular
Queen "Bloody" Mary of England
burned 300 Protestant aristocrats, succeeded Henry VIII, died of ovarian cysts
V. I. Lenin
(1870 to 1924)The Bolshevik leader who made the Marxist revolution in November 1917 and modified orthodox Marxism in doing so
defense mechanisms
Much of human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs whose nature and origins are kept from conscious awareness by these mental devices.
Why war preparations were "unstoppable"
War preparations were unstoppable because once you started to prepare, you knew that your enemies were doing the same, and you could not stop, because if you did, your enemies could attack you
The Van Eyck Brothers
Flemish painters who applied great attention to the details in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions. Their altarpiece for a church in Ghent captures the expressions of Adam and Eve in a way that is more realistic than the symbolic depiction of the Middle Ages artists.
thirty-nine articles
lay out of rules of te anglican church
He was artist who was famous for his sculptures. HE became famous when he won a contest to make a set of bronze doors for a Florence cathedral.
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Catherine the Great
reigned as Empress of Russia from until her death . Under her direct auspices the Russian Empire expanded, improved its administration, and continued to modernize along Western European lines
Oliver Cromwell
His rule as Lord Protector of England used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
Union of Utrecht
The union created for the Netherlands that granted their independence against Spain
100 Years War
War to settle the monarchy of France
Dien bien phu
The place that the final battle took place that forced the French out of Vietnam
The Junker-Crown cooperation
The crown gave the junkers power over the serfs to make them do the robot in exchange for their military services.
jacques cartier of france
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
His most famous painting is the Mona Lsa
Leonardo da Vinci
one man rule who hands his rule to his son.
Levee en masse
the creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare
Prince William of Orange
(1572-1584 - Leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands
Battle of El Alamein, 1942
In May 1942, combined German and Italian armies were finally defeated by British forces at the Battle of El Alamein, only seventy miles from Alexandria. (986)
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Henry III
son of Henry II of France and the last Valois to be king of France (1551-1589)
Causes of the French Revolution
1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Became the constitutional blueprint for France.
Name two reasons why real democracy failed to develop in Germany prior to WWI.
1. Bismarck--allowed some change to try to prevent even more change
2. German Army--viewed itself as the defenders of monarchy and aristocracy
War of Jenkins' Ear
one of a series of minor wars that led to other big wars during Frederick's reign
A major cause of the inflation in prices that occured in Europe in the sixteenth century was
an increasing population and an influx f precious metals from the new worls
Utopian Socialism
Beginning of WWI
another word for Protestant
Wrote The Algamest. Geocentric universe. Heaven outside 10th circle, Hell in center of earth.
to ask, demand, or claim
Revolutions of 1820's through 1830's
Predicting events from combinations of numbers.
features an intense stylistic mixing without a central unifying theme or elite set of standards guiding the art.
the forced relocation of Russian peasants onto large, state controlled collective farms
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
wrote on crimes and punishment (punishment should be proportional to the crime i.e. sent to prison to rehabilitate them because humans can learn to be good)
What did the index do
ban books
what was the relationship between working class and organized religion
A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
being centered in with onesself and the gratification of one's own desires
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917
Peterloo Massacre
80,000 people gathered in Manchester in 1819 for a demonstration demanding universal male suffrage, annual elections in the House of Commons, and a repeal of the Corn Laws. Even though the demonstration was peaceful soldiers opened fire killing 11 and wounding 400, the name is meant to be a comparison to the battle of Waterloo.
Otto von Bismarck
German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
Cardinal in Church, major advisor to Louis 13
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
small and light three masted sailing ships that is slower than galleys but can hold more cargo
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Fellow republican who helped Mazzini's plights. Wanted a republic and therefore attacked Italy and gained Naples. Cavour stopped him.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
irth of the Atomic Age
the Japanese city upon which the Americans dropped the first A-bomb, killing 80,000 on impact and injuring 130,000 more,
Traditional view: it was ordered because Truman and his advisors realized that an invasion of the Japanese mainland could cost many American lives.
Revisionist View: It was also ordered so that the Americans could end the war with Japan before the Soviet Union could get involved. The US would therefore have the say in what would happen there, with little or no input from the Soviet Union.
Brahe 1546-1601
established self with euros leading astronomer with detailed observations of new star in 1572. Great contributions from mass of data. Limited understanding of mat prevented him from making sense out of it. Believed sun and planets revolved around earth-moon system
Representative assemblies
From 1250-1450 all across europe representative assemblies running like parliamentts developed. However, the Hundred Years War stimulated the English development while many nations failed. They became a habit. House of Commons was created in England and they had large control over national bank account. So a parliamantary statute in 1341 required all non-fuedal levies to be approved by the king. King could not tax without parliaments consent. This encouraged a centralization of power which in hand gave more freedom to people as government would have to fix wrongs. In france there were provincial assemblies but not a national one.
Fritz Harkort
German nationalist who was in the Prussian army but fell in love with English machinery & began to produce steam engines. He failed because of expensive and lack of materials.
Significance: Pioneer for Germany machinery. Reflects law hard industry is & how much people aspired to be in the industry.
Frederick II
also known as Frederick the Great, judicial reform, education, gets rid of torture, territorial expansion
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
constitutional democrats
also called Cadets they were middle class liberals, progressives, or constitutionalists in the Western sense; need nationally elected parliament to control the policies of state; made up of: rising business/ professional classes reinforced by enterprising landowners; liberal =>codification of laws/etc.)
Ismail Ali
Khedive of Egypt, he was a westernizing autocrat and grandson of the first leader
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
the philippines
Asian island group claimed by Spain and named for the Spanish king
Peter the Great grew up in the
German Quarter
Charles Darwin
He was the most influential nineteenth century evolutionary thinker by doubting the belief in a special divine creation of each species of animal, rather that all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending struggle for survival (natural selection). He writes On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection, which shows his theories. He was influenced by Malthus' theory that populations grow naturally faster than their food supplies
On Crimes and Punishment
punishment should be effictive, anti-torture and capital punishment
10 Southern Provinces
The 10 Netherlands provinces that spain took over.
Cardinal Richelieu
The first minister of the French crown, curbed the influence of the nobles, no nonsense and TCB, exalted the French monarchy as the embodiment of the state
Babylonian Captivity
The time period when the Papal Authority (pope) was relocated to Avingnon
Blue Horizon Chamber
Name given to the ultraconservative members of France's Chamber of Deputies because of the number of military officers in blue uniforms.
Treaty of Rome: 1957
treaty establishing European Economic community; joined by Britain, Ireland & Denmark
Young Italy
An association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States who characterized World War I as a people's war waged against absolutism and militarism and was the spokesman for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation.
Columbus, Magellan, Cortes, Pizarro
explorers who wanted to spread Catholicism to the New World
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
French Military plan in case of German invasion, would put a bunch of French soldiers on Franco-German border
what did voltaire do?
(1644 - 1778). imprisoned for insulting regent of france.
- had to leave country ("outlaw")
-reformer in social/political matters
-wanted good monarchy
-did not support equality
-challenged catholic church
Chamber of deptuties
changed the system to allow full facist control of this, basically like parliament
derives from the protest drawn up by a small group of reforming german princes at the diet of speyer in 1529
phillip V
Grandson of Louis XIV and relative of Charles the second who later inherited the Spanish thrown. He was a controversial person who started the War of the Spanish Succesion
This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
March Revolution (chronology)
1. Strikes break out in Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg)
2. Working class women march for bread
3. Tsar ordered troops to disperse the crowds
4. Troops joined the protesters
5. Duma declared itself the Provisional Government
6. Tsar abdicated
7. Petrograd Soviet emerges as a rival of the Provisional Government
8. Lenin arrives in a "sealed train" from Finland
9. April Theses issued
10. Petrograd Soviet issued Army Order #1
Algerian Liberation Movement
An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control; the goal was finally achieved in 1962
Renaissance Italian: rinascita (1350-1600)
Means "rebirth" Time of significant contributions to western civilization. Especially in lit, art, philosophy, political&historical thought.
Charles II
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
Organized by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) it called for an integration of the coal and steel industries of France and West Germany. It finally added Italy and Benelux states.
European Coal and Steel Community
Sigmund Freud
The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Reign of Terror
The period between the summer of 1793 and the end of July 1794 when the French revolutionary state used extensive execution and violence to defend the revolution and supress its alleged internal enemies.
Treaty of Paris (1259)
France and England. English agreed to become for himself vassal fo the French Aquitaine. After French absorbed duchy into Kingdom, in 1329 Edward III pays hommage to Philip VI for Aquataine and after he denises it Edward sees this as a violatio nof the 1259 treaty and cause for war. Upset feudal order in France saw Edward as a more legitamate overlord. However the flemish aristrocrats wer sypmatetic to monarchy in Paris while burghes supported England (merchants).
Cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
-Liberalism (19th c.)
, a philosophy that was based on a belief in human rationality.
On Liberty (John Stuart Mill)
This work advocated economic and moral freedom of individuals from the state. This work is enormously influential to politics today
The five powers of Italy
The five dominant city-states of Italy were Naples, the Papal States, Florence, Milan, and Venice. They all had strong centralized governments that resulted in internal stability. They also practiced diplomacy and alliances, and began to have ambassadors. Therefore, they didn't have to hire mercenary armies as often.
Income inequality / Standard of Living
There was an large inequality of income and standard of living between Europe and the non-industrialized world because industrialization itself opened the gap
The Medici Family (influence in Florence)
The Medici came into influence when Florence turned to them to help relieve the debt earned by decades of war. Lorenzo de' Medici used his diplomacy to gain power all over Italy. He made a treaty with Naples to stop a war, and even with the pope to expand Florentine influence.
- Germany emerges as strongest nation in continental Europe
- Germany is proud and Nationalistic
What does Germany get after the war
What was the effect of Suleiman the Magnificant defeating Louis II in 1526?
Hungarian kingdom was divided into 3 parts: each religiously differently. The Mohacs led a great Protestant revival
Communist Manifesto
ministerial responsibility
to whom?
Boris Pasternak
author of "Dr. Zhivago"
gov't shouldnt have absolute power
3 concepts of enlightenment
Natural law
*Renaissance thought of progress as equaling the achievements of the past.
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government.
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
August Strindberg
(1849-1912) Swedish playwright and novelist. He was a part of the naturalist and expressionist literary schools.
German Confederation
association of German states established at the Congress of Vienna that replaced the Holy Roman Empire from 1815-1866
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
The federal council of Austrian government.
coined the term renaissance, , (1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Francis Bacon
inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy
Diplomatic Revolution
Reversal of alliances; Austria worked out alliance w/ France; France demanded Austrian Netherlands & Sweden/Russia signed on; GB became allies with Prussia; led to the 7 Years War
The present day countries of Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Turkey. This southeastern European area is named for a mountain range there.
Council of Constance 1415
Trial of Jan Hus
Covour gained a promise from Napoleon III that France would support a Sardinian war with Austria for the creation of a northern Italian kingdom
Casualty figures by battle and by front
Modern Devotion
Religious movement that allowed people to practice full religious life without surrendering their life in the world.
a member of a nomadic people originating in northern India and now living on all continents
A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire
During the Terror, The Catholic Church was linked to real or potential counter-revolutions. Religion was linked with the Ancient Regime, and Superstition, and so the Committee of Public Safety enacted measures to reduce its influence. IT included: New Calendar, aboloishment of Religious holidays, new names for months, 7-day weeks replaced with 10-day decades.
Edward Gierek
leader of Poland in the 1970's
These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
What US President intervened in the War in Bosnia?
domesticated animals
When domesticated animals were brought to the Americas, they changed patterns of work and dietary customs among the native people.
"The Rise and Decline of the Roman Empire"
Estates General
Not called since 1614; finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister -- demanded control over the King's finances; he refused and dismissed them; sat as three segregated groups
Spirit of Locarno
A introduced hope for international peace.
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
a ballistic missile that is capable of traveling from one continent to another
Edward Bernstein
A revisionist social who advocated the gradual gain of socialism and looked towards Darwin's doctrines as a measure for a change in socialism's tactics
He addressed the issue of planetary motion and established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries:
Isaac Newton
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises. [Reformation]
Marc- Antoine Charpentier
religious musician, wrote Te Deums, celebrates French militaty victories
Emmanuel Sieyes
A liberal member of the clergy, supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery 1789 pamphlet "What Is the Third Estate?" Sieyès was one of the primary leaders of the Third Estate's effort at political and economic reform in France.
Heinz Guderian
German general, was commander of tank units while German troops were in Russian winter trying to take over Moscow. Reported that his men had frostbite, tanks could not start, and weapons were jamming
the part of Austria that Frederick the Great captured, and it started the War of Austrian Succession
St Augustine
Who said people should obey their rulers unless thye went against god
Three Emperors' League
The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia
Old Regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
Louis IX
What Saint and King of France signed the Treaty of Paris in 1259?
This was a way of thinking that God exists, but does not intervene in daily life, for he already has a plan for the universe that cannot be altered
Nazi Soviet Nonaggression Pact
agreement between Hitler and Stalin that said they would both invade Poland and not attack one another
shock therapy
designed by the Solidarity to make a clean break with state planning and move quickly to market mechanisms and private property
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone and fostered a revolution in communications.
"new monarchs"
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
War Raw Materials Board
masterminded by Walter Rathenau, set up by the German government to ration and distribute raw materials. (pp. 900-1)
Velvet Revolution
6 week period between Nov 17-Dec 29 1989, borught about the bloodless overthrow of the Czech communist regime
the Mountain
The most radical wing of the National Convention that listened to the Girondins. It was led by Robespierre.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Mao Zedong
Emerged as a leasder of the communist party during the Long March. Created a communist form of Marxism-Leninism known as Maoism (based on peasants instead of proletariat).
Act of Union
ended the Irish rebellion and united Ireland and England
Which country got a head start in the venturing outward and exploration?
Responses to Imperialism: Traditionalist v. Modernist
Some people thought that we should accept and learn from the people who were taking over our land, these being the modernists; and other thought that we should completely try to get rid of them, these people being the traditionalists
single point perspective
style in the Renaissance in which all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance
Makes paintings more realistic
Heinrich Himmler
Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration. [Absolutism]
10/3/1990 (German Unification)
Within the first week of the opening of the Berlin Wall, 9 million East Germans entered West Germany. West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl exploited this opportunity and presented a ten-point plan of unification in 1989. He promised the citizens of East Germany a one-for-one exchange of East German marks into West German marks with West German marks being much more valuable. In March, almost 50% of votes voted for the unification in the East German parliamentary election.
Lateran council
1512, by Pope Julius II and Dutch Pope Adrain VI
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
Edward VI (r1547-1553)
The sickly son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour who ruled England for a bit but didn't really do anything. When he dies it creates a bit of controversy who will rule next. The throne goes to Mary.
Claude Monet (1840 - 1926)
"superrealist" who looked to capture a momentary feeling and the impression of light falling on an object in his paintings. He painted abstract characters instead of depicting the visible world of fact.
Problems of trench life
the trench was dirty, wet, smelly, and full of death, and you waited to die at any moment
Outline the financial tactics tried by Louis XIV.
Raised taxes, devalued currency, sold titles, sold government offices
Reign of Terror
began in the spring of 1793 and was a time of counter revolution
Concert of Europe (Congress System)
This was the system set up by the Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically to talk about common issues
Why was it shocking that Italy joined the war in 1915
The Italians switched from the Triple Alliance and had reminaed netural to the Triple Entente in promise of Austrian territory
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