AP Euro Test

Standardized Tests
Terms Definitions
Wiemer rebuplic
French Utopian Socialists
Charles X
Reactionary French King.
government apart from church
(Calvinism) Replaced Lutheranism as dominant Protestant force. Reformation
in Geneva.
John Calvin
theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of europeans. Developed calvinism at Geneva. wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Fabian society
British socialist organization, against revolution but the cause of the working classes could be furthered through political solutions, ultimate goal was crucial parts of the economy (heat, water) should be owned and regulated by the state
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Policies/Actions of Colbert
Purpose: alleviate debt-->mercantilism (self-sufficiency)
encouraged: foreign investors, female workers
- standardized industry (state inspection/regulation)
- made merchant marine
- cracked down on corruption in tax collection
- colonization: Canada, Louisiana
- founded Company of East Indies
Nikolai Bukharin
Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
Bacon's beliefs
Attacked Scholasticism (All thruths discovered, just needed to be explained, reverence for old thinkers,
Wanted people to think for themselves, supported innovation)
Knowledge should yield deeds, better human race
People thought past was smart, he said future was
Research must be done to support human race
Strengthen Monarchs
Science=Human improvement
Logical Induction
Henry IV
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris
Eugene Delacroix
romantic painter, exotic and French
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
(1313-1375) Italian poet. Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Where did the 1st artistic and literary ideas begin?
exiled from Florence after the Medici took over. He wrote the Prince. Show how power works. He also wrote Discourses which developed a cyclical theory of every government moving inexorably from tyranny to democracy and back again.
Moses Mendelsohn
Jewish philosopher of the eighteenth century. Named the "Jewish Socrates" that promoted the integration of Jews into modern European life. He argued that loyalty to a non-Christain religion did not harm loyalty to the government. His works include "Jerusalem"
Theodor Herzl
founded Zionism in 1890s, austrian journalist
baroque art
emotion,drama - realistic - dark background with illuminated figures - caravaggio
Attacked the power and wealth of owners, private enterprise, and the idea of competition/ They wanted communal ownership and social justice, brought about through government action
Dutch Golden Age
Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry.
An Italian writer that wrote the Divine Comedy.
Quadruple Alliance
The alliance that Russia, Prussia, Austria, and England formed against Napoleon in March 1814.
Factory Act
Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
the Arab led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. (p. 1019)
Friar Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
Fifth Republic
Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the Second, from 1848 to 1852; the Third from 1875 to 1945; and the Fourth, from 1946 to 1958
Charles VI
Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.
I defeated Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile and Trafalgar
Dutch East India Company
government chartered joint stock company that controlled the spice trade in the east indies
Lord Palmerston
British prime minister who was without strong party loyalty and found it easy to make political compromises. Not a reformer and opposed expanding the franchise.
Coral Sea
In this battle, allied naval/air power stopped the Japanese advance and also relieved Australia from the threat of invasion.
Bartholomew Dias
Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.
plato's student - matter and form are inseperable - dif. gov't work well depending on society
Stalin's rise
He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
Constitutional monarchy
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution, accepted by Louis XVI (forced)
Sergei Kirov
A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin
The Mountain
represented the interests of the city of Paris...won out when it passed a decree condemning Louis XVI to death
La Marseillaise
melody soon became the rallying call to the French Revolution; eventually became the French national anthem.
solution for War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
kingdom that had long been disputed by the Aragonese and the French
Non-Agression Pact
Germany and the Soviet Union signed this pact and promised not to attack each other. Germany offered Stalin control of Eastern Poland and the Baltic States.
How was food rationed
Was rationed by physical need
act of succession
henry's first born son (edward vi) would rule after henry not his daughter
Social Darwinists
Based off of ideas of Charles Darwin. Popular with the upper class.
Battle of Sevastopol
Fell after the Crimean war to negotiations for peace.
peasants revolt
the fist time that lower class people of the medieval times started to question their superiors, the statute of laborers made them go wtf mate
"Separation of powers"
This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, 1572
West India CompanY
Trading with the Spice Islands and things west of India
Henry II
King of England who expanded power of royal courts and expanded king's power and brought revenues into his coffers. was a Medici
who invades austria after signing Pragmatic Sanction
fredrick great of prussia
Syllabus of Errors
This was a religious document issued by Pope Pius IX in 1865, condemning freedom of opinion, religious toleration and Protestantism.
Social Contract
Monarch is fair to the people, the people follow the laws and the people can prosecute the monarch (Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau)
A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles
Richard II
As a boy, this English king met Wat Tyler and other leaders of the peasant revolt of 1381. He agreed to charters ensuring peasant freedom and tricked them with false promises only to crush the uprising with terrible ferocity.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre
August 24, 1572, the slaughter of Huguenots in Paris. The occasion was the marriage of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the king's sister Margeret of Valois. This led to a 15 year long civil war in France.
Republic of Virtue
This refers to the spiritual goals of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre wished to de-Christianize France in the French Revolution. The de-Christianization process included the closing of churches, Protestant and Catholic, as well as selling many church buildings to the highest bidders. The new French Revolutionary Calendar was created during the Republic of Virtue as well.
Archbishop Albert
This man was chosen by the Pope in 1517 to distribute indulgences in order to raise money for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, and he hired Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, to advertise them to the people.
Louis XVI
king of France from 1774 to 1792, - King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Edict of Toleration
an edict passed that all may practice their religion freely (overruled by Louis XIV)
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
Prince of Parma
Took up the Spanish cause during the revolt of the Netherlands, rallied the southernmost provinces as a base of Spanish influence.
Theatre of the Absurd
tries to capture the absurdity of the human condition; man is in charge and god is absent, lack of humanity-no meaning to life, actors are clown-like, no hope
Great Rebellion (Indian Mutiny)
This was a insurrection of Muslim and Hindi army officers that spread through northern India before it was crushed. It was because of people trying to send out the white army officers
What was an unanticipated result of Gorbachev's new openness?
ethnic tensions...nationalism in the former Soviet republics (Latvia, Estonia, Uzbekistan, etc)
Major theaters of warfare - highlights: Eastern Front (Russia)
1. Germans pushed back Russians (not modernized)
2. 1914-1917, Russian forces suffered defeats by Germany. Russia loses more land and thus drops out of the war in 1917.
3. Russia experienced 2 revolutions and finally withdrew in 1918 accepting the harsh terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Development of Anglo-German rivalry & Naval arms race
This rivalry developed because of the increasing naval race, and because Germany was becoming increasingly militaristic
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
What did most of the Third Estate agree on when it came to change
They wanted a constitutional monarchy, laws and taxes requiring consent of Thirt Estate, individual liberties
The country urns for a strong king who can restore order and stop rebellions, Louie notices he has to work with nobles, He was scared so he vowed he would never let it happen again.
What were 3 significant results of the Fronde?
swedish phase
Samuel Crompton
spinning mule
Giuseppe Verdi
Italian opera composer.
Urban VI is elected
of keen penetration or discernment
Florentine sculptor during the Renaissance. Influenced by classical sculpting and humanist ideas.
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
Virginia Woolf
used steam-of-consciousness technique; wrote Jacob's Room, a novel made up of a series of internal monologues, in which ideas and emotions from different periods of a time bubble up as randomly as from a patient on a psychoanalyst's couch.
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
Benjamin Constant
1767-1830. French liberal theorist. looked to Britain rather than ancient Rome.
Northern Humanism
This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions
Explain how Charles II's will threatened the balance of power in Europe.
Second International
lasted from 1889-1914-formed by socialist leaders- a federation of national socialist parties-great psychological impact-delegates met to interpret Marxian doctrines and plan coordinated action. In france
The return of a constitutional monarchy to Great Britain in 1660 under Charles II
communal living unit, people worked together to uphold it, first created by Charles Fourier
financial crisis
immediate cause of the revolution
Bloody Sunday
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
leader of the hussites who follows wycliff and gets executed at the council of constance
Parish Church
basic religious unit across Europe that had administrative tasks, helped the poor, performed baptisms and marriages
Joseph Lister
Developed the antiseptic principle and was one of the first to work on that problem.
Russian Revolution
The revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Victorian Ideal
reflected distinct gender roles for men and women.
sold indulgences to getting out of purgatory
process by which skilled craftsmen are transformed into unskilled factory workers
extends from savoy in south through switzerland, eastern france and netherlands. free cities of flanders, separate swiss cantons
95 Theses
Martin Luther's list of grievances with the Catholic Church that he posted on the door of the Wittenburg Church.
Members of the National Convention who felt the Revolution had gone on long enough.
The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.
Brunelleschi was a(n) ________ in the renaissance who built the cathedral Duomo (looks back at the greek and romans
The practice of lending money for interest.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
29. I was the "mad monk" who everyone loved to hate
John locke (1632-1704)
political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property
families of central europe
-The Wittelsbachs, who held Bavaria,Holland, Hainut, Frisia, and Tyrol and Brandenburg temporarily; The Hapsburgs (allies of Luxembourgs) Austria, Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola; The family of Anjou, who held Anjou (Northwestern France); The Premysls held Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and other small pieces of land
Charles II
. 1665-1700 Spanish. his death caused the war of spanish succession.
cultural idea that we should care more about the classical texts of the Greeks and Romans, and read the originals instead of just the commentary
albrecht durer
german painter and printmaker - greek and roman gods
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
Czech League
Drafted into Russian army, fight for Russia against Austria for independence.
Thermidorian Reaction
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre, Saint-Just and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
Edmund Burke
an Irish writer opposed to the Revolution. He wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France, arguing that the Revolution was blind and ignored he historical realities. He also predicted many happenings of the revolution, including the execution of Louis XVI. His writing was influential, as he had many followers, however, Thomas Paine opposed him.
Vladimir Lenin
opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government.
Cesare Borgia
the hero of Machiavelli's "The Prince" because he began the work of uniting the peninsula by ruthlessly conquering and exacting total obedience from the principalities making up the Papal States
Lord Byron
This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
What was liberty?
A call for individual human rights
romans 1:17
bible verse that luther read "the just shall live by faith"
Duke of Alva
sent by Phillip II to "pacify" Netherlands, establishes Council of Blood- 12,000 people killed in one day
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(1772 - 1834) English Romantic poet and very good friends with William Wodsworth. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Biographia Literaria.
pope leo x
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Jean Paul Sartre
A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
high renaissance
The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined.
The Hundred Days
The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
1790 steam power
factory could be moved to populated areas, causing whole families to work in factories together. helped mothers because they knew where their children were.
a part of the Jacobins who lived in the department of the Gironde. They became in control of the Legislative Assembly, and, in control, they became devoted to suppressing the counterrevolutionaries. They ordered the émigrés to return and the clergy to accept the civil constitution of the clergy. However, these moves were both vetoed by the king. They also declared war on Austria in order to preserve the Revolution. These acts were radical attempts to continue the revolution.
Maastricht treaty
a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment. (p. 1051)
Gustave Droz
wrote "Mr., Mrs., and Baby" which was a bestseller, said marriage should be key to human happiness, condemned marriages that were dull and practical
*struck chord with society so it shows that family structure was changing to be more affectionate and personal
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
38th Parallel
division of N and S Korea between US and SU
Catherine de Medici
After the death of her husband Henry II, she became the regent on behalf of her 10 year old son Henry IX and gained much power. she tried to compromise with the protestants.
Catholic Emancipation Bill 1829
The Catholics wanted to repeal the test act, which said only Anglicans could be in government, and in 1829, the Catholics repealed this and they were allowed to have power in England again.
peace of nijmwegen
This ended the hostilities of the war b/w France and the HRE, Netherlands, Spain, Brandenburg, and Lorraine; the United Netherlands retained all of its territory in the terms of this peace
Wet Nurse
breast fed and care for child of upper class family, fully responsible for child.
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
World Markets / European foreign investment
Giant growth in trade, Intercontinental trade
Iron Law of Wages
Theory that when workers earn money, they use up any surpluses with raising children.
Why the Western Front became stalemated
The western front became stalemated because it was full of trench warfare and needless death
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
What did wartime governments use propaganda for?
arouse enthusiasm for the war, exaggerate atrocities of the enemy, recruit volunteers for the war
what happened during Estates-General
the 3rd estate got kicked out so they went to the tennis courts and wrote grievances for Verisille
The Glorious Revolution of William and Mary
Joint monarchs, ended divine right monarchy, created a Bill of Rights, shared sovereignty between the King and Parliament. Constitutional monarchy was born!
China's Hundred Days of Reform
A period of reform for china in the attempt to meet the foreign challenge
How did the French revolution differ from the American revolution.
French revolution was far more radical and had a greater impact on Europe then the American revolution
- Germany has a 1 front war
- Treaty was so punishing that it would hurt Germany in the future (Treaty of Versailles)
- New land requires so many troops that Germany's western front is weaker.
What is the significance of the Treaty of Brest Litovsk?
rebounds readily
Irish republican army
trade between German states
Edict of Nantes-Huguenots toleration
Prussia's landowning nobility. The junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
Two late medieval developments prepared people for Luther. One was peoples resentment of clerical priveledges such as in land and money. The second was through the critics condemnation of the ireggularity and poor quality of sermons. In response to this prosperous merchants established preacherships where preachers wer highly educated and required to carry out 100 sermons a year at a minumum of 45 minutes each. This can be viewed as a link to German preachers accpeting protestantism in 1517 in Stuttgart, Routlin, Eisnenach, and Jena. Protestants supported worship where the sermon became the central part of the sermon and not the Eucharist.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife -executed.
Habsburgs-Valois Wars
advanced Protestantism, promoted political fragmentation in Germany
edict of nantes
the hugenots can worship
These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
Fourth Coalition
Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Sweden. they beat napolean in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. The very last and most powerful coalition against Napoleon
a stock or supply of foods
On St. Bartholomew's Day, Catholics massacred 3,000 __________.
urban workers "those without knee breeches" --> radical! call for more changes
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
bishops must live in their _______ after the council of trent
wet nursing
a widespread and flourishing business in the 18th century where women would nurse the children of middle to upper class women for money
British Medical Association
Attempted to elevate professional medical standards along with the American Medical Association and the German Doctors' Society. Founded in 1832.
French conservatives who wanted to go back to the way things were in pre-revolutionary France
Petrograd Soviet
pushed the government to the side.
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
selling of these was common practice by the Catholic church, corruption that led to reformation
Hundred Years War
1337-1453; dynastic conflict between the Norman kings of England and the Capetian kings of France; French managed to push the English out of all of France except the coastal town of Calais
Test Act
This act excluded non-Anglicans from military and civilian offices.
A French philosopher who believed in the importance of the uppoer class and its ability to share ruling power. His work, The Spirit of Laws, was a comparative study of republics, monarchs, and despotic societies. He admired the English balance of power among the king, Parliament, and an independent court system.
Art form that reflected shift in politics. Artists sought to reflect reality and not romantic ideals
large estates (manors) in the new world (large farms controlled by spanish noblemen who controls NA slaves on it
People's Charter: 1838
universal adult-male suffrage; secret ballot; abolition of property requirements for members of Parliament; payment to members of Parliament; equal electoral districts; annual parliaments w/yearly elections
- Lisbon, Portugal, the capital of the country, became one of the most successful and influencing trading capitals in the world due to the large amount of spice trading that occurred there. As a result, population tripled in Lisbon from 1500 to 1550.
to be evasive, vague, or ambiguous so as to mislead or conceal
Jan Hus
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
Peace of Utrecht
7 northern provinces (Protestant) the south remained Catholic, the northern Protestants declared independence from Spain, balance of power, England gains new territory, ended the war of Spanish Succession, balance of power set limits on nationalized countries, decline of Spain, expanded British empire
Tehran Conference
Codenamed EUREKA, it was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 in Tehran, Iran. The conference was organized to plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies
black death
bubonic plague - spred by rats infected by fleas - 1348-1350, reoccuring every decade - 1/3 Europe killed -
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
Yale Obedience Experiments
Subjects were misled into believing that that they were needed for a study of memory and learning; Told to that they were to "punish" other subjects with increasing voltages of electricity for failing to learn correctly; Victims were really confederates of investigator and not actually subjected to electric shock
Muhammad Ali
Egyptian army general who stepped into power after the French left. He reformed the army, the land, and the communication of Egypt
Aristocratic resurgence
Nobility's reaction to threat to their social position and privileges they felt from expanding power of monarchies
Berlin Decree
issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806, following the French success against Prussia at the Battle of Jena. The decree forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe.
Pope Julius II begins work on Saint Peter's Basilica
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
March on Rome
Mussolini's attempt to seize power; king asked Mussolini to become premier in a coalition cabinet if the Fascists would only have three posts
First Coalition
Declaration of Pillnitz by Leopold II, counterrevolution.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
John Locke
human nature good and can be improved. Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Two Treatises of Government
Peace of Augsburg 1555
End of Schmalkaldic wars between Charles and Protestant Princes.
The White Man's Burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism.
Battles of the Marne
This battle was a French/British victory, because they stopped the German offensive
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Long Parliament
passed Laws that made Charles I mad, passed the triennial act which made it the law to call parliament once every three yrs
Charter of the Nobility
gave additional power to Russian nobles by setting up districts; came from studying England
christian humanism
a branch of humanism that looks at humans and spiritual concepts (looks at greeks/romans/early church fathers --> learning hebrew/ greek/ latin to read christian works in dialects/ language written in)
the Schlieffen Plan
The plan that Germany would attack France quickly and then move towards Russia
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that rules receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided the theological justification.
Anne of Cleves
Wife #4 of Henry VIII, married in order to make an alliance with the HRE, "resembled a horse", divorce, Thomas Cromwell, who arranged the marriage was beheaded
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
General von Moltke
Took over as Chief of the German General Staff in 1906 and modified the plan due to Russian modernizations after the Russo-Japanese War and lack of faith in their Italian ally who was supposed to help defend the Rhine.
Nobless d'Eppe
"The Nobles of the Sword "; refers to the class of traditional or old nobility in France during the Middle Ages
The Grand Alliance
The Allies had three policies that led them to victory. 1. The United States concentrated on European victory first, then Japan. 2. The Americans and British put military needs before political questions, thus avoiding conflict over postwar settlements. 3. The Allies adopted the principle of "unconditional surrender" of Germany and Japan, denying Hitler the possibility of dividing his foes. 2. American aid to Britain and the Soviets, along with the heroic support of the British and Soviet peoples and the assistance of resistance groups throughout Europe, contributed to the eventual victory.
Ten Hours Act of 1847
10-hour working day, contrary to laissez-faire.
Wilhelm II Mustafa Kemal
the so called "father of the Turks," he founded what is now known as Turkey and defended against British attack
Alliances 1873-1914 & German isolation
Germany became more and more isolated because it was aggressive and France had pursued many alliances against Germany, leaving Germany only with Austria
Name some new nations that were created by the Treaties ending WWI.
Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungary
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Don John was the victor over the Turks in Lepanto. Battle itself was humiliating when Spanish troops were "signed out in 20 days" by the Netherlands.
Nineteenth century birth and death rates
Due to the Bacterial Revolution, there was a decrease in death rates. As attitudes changed towards children, birth rates also decreased. Women increasingly breast-fed their infants which gave their infants important nutrients. Women began to limit the number of children they bore to focus on the children they had. The decrease in children allowed the children parents did have to have valuable advantages like music lessons, summer vacations, and suitable dowries.
"total war" & measures to prosecute it
This was the effort to completely involve every person and aspect of the economy into the war
War of the League of Schmalkald (1546-1555)
In the midst of the Protestant reformation.

Schmalkaldic states fight Catholics and HRE Charles V tries to contain outbreak of Protestantism

Peace of Augsburg: "cuius regio eius religio" and Ecclesiastical Reservation
He sends troops to help France so that he can participate in Congress of Paris.
What does Cavour do in the Crimean War?
spinning jenny
Chamber of Deputies
An elected Russian parliament
invention of moveable type
paintings- massacre of the innocents
Louis Blanc
sharp-eyed, intelligent journalist, focused on practical improvements-Organization of Work: urged workers to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully-believed state should set up govt.-blocked workshops and factories to guarantee full employment
Utopian Socialists
Early nineteenth-century socialists who hoped to replace the competitive capitalist structure with planned communties
Francis Bacon
developed the scientific method
Ignatius Loyola
Catholic Priest established the Jesuits
The __________ was a separate community in which Jews were required to live.
An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
who is afte Charles V
phillip II
Only Chinese port with which foreigners could trade
Constitution of 1791
National Constituent Assembly established a constitutional monarchy. Major political authority was a unicameral Legislative Assembly.
Lateran Agreement
(1929)-Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well
he preached that individual free will, not predestination determined one's fate
people who seized property (more equal distribution of land)
John Cabot
Genoese merchant living in London; sailed for Braziil but discovered Newfoundland. The next year he returned and explored the New England coast.
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther which was a series of letters between two lovers one of which was married and Faust , where a man sells his soul to the devil to gain knowledge and breaks the pact by devoting his life to the betterment of mankind.
Anton Denikin
Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.
Remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven
Leonid Brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964, ordered forces into Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Vaclav Havel
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)
civic humanism
Education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life
Munich Conference
here, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy decided what would be done with the German-Czech conflict over the Sudetenland. Eventually, Germany was given the Sudetenland where Germans lived and Hitler promised he would demand no more territory. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT IS CONSIDERED THE PEAK OF THE APPEASEMENT.
Robert Owen
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
(1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
papacy moved here and had a lavish court during the 14th century (worldly, pleasure loving, and the cause of the great schism)
Purpose of indulgences
Released the buyer from purgatory; this is what originally brought Luther to attention; used originally to get knights to go on crusades and raise money; were used after as a mean of filling church treasuries;
Alfonso de Alburquerque
A Portuguese general who captured strategic ports of the Middle East and India at the beginning of the 16th century. At the time, the Portuguese strategy was to protect investments in the East with military posts, using force only when necessary and using native feuds to their advantage.
Conciliar Movement
Reform of the church through general councils representing all Christians. The pope still is the head of the church, but authority is from the Christian community. Solution to the unrest and Schism and called for a new pope. Led rise to Renaissance papacy.
Henry Labouchière
A member of British Parliament who mocked Rudyard Kipling's poem
Konrad Adenauer
The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government.
He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence
Revival of an ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientific values that began in Italy 14th and 15th century
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
Dante Alighieri
Lived 1265-1321; he wrote The Divine Comedy and also Vita Nuova which are the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature.
Henry VII
(Eng) along with brothers increase in royal prestige and decrease in nobility; have order/law on local level; called many meetings with Parliament and there with royal council knocked heads because of lack of trust in nobility/lords
THIS slowed down when the people won basic political and social reforms like the right to vote and social security.
old regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
the principles or movement of a party of political reformers, chiefly workingmen, in England from 1838 to 1848: so called from the document
Emelyan Pugachev
promised the serfs land of their own and freedom from thier lords; started the Pugachev's Rebellion
France after 7YW
Louis XIV got Flander and lille
pushed eastern boundary
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
A land tax that formed the basic tax of the Old Regime in France; example of a tax exempted by the French nobility
Evolutionary Socialism
This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
Council of Trent (1545-63)
Sought reform and to secure reconciliation with Protestants.
Charles V opposed speaking against the Lutherans fearing popularity loss. French kings worked against reconciliation of Catholics and Lutherans to keep the German states divided. The conciliar theory was stressed trying to weaken the papacy however in the end the council required Papal Approval.
Gave equal validity to scriptures and to tradition as relgious authority. Reafirmed 7 sacrements and transubstantiaition. rejected Luther and Calvin Positions. Tridentine required bishops to reside in own dioces. Supressed pluralism and simony, forbade sale of indulgences. Also concubines were forbiden. Bishops revieed absolute authority of clergy. Education of clergy was mandatory. Tametsi said that a valid marriage must have a public anoouncment of consent to witnesses and parish priest.
HOWEVER: No reconciliation with protestantism, delayed reform, though laid 4 centuries of solid catholic spirtual basis.
Pedro Cabral
Claimed Brazil for Portugal n 1500. He had intended to follow Da Gama but was blown off course. [Exploration]
Lorenzo Ghiberti
made nearly as much as leader of cities
General Kornilov
Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers; Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Mein Kampf
In this book written by Adolf Hitler during his period in prison, he outlined his three basic themes: "race," which stressed anti-Semitism, "living space," with his vision of war and conquered territory, and the leader-dictator, the Fuhrer, who had unlimited and arbitrary power. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CRYSTALIZED HITLER'S IDEAS IN ONE DOCUMENT.
Dutch Revolt
This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was called not only to reform the church but also to reconcile with protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists alike were invited to attend, but their insistence that the scriptures were the sole basis of Christianity made reconciliation impossible. (p.476)
Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin and he was perceived as a strange leader
battle of trafalgar
a naval battle in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain
Count Kaunitz
came up with the idea for the alliance with france for the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
Clothing, Food, Wagon, homes
What was being consumed in the consumer revolution?
baron de montesquieu
wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
This was an agreement between princes of Germany and Charles V, stating that they could choose their own religion as long as those under the prince's rule also followed the same religion.
Diet of Worms
Diet held by the young Charles V, in which he summoned Luther to appear and recant his ideas, after which Luther basically says that he does not accept the Papal authority and that anything that would go against the scripture, he would simply have nothing to do with and would not recant anything he had previously said.
The rule of a nation or state by a few people
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Henry of Narvarre married Margaret of Valois for a reconciliation of Catholics and Huguenots. Henry of Guise had Admiral Coligny attacked, which started the massacre. 12 thousand Huguenots were killed.
Storming of the Bastille
on July 14, large groups of Parisians stormed the Bastille to get weapons for the militia. Many of the revolutionaries were killed by the guards, but after they stormed the building, the Parisians killed the guards and governor and let the prisoners go free. This was a very symbolic moment because it was the fall of one of France's military and legislative centers.
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs.
reason for War of Spanish Succession
Louis 14 put grandson into power. British prevent it
Russo-Japanese War - impact in Russia
This war showed that Russia was still not strong, and it caused revolution back at home.
The War Of The Three Henrys
The War of the Three Henrys was named for Henry III, Henry Guise, and Henry of Navarre. It was the last French civil war. Henry III killed Henry Guise, and was eventually assassinated as a result, so Henry of Navarre ended up on the throne.
What was the cause of the war of the Spanish Succession?
Caused because the king of Spain Charles II was impotent and mentally defective. It was decided that Philip of Anjou would take the throne. Because Anjou was French the Dutch and English worried and didnt want France and Spain to team up.
The 1400's.
World War II
The ruler of Venice
Rene Descartes
Discourse on MEthod
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
Gaspard de Coligny
protestant leader/ castrated
Michael Servetus
Spanish theologian, humanist, protestant
Most dynamic and powerful ideology. Germany and Italy used this to unite states. Had a "we-they" outlook which gave them a sense of national mission & superiority. Led to competition.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Guiseppe Mazzini
secret revolutionary society called Young Italy
Imre Nagy
liberal communist reformer installed as Chief by the people of Budapest.
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
philosophy that god, reason, and progress all myths. humans must accept responsibility for actions. responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish. reflect isolation and alienation
This British politician promoted the Factory Act, which limited the number of hours women and children could work to 56 hours a week, and helped initiate the Conservative party. As a conservative, he was a rival of the liberal William Gladstone.
Washington Conference
(1921)Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States
Philip V
began reforms to suppress smugglers through monopolies, viceroyalty in New Granada, and set up complex trade system, grandson of LXIV
to where had the center of international trade shifted by the early 17th century
(1483- April 6th, 1520) An Italian painter known for his series of Madonna paintings, as well as the "School of Athens"
Napoleonic Code
equality before the law, religious toleration
Pope Clement
refused to allow king henrys annulment
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Renaissance statesman and author of The Prince. A book about how a ruler should gain, maintain and increase power. His name stands for politically devious, corrupt or crafty tactics. The philosophy that says the "end justifies the means". (Written for Lorenzo de' Medici, it was based on the methods of Cesare Borgia.)
Bolshevik revolution
November 1917. Lenin and bolsheviks overthrow provisional government. Bolsheviks released from prison, seize power, and take control of Petrograd in the name of Soviets
Anti Sematism
most oppressive in East Europe; officials used it to channel popular dicontent away from the government and onto the jewsih minority
Cartesian Dualism
divided existance into spiritual and material
"price revolution"
a steady inflation of European currency, which decreased in value; caused by influx of precious metal, increased population, and kings debasing currency
Henry Bessemer
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
Frederick the Elector of Saxony
Sympathetic to Luther's ideas
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
-De Gaulle
established the 5th republic and ruled as president until 1969
from the late 1940s through the early 1960s a dramatic increase in the us birthrate occurred which is generally known as the _______
St. Bartholomew's Day
A slaughter of several thousand Protestants in Paris and the surrounding countryside the night after Catherine de Medici married Henry of Navarre. It marked the turning point in the French wars of religion as it radicalized the Calvinist Protestants.
The Stuarts
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I
Sir Francis Drake
English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships; 'singed the king beard'; involved in the armada.
superior status was held up by various game laws. could take civil legal action against wealthier poachers, such as rich farmers who rented land, and thus saddle them with immense legal fees. also employed gamekeepers to protect game from poachers.
Austro-Sardinian War
A liberal revolution in 1821 forced Victor Emmanuel I to abdicate in favour of his brother, Charles Felix. On the death of the latter in 1831, Charles Albert, of the Carignano branch of the family, obtained the throne. He contributed to the cause of unification under Piedmont's leadership by modernizing his government (granting a constitution in 1848) and fighting against Austrian power in Italy in the First War of Independence of 1848-49.
A Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes. It called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.
Magyar policies
The Magyar pushed through bills that changed voting laws to help the elite and to force through the teaching of Hungarian in schools. They created the nationalism that would tear them apart
the inability to be present and do the job of the multiple offices one held
"Renaissance Man"
A man that is multitalented and is well educated.
Sundiata Keita
he established the kingdom of Mali; he was Mali's first great leader; he became Mali's mansa or emperor/king; he had a strong government; built wealth off Gold and Salt trade; military victories; and was popular in peacetime too.
This was the equivalent of a king in Egypt
Estates General
This was the order that replaced the absolute monarchy. It is representative body that equally weighs the Three Estates, the clergy, nobility and peasants, even though the third estate severely out populated the other two estates. The peasant class was heavily taxed and supported the whole government, while the 1st and 2nd estates were privileged. This was one of the main causes that led to the unrest called the French Revolution.
Ukrainian Famine
The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
Henrik Ibsen
He was a Norwegian playwright, and was known as the 'father of modern realistic drama'. His work examined the realities that lay behind many common areas, possessing a revealing nature that was disturbing to many contemporaries. Ibsen largely founded the modern stage by introducing a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. His work was famous as it probed the flaws of society.
Henry VIII
This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
Herbert Spencer -- Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theories to capitalism, justifies excesses of Ind. Rev.
Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
Popular Front
Leon BLum led the popular front to victory in the French elections of 1936. many demonstrations would carry his picture
Room to move. Phrase used by Hitler to justify invasion of other countries.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy~later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined.
Plight of Factory Workers
long hours, boring jobs, little pay, child labor, no experience necessary, orphans, discipline, awful urban living conditions
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
Olympe de Gouges
a woman of the French Revolution who gained prominence as a theater writer, wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen. argued for legal equality between the sexes
Peace of Westphalia
the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648
Women in totalitarian states
They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
1. new weapons like the machine gun gave the advantage to the side that was dug in and defending. Offensive planes and tanks too primitive to be effective
2. Old strategies - old generals from cavalry armies, poor communication
3. Inadequate transportatio
Reasons for the stalemate...
The English War of the Roses
fought from 1455-1485 between the houses of York and Lancaster, ending with Henry Tudor as the first king of the Tudor dynasty
In the mid 1930's Stalin altered the Soviet Union's foreign policy
through seeking closer cooperation with the western democracies through Popular Front governments
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
- -. He and Engels joined the tiny group of German socialist revolutionaries known as the Communist League. They became enthusiastic advocates of the radical working-class movement, and drafted their ideas in The Communist Manifesto, published in January of 1848, which called for working men of all countries to unite.
- -He created an economic theory that explained how History worked. He believed that history is propelled forward by the struggle between the "haves" and "have nots." He believed that the proletariat would soon overthrow the reigning bourgeois and create a classless society that would benefit all and lead to progress in science, technology, and industry.
- - Bourgeoisie. According to Marx, the Bourgeoisie were the "haves." They were the rich industrial middle-class that had gained power during the industrial revolution and was responsible for the formation of the proletariat (industrial working class) which Marx predicted would overthrow the bourgeoisie and form a classless society.
- - Proletariat- According to Marx, they were the "have nots." The growing industrial working class who, according to Marx, were increasing in number just as the Bourgeoisie were decreasing. The Proletariat would inevitably, according to Marx, rise up against the Bourgeoisie, just as the Bourgeoisie had risen up against the nobility. It was just historical process at work, (according to Marx). The proletariat would create a classless society that would not have "haves" and "have nots" and thus history would be complete.
July Diplomacy - the Blank Check
This was given to Austria form Germany that guaranteed full military backing in any war
1. Bendetti was told by Napoleon III to demand a future guarantee that no Hohenzollern king will ever be on the spanish throne, and to ask for an apology
2. King WIlliam says No
3. Bismarck twists the telegram to make it appear that French insulted Prussi
What happened with the Ems Telegram that led to the Franco prussian war?
the study
Philosophical Letters; Candide
anti-Catholic legislation enacted after the Williamite War
The "Communist International". Intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
majority ethnic group in hungary
psychoanalysis, hysteria comes from early-childhood experiences, human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs, defense mechanisms, id ego superego
New inventions, cotton and iron-changed small businesses beyond all recognition.
This was Neville Chamberlain's ineffective strategy to deal with Nazi Germany. He satisfied their wishes and demands in order to avoid confrontation, which reflected his country's overwhelmingly pacifist sentiments at the time. Unfortunately, allowing Germany to do as they wished, even when this meant taking over Sudentenland and parts of the Rhinelands, only meant that once Great Britain did declare war on Germany, they had a lot more resources and a lot more military experience.
swiss reformer who begins the reformation outside of germany for the first time
A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
This was the extremely lopsided victory by English army over the protestors as a result of the Corn Laws
Ronald Reagan
American president who proposed Reagonomics, economy with very snall gov with lots of cpatalism
Describes an environment in which transactions between private parties are free from state intervention, including restrictive regulations, taxes, tariffs and enforced monopolies.
special-interest groups
Shipping companies, white settlers, missionaries, humanitarians, and the military were some of THESE that advocated imperialism for their own reasons, most often selfish reasons.
a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative
vernacular literature
criticism of accepted authority continued to form in this literature as opposed to formal latin texts, continuing a trend towards a national conscious
Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans".
What were the causes, events, and results of the English Civil War, the Restoration, adn the Glorious Revolution?
the court, the nobility, lawyers, and clergy
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigated the globe after three years. Was killed by cannibals, major accomplishment was the 98 day crossing of the Pacific. The length persuaded Spanish to focus on the Americas.
proposed idea that mind and natural matter were separate and the latter thus subject to study; eventual conquest (Cartesian dualism); "I think, therefore, I am"
february revolution
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Economic Consequences of the Peace, by punishing the Germans with a large bill the whole European economy is threatened
3 laws of motion, gravity, and calculus
Supporters of the king during the English Civil War.
groups of fascists that put down opposition
the consolidation or fencing in of common lands by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater commercial profits. It also involved the reclamation of waste land and the consolidation of strips into block fields.
King Frederick II
religously tolerant, sought to rationalize law code, invades austria
A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Louis XIII
influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Catholic League
The opposite of the Protestant Union, the Jesuits, Catholics, formed group in Bavaria and converted many cities back to Catholicism, Maximilian of Bavaria created a more formal catholic league, who hired a Count Tilly to command it's army.
In a practice known as __________, the Ottomans recruited their elite military forces from among Christian boys in the empire.
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Raymond Poincaré
French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
Amerigo Vespucci
navigator who found Venezuela and who stated that America is seperate from Asia, hence America is named after him
Seven Years War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
Jean Jacques Rousseau
a major Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. His political philosophy heavily influenced the French Revolution, as well as the American Revolution and the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought; wrote "On the Social Contract"
Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people.
This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Led by Lech Walesa
This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
During the fourteenth century which countries dominated the Mediterranean slave trade
Genoa and Venice
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Battle of White Mountain
The decisive battle between Fredrick and Ferdinand in which Ferdinand wins allowing Catholicism to be spread back into Northern Europe.
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Eventually became first king of a united Italy. Led the north in Italian unification and united with Garibaldi's south in 1861. Drove the pope into the Vatican city, and eventually made Rome the capital of Italy.
peace of augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Orleanists/ Bourgeois/ July Monarchy
Supporters of the new regime established under Louis Philippe
National Taxes, State Bureaucracy, Permanent Standing Army, DIvine Right Monarchy, Attempt to control competing groups in their territory ( Nobles and Huguenots)
The features that distinguish Absolutism from Medieval Rule?
"The Social Contract"
written by Rousseau stating that the government officials cannot rule without the consent of the people(general Rule)
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Abbe Sieyes
author of "what is the third estate" who wanted a executive body independant of the whims of electoral politics, governmetn based on "confidence from below, power from above. Used Napoleon to ensure the coup would work but Napoleon got more power
28. I was the last czar of Russia
Nicholas II Romanov
Johann Tetzel
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
Great Northern War (1700-1721)
Peter the Great of Russia versus Charles XII of Sweden, Peter wins handily, ending Swedish prominence in Europe, and expanding the territory of Russia, mainly to get ports critical for contact with the rest of Europe. Ended by the Treaty of Nystad.
Italian balance of power democracy
15th century Italy, jungle where the powerful dominated the weak. When one Italian state appeared to gain a predominant position over the peninsula, the other state combined to establish a balance of power.
"God save the Tsar"
a crowd of 200,000 men, women and children gathered before tsar's winter home sang this son. resulted in a masacure.
Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam conferences and post-war Europe
The overall result of the conferences was the beginnings of the Cold War in which Western and Soviet leaders had different conflicting goals for post-WWII Europe that made compromise nearly impossible.
Charles V, Henry VIII, Mary Tudor
List three of the many famous relatives of Catherine of Aragon
Frederick Elector of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
what did eastern european landlords do in response to the problems of the 14th 15th centuries
-reimposed harsh rule of teh rural masses
-serfdom was revived to combat their economic woes
Why was Great Britain encouraged for total war less then Germany
It could import materials from its empire and from the United States
the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism
Written by Max Weber. In it, he argues that the religious confidence and self-disciplined activism of the Calvinists produced an ethic that stimulated and reinforced the spirit of emergent capitalism.
bollron wars
Russian Revolution
cult of celebrity
water frame
Richard Arkwright
protector of the balkans
justification by faith alone
healed Alexis from hemophilia
middle class, religious toloration, england
probably most well-known Christian Humanist; author of "In Praise of Folly", which satirized problems in the church
French dynasty (after Henry IV)
birthplace of the Renaissance, preeminence in banking because of the Medici family
Schmalkaldic League
protestant alliance formed by Lutherans in defense against the Holy Roman Empire
Workers and soldiers councils formed in Russia during the Revolution.
"national Diet"--part of the German parliament along with the Bundesrat
Rosa Luxembourg
Marxist theorist, philosopher, and activist of Polish Jewish descent. Founded the Spartacist League with Karl Liebnecht--then she was part of the Communist Party of Germany. Drowned after a failed revolt in 1919 in Berlin--became a martyr for Marists
Warsaw pact
alliance btwn Russia&easter euro. sattellite in responce to NATO
government which religion is the state
economic policy in which central goal=build up nation's supply of gold by exporting goods to other lands and earning gold from their sale
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
most common religion in Netherlands, Scotland, England, France, and Switzerland
1st international fabian society
(fabius maximus)
gas-and-water socialism
solve problems of industry gradually, peacefully, and democratically
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
A night of violence and vandalism against Jews
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
This socialist man believed that property is theft
Also occupied for 15 years. Colonies Divided.
Soviet forced labour camp system, used for petty criminals to political prisoners
Adam Smith
supply and demmand
"Wealth of nations"
Galileo Galilei
Father of controlled experiments, work with gravity, law of inertia, and the telescope. Was tried for heresy by the Church
ancien régime
traditional view of women, peasants are inferior, nobles preserve order and contribute to the government and regulate behavior (three estates)
Peter the Great
1682-1725; determined to Westernize Russia through absolutism and Western-style centralized bureaucracy; "window on the west"=St. Petersburg
Frederick William
1640-1688; the "Great Elector" leader of Brandenburg; built army; established long and beneficial relationship between Prussian monarchy and Junkers
Ferdinand I
(around formation of German state), promised to grant a liberal constitution to Hungary, but Francis Joseph took over in 1848
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
James I
English monarch following E1; formerly king of Scotland; son of Mary, Queen of Scots (but raising Protestant by E1's advisors); aimed to increase monarchial authority, but faced resistance from House of Commons
Leon Trotsky
(1879-1940) Lenin's ally who organized and led the Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
Banking Families
These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state
Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.
The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
Gustav Streseman
A moderate leader in Germany. He solidified Germany's boarders which allowed them to be part of the league of nations.
Artist who in 1550, coined the term "Renaissance" to capture the sense of artistic advancement and genius of a new age that rivaled the achievement of the Roman masters
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71 war between the 2nd French Empire and Prussia. With the French defeat (Napolean captured at Battle of Sedan), Germany and Prussia united under Wilhelm I of Prussia, the 2nd French Republic fell, and Alsace-Lorraine became Prussian territory. After this war began the siege of Paris
Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)
Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter, the first efficient method for the mass production of steel
spanish armada
phillip ii sent them to stop disturbances in the netherlands, and religious wars ensued. the result was a splitting of the netherlands (catholic in south, protestant in the north)
a 20th century movement of artists and writers (developing out of Dadaism) who used fantastic images and incongruous juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
douglas macarthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Navigation Act
1651 act that required English goods be transported on English ships; boosted English trade
Linear Perspective
A mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s.
Concordat with Vatican
1929- signed; Italy was LAST recognized by Roman Catholic Church
INDEPENDENCE of Vatican City--Italy understood
Karl Lueger
The fiery mayor of Vienna who preached anti-Semitism and appealed to lower middle class
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Boer Wars
A war between Dutch settlers and the British when the Dutch settlers found gold and diamonds in their new home in South Africa
Beer Hall Putsch
Adolf Hitler attempted to over through the Weimar republic. it failed, Hitler was imprisoned, but he used this as an opportunity make himself famous.
64. Social Darwinism
a term used for various late nineteenth century ideologies predicated on survival of the fittest. It especially refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves
peasant revolts
luther had said to the peasants that they misunderstood his writing. they turned to him for new religious ideas, and peasants found they returned to serfdom, the revolts and the rules' following actions led to eastern absolutism
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
established by Owen in 1834
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Iwo Jima
One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
France's first elected president by universal male suffrage, and developed strong nationalism like his cousin
Reinhard Heydrich
Head of the SS's Security Service who was given administrative responsibility for the Final Solution.
Letters de Cachet
Letters saying you can be imprisoned for as long as you want for no reason, Gave instructions to intendants to over see local government in country side
A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
Omen in the Soviet Union
Communist views toward women improve. More equality. Education available, abortions legalized, women members of CP.
Battle of the Somme
1916 British offensive led by General Heggs whose purpose was to draw the Germans away from Verdun. British bombard the Germans around the clock but Germans have efficient and better trenches--they waited for the Brits to attack then used their machine guns. 1,000,000 dead in 5 months.
Defeat at Trafalgar
The British had sea supremacy and made invasion of England impossible.
code neopolean
the act to try and make neopolean the monarch of the new france system
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Corn Law of 1815
An English tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. It never worked well because it caused job loss.
Philip II of Spain
This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
Vichy France
Petain is the leader of this and he is allied with the Nazi's.
30. Reign of Terror
was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Gold Glory and God
This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
Franco-Prussian War - Causes & Outcomes
The reason behind the war was because a war would bring the Southern German states into the Prussian state, and the French wanted to teach Germany a lesson. It ended up that the Germans kicked butt, and the French were humiliated, and the German plan worked completely
An Essay on the Principle of Population...
Written by Malthus, the "Iron Law of Population" was based off the Iron Law of Wages and stated that population grows exponentially, while food supply grows linearly. Also population growth leads to lower wages due to increased labour supply
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