AP Euro Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
inferently
attribute
communion
catholic- transubstantiation transformed into blood/body. Luther -consubstantiation both bread/body and whine/bread. Zwingli- symbolic. symbolizes
individualism
stressed personality uniqueness genius and fullest development of capabilites and talents
Knox
Scottish Protestant reformer who played an important part in the establishment of the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian Church); he wrote the "Book of Common Order."
rabelais
french satrical aurthor Guantua and pantagruel
Sir Isaac Newton
produced Principia Mathematica, responsible for completing the new science's views and proving them with math
Martin Luther
Middle class high education. Encountered the devil. salvation is acheived by fath alone.
schonbrunn
id- numerous open-air performences in which emperor leopold I displayed his artistic talents as composer and actor sig- came to an abrupt end when vienna was besieged by ottoman forces, the palace and park was devestated
julius II
1503-1513 pope very militaristic tored down old saint peter basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506
Jan Hus
spoke out against Church practices including indulgences and the policy banning all non-Latin language Bibles, sought reform in Church morals,
Huguenots
adherents to Calvinism in France - this church was well established when Calvin died in 1564
Napoleonic Code
Provided clear legal unity in France
Ghiberti
sculptor, did bronze doors for a cathedral in florence
Lorenzo Valla
1st critical historian, proved the donation of Constantine was false. preached to always question authority
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
1619-1683 general of finances in France appointed by Louis XIV
Piero della Francesca
(1416-1492) was forgotten after his death but is now regarded as one of the supreme artists of the Quattrocentro due to his use of broad masses of color and the meditative grandeur created by his use of light.
flagellation
to flog someone or self fo rpunishment or as religious code dictates modern persons do this for arousal and are called "kinky" and should be avoided
Merchet
if one of his inferiors wished to marry off one of his female relatives during the Middle ages, this was due to the lord
Hans Holbein
was a good painter, drew "The Ambassador"
Giro Banking
Also known as transfer banking, began after the establishment of the Bank of Amsterdam in 1609, bills of transfer could be used to exchange funds as opposed to bullion
French Phase 1635-1648
destroyed Germany and an independent Netherlands. Economically disastrous for Germany. Led to agricultural depression in Germany, which in turn encouraged a return to serfdom for many peasants.
Henry V
Almost won 100 years war for England
Albert of Mainz
An archbishop who epitomized pluralism by holding several high church positions simultaneously.
Charles I
He tried to govern without Parliament and to finance the English government by arbitrary levies
aggregate
a total of food or products from many persons or machines
taille and gabelle
exacted by the French monarchy and focused mainly upon the "troisiéme état", supplied army with arms and paid soldiers
Defenestration of Prague
Start of the Thirty Years War. Ferdinand of Styria became the king of Bohemia in 1617. Bohemians were Lutheran, Calvinist, Catholic, and Hussite and religion, and they enjoyed religious freedom. Ferdinand proceeded to close some Protestant churches, but on May 23 1618, protestants hurled two of Ferdinand's officials from a castle window in Prague. (the defenestration of Prague)
Bubonic plague/black death
disease carried in rats that killed 1/3 of western europe population and ended serfdom in western europe
Ivan IV
id- aka ivan the terrible. saw the change of a medieval nation state to an emerging regional power. intelligent but mentally unstable. killed his heir to the throne sig- first tsar of russia, long reign
breaking on the wheel
intended to extend the punishment for as long as the executioner desired, days or hours of torture before death. Just as public as hanging, the criminal would be left, bones broken, dead or alive, tied to a wagon wheel until death
Swedish Phase 1630-1635
phase of thirty years war that ended that Habsburg plan to unite Germany
suleiman the magnificent
id- emperor of the ottomans in their golden age, during the mid 16th century. the captivated western persia to north africa and into central europe. sig- complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system, prominent monarch of 16th century Europe, improved Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power
Pope Paul III
pope elected in 1534 and was the one who called in the Council of Trent to see what was wrong with the religion - wanted to apply traditional theology
people began to act irrationally, violently, peasents able to bargain for higher wages
The Plague had two major social ramifications on medieval Europe.
cinquecento
the 1500s
to adopt or support
espoused
john calvin
theological writing profoundly influenced religious thought of europeans developed calvinism and geneva wrote institutes of chrictian religion
absolutism
To rule by divine right
Sovereignty
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Romantic Authors
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Burns, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Tennyson, Browning, Scott, Goethe, Schiller, Heine, Herder, Hugo, Balzac, Dumas, Stendahl, Pushkin, Dostoevski, Turgenev, Cooper, Irving, Emerson, Poe, Whitman and Thoreau. Just to name a few.
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop that annuls first marriage
The Courtier
by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.
astrolabe
navigational tool that was replaced by the sextant. use of the-- to calculate ship's latitude measuring the altitude of a star at night or the sun during the day: invented to make enormous voyages possible
Johannes Kepler
discovered that planets moved in ellipses, and that there is a relationship between how fast a planet travels and how close it is to the sun
Tenis Court Oath
Where the National Assembly (previously the Third Estate) went after being locked out of the Estates General. It was here that they wrote France's constitution.
Erasmus, Praise of Folly
criticized the church's hypocrisy
Erasmus
Dutch, Wrote In Praise of Folly. preached tolerance, critisized the catholic church but still loved it. not saying that the church is wrong; but he thinks it is
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Cardinal Richlelieu's successor and regent for Louis XIV
Francisco Sforza
conquered milan and became its new duke, and worked to create a highly centralized terrritorial state
embittered
to cause someone to feel bitter or resentful
potato, tomato
the fruits and vegetables passed from the New World to the Europeans by natives
Danse Macabre
Artisitic Motif; dance of the death, usually denoted by the incorporation of skeletons
tea
doubled as a commodity and a basic drink, it found popularity among Europeans of all social classes
Utopia, More
written under Henry VIII, a criticism of society, made up a perfect world
Anne Boleyn
had elizabeth, but henry was convinced that she was a witch and had her beheaded
Thirty-nine Articles
A statement of the defining doctrines of the Church of England commissioned by Edward VI.
pragmatic sanction
id- proclaimed by charles VI that haspburg posessions were to be hereditary no matter if its a boy/girl haspburg it is to be passed down to the heir. sig- charles was so driven to get this accepted because he only had maria therese, no boy heir. maria therese did become the monarch after charles died
Ockham's theory
believed that the power of the pope rested in the people, thought that they should be elected by people who also chose their form of government, just as long as the government remained completely secular
John Wycliffe
one who argued that the church had become too remote for the people - sought direct reliance on the bible; denounced the authority of the pope, and declared that only the elect could rule
Concordat of Bologna
In signing this, Francis I recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops. Established Catholicism as the state religion in France. Perpetuated corruption within the French church. Made Calvinism attractive to Christians eager for reform.
Diet of Worms
Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical.
Isabella d'Este
was marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance and a major cultural and political figure.
hindered unification of states
messages- slow to be received and language barriers became even more time consuming to overcome Small governments - unlikely to relinquish power Assemblies - defended the rights of different classes
Frederick the Wise of Saxony
protects martin luther from H.R.I authorities
Petition of Rights
- Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent
Political Theory of the Enlightenment?
John Locke and Rousseau believed that people were capable of governing themselves, but democracy wasn't particularly popular among philosphes.
War of the Three Henrys
A civil conflict amont factions led by the Catholic Henry of Guise, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and the King Henry III.
purportedly
reputed or claimed
Raphael
artist during high renaissance
misogyny
misunderstanding of women. Witch hunting reflects this.
formal regard with disgust and hatred
abhorred
physiology
the study of the physical state
Patronage
wealthy families like the Medicis commissioned art and housed artists
baccaccio
1313-1275 wrote decameron which tells about ambitious merchant portrays a sensual and society
the action of attacking or assertively rejecting cherished beliefs and institutions
iconoclasm
metaphysics
the philosophy of existince on a spiritual scale
indulgences
selling of these was common practice by the catholic church corruption that led to reformation
Tycho Brahe
Built one of the earliest observatories and kept super awesome celestial observations. Also a fun fact that you don't have to know, but Tycho here died of a burst bladder. He was at a party and needed to relieve him self, but since there wasn't a bathroom the only option was to pee in a corner. But Tycho wouldn't hear of it, so he died.
Romanticism
A reaction against the rigid classism, rationalism and deism of the 18th century. It was different for everyone. Appealed to emotion rather than reason.
Humanism
brought about by the revival of ancient Greek and Roman literary scholars like Homer, Plato and Aristotle and a collective moving away from the teachings of the Church
Edward VI
Henry VIII's Protestant son and successor who saw the continuation of the growth of the Church of England.
boyars
id- highest ranking nobles in russia sig- moscow inherited the tradition of ruling in cooperation with the nobility
jacob fugger
headed leading and banking and trading house in 16th century europe
nominalism
humans could not reason their way to truth with the use of logic or basic accepted "universals."
Thomas Cromwell
chief minister to Henry VIII, -- played an enormous role in reorganizing the English government after the monetary gain of the funds of the Catholic Church, formed branches of government, expanded Privy Council
resilience
ability to return to original state or recover
Metternich
Represented Austria at the CoV, and he was kinda a big deal. He was big on conservative reactionism. Didn't like chance.
Renaissance
a "rebirth" of an emphasis on humanity and further discussion of the classical world between 1350 and 1550
English Reformation
King Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church.
United Provinces
The seven provinces united in 1579 that formed the basis of the republic of the Netherlands
"Sun King"
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
Great Schism
Italian Pope Urban VI elected to end Babylonian Captivity, Avignon popes went on to re-elect another pope, this time the French Clement VII- left unresolved
Hundred Days
When Napoleon left Elba, his place of exhile, to seize control from Louis XVIII, who had replaced him. Butt, he was defeated at Waterloo so it was kinda lame.
Anne of Cleves
never saw her before they married, turned out she was ugly got annuled after a week.
States General
assembly of the estates of an entire country
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
King Louis XVI
He was very bad financially and got France into really bad debt because of 1) wars with England, 2) American Revolution, and 3) Versailles. SUmmoned the Assembly of Notables in hopes that they would raise taxes and have them (the nobles) pay taxes. HAHA yeah right.
The Golden Bull
A decree by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV that granted sovereignty to seven German electors, and divided Germany between them.
importance of gun powder
first seen in the Hundred Years war, then again at the fall of Constantinople, more effective way to wage war
Second Treatise of Civil Government
Written by John Locke to legitimise the illigitimate Glorious Revolution
John Calvin and the Institutes of Christian Religion
was a priest - "sudden conversion" - new religion which demanded reform - revised and expanded it in his entire life
artist
zubaran
bohemian phase
AC
Pudding Furnace
Henry Cort
Franz Joseph
New Austrian Emperor
Impositions
mandatory tax on luxuries
Nascent
beginning to exist or develop
Totalitarianism
Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interest of the state.
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
Cult of Celebrity
Uprise of Entertainment
Diem
leader of South Vietnam, 1954-1963; supported by United States, but not by Vietnamese Buddhist majority; assassinated in 1963
Anabaptists
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
Motives of European colonization
Gold God Glory
Rousseau
This man's work was extremely influential for the Romantic Movement
Margaret Cavendish
Social Standing gave her privilege
Quarrled with Descartes and Hobes
Said Royal Society of England played with toys
Wrote "Observation on Experimental Philospohy"
Wrote "Grounds of Natural Philospohy"
Wrote "Description of the new world, the blazing world."
Only woman in Royal Society
Second International
lasted from 1889-1914-formed by socialist leaders- a federation of national socialist parties-great psychological impact-delegates met to interpret Marxian doctrines and plan coordinated action. In france
Vespucci
The italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him
Giuseppe Mazzini
(1805-1872) an Italian liberal nationalist. Wanted democratic revolution against Austrian overlords. Became head of the Republic of Rome in 1849 when Pope Pius IX fled Rome. Mazzini was supported by Garibaldi and the red shirts until the French troops restored the pope. Resistance to troops (including Austrian Hapsburgs) failed because Italian nations didn't work in unity.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization. Father of Humanism.
Kronstadt Revolt
Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
calvinist
this worship is simple, black, simple hymns, no chanting, no bells
John Wesley
started Protestant revival in England and traveled 225,000 mile on horseback preaching
Henry VII
(1485-1509) Founded the Tudor dynasty. Extended the authority of the crown and restored order with extraordinary speed. Made the Royal Council a more active and influential body.
Glorious Revolution
William of Orange (renamed William III) invaded England at the request of its citizens. He overthrew James II and Catholicism along with him., In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
National INsurance Act
Liberal Party-welfare system of sickness, accident, old-age, and unemployment insurance.
peace of westphalia
end of 30 yr wr
political nationalism
A sovereign state representing a people—Those speaking the same language, sharing traditions and customs
high middle ages
1000-1350
revival of long-dist trade, creation of feudalism and manorism, construction of castles and cathedrals, institution of crusades. cut short by black death
Jesuits
The "militant arm" of the Catholic Church that carried Christianity to remote parts of Spain while also operating schools and advising monarchs.
Trafalger
Napoleon failed to defeat the British navy in this battle.
restalinization
Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.
Lorenzo Medici
great ruler of florence (cultural expansion under him)
Dante Alighieri
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
Schuman Plan
An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community
Yeltsin
First person ever elected by popular vote in Russia; drafted a new constitution similar to France's which established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system anchored in a powerful presidency
46. I was a famous surrealist painter with a long mustache
Dali
Bartholomew Diaz (1487-1488)
Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa in 1488.
Bourgeoisie
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Winston Churchill
1874 to 1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
95 theses (1517)
formal statements written by Martin Luther attacking the "pardon-merchants". On October 31, 1517 Luther posted these statements on the door of a castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate them. This began the Reformation.
medieval architecture
churches = grand buildings - gothic (tall) - pointed arches - flying butresses
Pablo Picasso
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
October Manifesto
granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma with real legislative power
Young Turks
Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform
Provisional Government
This replaced Czar Nicholas II after he abdicated his throne. It was headed by the liberal democrat Prince George Lvov and later by the
moderate Socialist Alexander Kerensky.
Jacques-René Hébert
Created a far left political party which wanted the proscription of the Girondins, and hoped to drive forwards Economic reforms. This party was strongest in section clubs and Commune
Treaty of Utrecht determines winner of War of Spanish Succession was...
no one
Rump Parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
1519
year that Charles V became holy Roman Emperor
Wealth of Nations
This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
Josef Stalin
was general secretary of the Communist party, became the leader and dictator of Russia after Lenin's death. He brought Russia out of recession and made Russia the second leading industrial superpower during the Second World War Followed Lenin, pragmatist, socialism in one country, forced rapid industrialization, Great Purges, collectivization. 1927-1953
Who were the bourgeoisis?
The prosperous educated middle class
charles v
this holy roman emperor also king of spain and the spanish controlled areas who was enemies with francis I of france
V. de Gama
This man sailed from Portugal around Africa to India.
Lajos Kossuth
Leader of the Radical party in the Hungarian diet. Inspired revolution in Vienna with his impassion speech on the virtues of liberty (March 3, 1848.) Kossuth's national party in Hungary enacted the March Laws (Mar. 15, 1848,) which constitutionally separated Hungary from the rest of the empire , while still recognizing the Hapsburg house.
francis ii
Eldest son of Henry II, husband of Mary Queen of Scots. Huguenots tried to kidnap him in the Conspiracy of Amboise.
Ems Telegram
A telegram which the French gave to the Germans in anger over the Succession of the Throne in Spain, but the Germans altered it to look like the French were rude and evil. The French declared war.
Philology
The art of language, or study of words and their origins and meanings, which was a main focus of humanists, or a"humanity". Lorenzo Valla used this to prove that the Donation of Constantine was, in fact, a much more recent forgery and a papal lie.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
New type of warfare (British ships destroyed with out warning.
other name for 7 years war
french and indian war
Social Darwinists
esp. popular in Upper Class, should be no welfare, let poor die out, survival of the fittest, more progress should come (all of their beliefs)
*modern immigration laws are based on the belief, and shows class conciousness
Henry VIII
This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
Brethren of the Common Life
pious laypeople in 16th century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living
Edict Of Nantes
wrote by Henry IV. published in 1598, and granted the huguenots the liberty and conscience of public worship in 150 fortified towns, while still keeping Catholicism as the official religion of France.
Sir Robert Peel
He was the person who was responsible for repealing the Corn Law
james i
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
Time of troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
The Glorious Revolution
In order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Nederlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered).
Prince Henry the Navigator
This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
First Revolution National Assembly (1789-1792)
Consisted of Jacobins, and later, Montagnards and sans-cullottes. Drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in 1798, ended remnants of feudalism in France. Divided France into 83 departments and wrote and enacted the Constitution of 1791, giving the power of the nation to the Legislative Assembly. Issued assignats, used as currency, and abolished guilds and compagnonnages with the Le Chapelier Law of 1791. Instituted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790.
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
The "Big Four"
The big 4 were US, Britain, France and Italy
Who was hurt the most by inflation?
middle class people...especially those on fixed incomes like retirees and professional people
WWI - Long or Short Term Causes: Alliances
1. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Bismark was the leader, keeping peace, as well as keeping France isolated. Austria-Hungary has a conflict with Russia over the Balkans because they both want to take over the Balkan area. Italy wants Tunisia because in 1881, France had taken Tunisia. Italy was made so it formed an alliance with Germany and A-H. However, Italy eventually leaves because of animosity with A-H. The Central powers of the Triple Alliance were Germany, A-H, Ottomans, and Bulgaria
2. Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain. France wants Alsace-Lorraine back from 1871 during the Franco-Prussian war so it seeks allies. Russia wants the Balkan Peninsula and is against Germany, not friends. Great Britain was threatened by Germany in terms of building up its military. The fact that France and GB are in an alliance together is weird because they had clashed over land in Africa, but then with the Morccan Crisis, Germany became isolated as Bismark brings France and GB together (they share their hatred towards Germany).
With an alliance, one is more likely to fight (think students and unfair test qu's/answers).
Italy and the U.S. will join the Triple Entente later.
David Ricardo, "iron law of wages"
because of the pressure of population growth wages would always shrink to subsistence level
When the assembly of notables stated that the Estates General must be called, how did Louis XVI react
Louis XVI disissed the notables and established new taxes. This upset the judges of the Parleent of Paris which prompted them to say the king was null-the king tried to exile the judges which caused protest in Paris
They believed that the best govt. is a strong leader elected by people uncorrupted by special interests, for example parliaments and parties.
What did the French people think the best type of govt/leader was?
animosity
hatred
Junkers
Prussian Nobility
pugachev's rebellion
with nobles
Jethro Toll
invented seed drill
Friedrich Engels
(1820-1895)Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (l867).
Orleans
City chanes(French)besieged to gain access to the valley of Loire
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Affront
a personally offensive act or word
Fronde
cause: attemped to increase royal revenue.
description:ppl refused to pay taxes»»»decreased gov't financial
nobles unhappy and lead rebellions
results:traumatic effect on Louis XIV»»»lead to his distrust of the nobles.
takes yrs for the french economy to rebuild.
gov't had to compromise w/ bureacrats and social elites that controlled local institutions and constituted state bureacracies.
__________ and guns allowed Europeans to dominate the globe.
Ships
Northern Humanism
This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions
Cosmology
the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe
Westernizers
Citizens in colonized countries who wanted their country to become more modernized
Nepotism
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church.
Revisionism
The advocacy among nineteenth century GErman socialist of achieving a humane socialist society through the evolution of democratic institutions, not revolution
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
Utopian Socialism
Ideal society based on socialist ideals-Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier
Yuri Andropov
Brezhnev's successor, long time chief of secret police, tried to invigorate the communist system.
Velvet revolution
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989.
redesigner of building after great fire of london
christopher wren
fundamentals of the home
By Luis De Leon
Chartist Movement
British workers also engaged in political activity to defend their interests. After the collapse of Robert Owen's Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, many people went into the Chartist movement, which sought political democracy. Their key demand was male suffrage. Also, they wanted to limit the factory workdays to 10 hours and to permit duty-free importation of wheat into Great Britain to secure cheap bread.
Cabral
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
Enclosure movement
18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Continental System
Napoleon ordered all countries to boycott British goods, however, this actually tripled Britan's trade and helped their economy.
Bela Kun
Communist leader who established the short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic. Dissolved by Romanian troops.
Carl Linnaeus
System Nature- developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
Rabelais Gargantua
Rabelais studied Ancient Greek, and used this as he invented hundreds of new words, some of which became part of the French language.
Volksgeist
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.
Thomas Becket
What saint do the pilgrims in Canturbury Tales go to venerate?
Cold War
the long period of extreme tension between the US and the USSR that never actually materialized into confronational conflict
Slave Trade
Dramatic growth in the Atlantic trade was due in large part to the use of slave labor
Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill
Who were the 'big three'?
older women
this group was the most frequeent victims of the witchcraft persecutions
Partition of Poland
division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe
Douglas Haig
was a British soldier and senior commander (field marshal) during World War I. He commanded the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915 to the end of the War. Most notably he was commander during the Battle of the Somme, the 3rd Battle of Ypres and the series of victories leading to the German surrender in 1918.
auburn system
Prison reform in 1790, based on concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform; actually led to many mental breakdowns; Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day
new monarchs
pertaining to Louis XI, Henry VII, Ferdinand and Isabella; term is partially true but ruled with authority and national purpose; Monarchy was a link for all classes; believed in sovereignty and giving loyalty/respect for all subjects
Decembrist Revolt
The rebellion of the military leaders of the Northern Union against the accession of Nicholas I to the Russian throne.
Rhineland remilitarization
when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing
Pieds Noirs
immigrant who were called "black feet" in French
Popular Front
A New Deal-inspired party in France led by Leon Blum that encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek.
Summarize Lorenzo Valla
Revealed mistranslations of the Bible and the fraud of the _Donation of Constantine_
peace of paris
1783 war overseas --> major victory for britian = dominant naval power so they kicked out the french from N America (they get everything E of Mississippi river)
Joseph Joffre
French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.
Stream-of-consciousness technique
Most notably used by James Joyce in Ulysses, also by Virginia Woolf and William Faulkner. Writing had internal monologues, unconventional grammar, blending of foreign puns, knowledge, and memory.
Girondists
One of the two halves of the divided National Convention.
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Pacification of Ghent
alliance signed on NOvember 8th, 1576 by the provinces of the Hapsburg, Netherlands. declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion, permitting political cooperation among the signatories.
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession. [Absolutism]
weak kings
Henry III is best described as a. Nobles always tried to get more power from king.
German Empire
The new Japan was like the ___________ __________ in that it adopted an authoritarian constitution and rejected democracy.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots
Louis Pasteur
This was the man who began studying fermentation to develop a way to avoid spoilage through pasteurization by heating the beverage
American Bill of Rights
When the results of the secret deliberations of the Constitutional Convention were presented to the states for ratification, a great public debate arose. The opponents of the proposed constitution, the Antifederalists, charged that the framers of the new document had taken too much power from the individual states and made the federal government too strong. Moreover, many Antifederalists feared for the personal liberties and individual freedoms for which they had just fought. In order to overcome these objections, the Federalists solemnly promised to spell out these basic freedoms as soon as the new constitution was adopted. The result was the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which the first congress passes shortly after it met in New York in March 1789. These amendments formed an effective bill of rights to safeguard the individual. Most of them were trial by jury, due process of law, right to assemble, freedom from unreasonable search, had their origins in English law and the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Others, the freedoms of speech, the press, and religion, reflected the natural law theory and the American experience. The American constitution and the Bill of Rights exemplified the great strengths and the limits of what came to be called "classical liberalism." Liberty meant individual freedom and political safeguards. Liberty also meant representative government but did not necessarily mean democracy, with its principle of one person, one vote. (696)
Petition of Right (1628)
restated English freedoms such as the freedom from arrest and imprisonment without cause, or habeas corpus, non parliamentary taxation and the confiscation of property. It was mainly focused on securing rights for parliament
Treaty of Rome
..., Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market).
moral economy
A vision of the world in which a community needs predominate over competition and profit.
- thinks France is too paranoid
- needs Germany for economic growth
- thought that Germany was so far down that they could not hurt them
Post WWI, England outlook
"socialism in one country"
Stalin's theory that it was possible to have Communism in one country instead of a full-scale worldwide Marxian revolution
Catherine de Medicis
wife of Henry II, regent for future Valois kings
Reform Bill of 1832
This law was passed to give suffrage to middle class men, in order to prevent a civil war. It gave more power to those who had succeeded in the Industrial Revolution, but it did little to help the lower classes.
Berlin Conference of 1884-5
This event happened to set laws for colonization and claiming land in Africa
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isablella of Casille were the monarchs who united Spain in 1469 when they married. Responsible for the success of the reconquista in 1492.
Miasma Theory / Germ Theory
These were the theories of the spread of disease. The miasma theory said that disease was spread by a bad odor. The new germ theory developed by Louis Pasteur said that diseases were spread by bacteria called germs
11. Universal manhood suffrage -
was given for the first time and elected in April the Constituent Assembly which replaced the Provisional Government.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Restricted the monarchy and allowed all citizens to take part in the legislative process.
What kind of jobs did artists work on? Were the public? Comissioned?
artists only worked on commission because if they did public work it would lower their status. an artists reputaion depended on who their patrons were
What is one way that Louis XI beefed up France's security after the 100 years war?
He created a royal army which he taxed on his own will.
Greece
Athens
Bacon
inductive reasoning
1618-1648
Thirty years war
Mussolini
led Italian fascist movement
Realpolitik
Power hungry, no morals
city w/ lots of trade
Venice
Sudetenland
(September 1938) German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler- Chamberlain Munich meeting
whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (Tabula Rasa)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Fascism
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (frequently used to describe a number of right wing dictatorships that arose in Euro b/w the wars)
Jews who __________ to Christianity gained political and social rights.
converted
Jethro Tull
English innovator, better farming methods through empirical research. Using horses instead of oxen, sowing seed w/ drilling equipment instead of by hand.
Guillotine
Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Blitzkrieg
"lightning war"; Hitler's fast and efficient German attack using tanks and fighter-bombers
Mercantilism
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws
Bougeoisie
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
eastern
families that live together and marry early and live together and have closer families
Old Regime
Absolute monarchy, estates general, no suffrage
Cahiers Written, National assembly estate/tennis court oath, Storming of the Bastille
Cubism
Style developed by Pablo Picasso that used geometric designs as visual stimuli to re-create reality in the viewer's mind.
Kingdom of Naples
dominant state in southern Italy
Estate system
system that determined a person's liberties and obligations and duties
T.E. Lawrence
"Lawerence of Arabia"= Muslim Ruler and Type of Pope
Coluccio Salutati
Chancellor of Florence in 1375. Humanist. Also served Florence by pen.
1968
Cold War. Prague Spring, ussr grows into other counrties, beginning of 5th republic in spain. With paris revolts beginning it. Space race begins
Christine de Pizan
Renaissance author, noblewomen, wrote a book to the wives of artisans
Brandenburg- Prussia
Movement into powerful state largely work of Hohenzollern dynasty.
Triple Entente
1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Racine
Writer who analyzed the power of love
bureaucracy
A network of stat officials carrying out orders according to a regular and routine line of authority.
baroque
sensuous and dynamic style of art of Counter Reformation
Austrian Anschluss
The forceful union of Austria into Germany
church attendance
Declined in Europe among the working classes in the late nineteenth century. Probably because of increasingly secular lifestyles and the fact that churches failed to keep up with the rapid growth of urban population. They were also seen as very conservative, making them less appealing to liberal-minded working classes.
Otto von Bismark
German chancellor who is responsible for the unification of the German confederation into the German State; developed system of alliances throughout Europe
The Little Entente
The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
francisco goya
Spanish painter well known for his portraits and for his satires (1746-1828)
Wassily Kandinski
Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
John Knox
dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Checks and Balances
montesque is associated with this system
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General- broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Battle of Britain
the aerial conflict between British and German air forces in the skies over the United Kingdom in the summer and autumn of 1940. It was one of the most important moments in Britain's twentieth century history and a decisive turning point of the Second World War.
League of Nations
The association of sovereign states set up after WWI to pursue common policies and avert international aggression.
Petrograd Soviet
-a major gov. that forms after February Rev.-part of dual gov.
-although not acknowleged as true gov. by Allies they actually get stuff done
-create communication networks
-made up of Socialist revolutionaries, Mensheviks, then eventually dominated by Bolsheviks
-"peace, bread, land" -its motto that appealled to many
Peace at Augsburg
Kings can decide which religion they want for their kingdom
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Union of Utrecht (1579)
Northern provinces then responded by forming this union. (above)
Battle of the Somme
Failed allied offensive that resulted in a lot of loss of life
Illegitimacy explosion
Between 1750 and 1850, 1/3 of all children were born out of wedlock, a result of premarital sexual activity and romantic ideals for the young. This eventually led to more marriages (although a similar level of sexual activity) amongst youth in the second half of the 1800s.
Surplus Value
This is the value of the unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist for profit
Theologian John Wyclif argued that
scripture alone should determine church belief and practice
Ausgleich (Compromise of 1867)
"compromise" - the agreement between the Habsburg Emperor and the Hungarians to give Hungary considerable administrative autonomy in 1867. It created the Dual-Monarchy of Austria-Hungary with Francis Joseph as king; introduced political loyalty based on nationality
The Presbyterians
Wanted a state church but would not allow dissent
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict.
New Astronomy or Celestial Physics
Johannes Kepler formulated the three earth laws of motion. He demonstrated that the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather than circular. Planets do not move at uniform speed. (p.597)
The Pacification of Ghent (1576)
The Pacification of Ghent effectively gave the Netherlands the ability to govern themselves. Some provinces soon became independent of Spain completely.
peaceful coexistence
US and Soviets do not have to agree, but do not have to fight over ideology
Joan of Arc
a young peasant girl who heard voices from saints to lead the french army to save france
Phillip II
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Responses to Imperialism: Traditionalist v. Modernist
Some people thought that we should accept and learn from the people who were taking over our land, these being the modernists; and other thought that we should completely try to get rid of them, these people being the traditionalists
illegitamacy explosion
the result of a break down of late marriages and a few births out of wedlock that began occuring in the second half of the eighteenth century
Labor party: against Conservatives
After election of 1922 in GB, what replaced the Liberal Party?
institutes of the christian religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
Tennis Court Oath
The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 out of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on June 20, 1789 in a tennis court.
seen as the beginning of the French Revolution
Africa (see map pp 860) partitioning after 1880; Asia (see pp 864) in 1914
Important areas of colonization by country
single currency and central bank for the european union
major goals of the maastricht treaty
Whose side did the Nazi's support in the Spanish Civil War?
1. Franco and the fascists were supported by Germany and Italy
Why war was seen as a good thing in 1914
War was seen as a good thing because it would cover up all of the problems that every country involved had going on at home
Milan
Italy
Anglo-Dutch Wars
1652-1674
Cathering von Bora
...
Montesquieu
Spirit of the Laws
Paul Gaugin
a post-Impressionist artist (1848-1903), Gaugin, who was susceptible to depression, thought that European art lacked deep symbolism, and he was therefore drawn to the art forms in different lands such as South America, Japan, and Africa. Some of his paintings include "Where Do We Come From?" and "The Yellow Christ."
Copernicus
Heliocentric model of the universe
to the lighthouse
Virginia Woolf wrote
Hernan Cortes
takes over the myan empire
Garibaldi
(Roman Republic of 1849) led insurrections
Toleration
Religious toleration is when a government or a people tolerate the presence of two or more different religious beliefs. This was not much of an option in sixteenth-century Europe because all they knew was having one monarch with one faith ruling over them.
Lebensraum
living space. Germans should expand east and remove the jews
Ruhr Valley
The originally German controlled coal-rich valley, later France-occupied, leading miners to go on strike, resulting in the German government in printing additional money to pay the miners, leading to inflation.
Imperialism
the process of establishing colonies on other continents
Decembrists' Revolt
Opposition to Alexander. Young aristocrats who served in Napoleonic wars. Favored the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom.
Galileo
has evidence to support Copernicus; builds a new telescope to give visual evidence that the moon was similar to the earth and not perfect; persecuted by the church and the Inquisition force him to recant his ideas
Appeasement
The idea that Britain could pacify Germany and make sure there was no war at any cost.
J. M. W. Turner
Painted Rain, Steam, Speed.
Calvinism
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
Desiderius Erasmus
The most famous northern humanist. Famous as an educational and religious reformer.
People who would sell their ideas, often improbable, to the highest bidder were known as __________.
projectors
Georges Danton
the newly appointed minister of justice who led the Paris Commune in revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will
-Mazzini
known as "the spirit" of Italian Unification, Mazzini was one of the first Italian nationalists, tried "young italy" (propoganda) which eventually failed
Vasari
(1511-1574) a leading portégé of the Medici, this architect and painter designed, built, and decorated the Uffizi. Wrote about History of Art and how certain artists were geniuses above other people. The status artist achieved was richly deserved
Albert Einstein
physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
European Economic Community
This international organization was created to bring about economic integration. The six original members of the group were Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. It was created by the Treaty of Rome. The hope of this organization was that countries would become so economically dependent on each other they would be unable to enter another war like World War II.
Beccaria
-promoted equality of law
-crime to be measured by how much it harms society
-criticizes torture of criminals
-assumes people are tabula rasa-can be prevented from crime with proper education
-torture-stupid-innocent could only lose and guilty could only gain
-opposed making sins into crimes
-tried to bring reason into law enforcement
-due process of law
3 Features of Agricultural Revolution
Enclosure
Mechanization
Three-field crop rotation
Albert Speer
an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called "the first architect of the Third Reich"; had a close personal relationship with Hitler.
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
condotierre
leaders of private armies hired to defend the city-states
condotierre
rent-an-army
Paris Reconstruction
This was planned by Georges Haussmann, who was assigned by Napoleon III, to provide employment, improved living conditions, and to show the glory of the French empire
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
conservatism
Built on the ideas of Edmund Burke, this ism upheld institutions of absolute monarchy, aristocracy, and the church. Conservatism stood in opposition to the constitutional and representative governments supported by liberals. It appealed most to those for whom the past was favorable to. Conservation of tradition and the status quo.
Hapsburgs
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
social market economy
encouragment of private industry and capitalism, broad social services
-Nietzsche
some philosophers of the time began to look beyond reason. They stated that humanity was essentially irrational, attacked everything about his society: equality, democracy, nationalism, militarism, etc. and felt that society's only hope lay in being led by a few ubermench (supermen).
Charles V.
Inherits a huge conglemorate of land and ends up taking Spanish lands, New World possesions, and Itlaian cities, Sicily, and Sardinia along with the Habsburgs lands. His Italian Advisors, Grand Chancellor Gattinara said he was on a mission by God to a world monarchy and he believed in this. Charles saw his international intersts before the need for reform in Germany by refusing to give up power in attempts of reforming the judiciary, army, and executive power. In 1521 he called for the Diet of Worms for Luther to recant as he was a huge defendor of catholicism. Because of this and the steady flow of protestantism throughout the land man religous issues and economic issues comibined into religous wars across Germany making the protestant movement a political disaster for Germany. Also the disentegration of imperial power in Germany can be linked to his lack of care for consituional problmes, preocupations with foreign territory, and lack of resources to oppose Protestantsism. Also, turkish threats from the Ottomon empire kept him from effectivley acting against proestants as his brother Ferdinand needed Portestant support against the Turks in Vienna. From 1521-55 5 times Charles went to war with the Valois king of France over the Habsurbs issues mostly fightihnn in Germany as the french tried to keep the german states divided.
1527 Charles sacks Rome after Clement VII supports Francis I from France in the disuputes over Italy after the French saw a huge defeat in the Battle of Pavia (1525). Charles then sacked Rome and the Pope ending the HIGH RENAISSANCE after the papacy stopped supporting the Germans.
1555 Charles agrees to Peace of Augsburg.
Dutch Reformed Church
United Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
Balance of Power
A type of political strategy implemented by William of Orange when Louis XIV attempted to invade the Dutch. His attempt was blocked by an alliance of the Dutch with other nations. Metternich also praticed this strategy at the Congress of Vienna.
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Edward III
King of England from 1327-1377, his claim to the French throne provoked the Hundred Years' War; his reign was marked by an epidemic of the Black Plague and by the emergence of the Commons as the powerful arm of Parliament (1312-1377)
constitutional democratic party
wanted constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary regime with civil liberties and economic progress
William Gladstone
Liberal Party, Prime Minister; by 1880 extend vote to farm workers, most other males
papal infallibility
doctrine that the pope in infallible when pronouncing officially in his capacity as head of the church on matters of faith & morals, enumerated by the First Vatican Council in 1870
Puritan Revolution
A reference to the English civil war (1642 to 1646), waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or in Parliament
Social Darwinism
The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success
Decline of Ottoman Empire
They fell behind in industrialization, in education, and in general compared to the west
seven years war
austria and france vs. prussia and brittain -
Russian (March) Revolution/ Provisional Government
The revolution of the unplanned overthrowing of the Tsarist government, and the government that followed the revolution.
Ludwig Van Beethoven
The first romantic composer best known for his symphony .His work required more larger and varied orchestra.
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
95 Theses
95 things ML found wrong with Church, wrote them then asked bishop to explai who never did, recited to public on All Saints Day and recorded and printed by others, only to be distributed to all of Europe.
invisible hand
a term coined by Adam Smith to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace; refers to free competition guiding all markets (supply and demand)
Nicolo Machiavelli
Who would of said "The ends justify the means."
Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty in which Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia.
A People's Charter
Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections-6 main points
frederick I
from whom did the notion in the 18th century that a sovereign is the first servant of the people come
Hus
A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
Identify what was restored by seating Charles II on the throne of England.
Anglican church and parliament
Conditions of IR Cities
There was filth everywhere and crowded spaces. Nothing was sanitary, there was a lack of public transportation, and slow government reaction
first estate
the first of the three estates of the realm
International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa
In 1876 Leopold formed the African International Association and financed an expedition by explorer Henry Morton Stanley to the Congo (1879-84). At a European conference in 1885 Leopold was named sovereign over the Congo Free State (later renamed Zaire and now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo). He then used slave labor and torture to extract raw materials (mostly rubber) and build his personal fortune. By 1908 criticism of his rule forced his withdrawal as sovereign and the region was annexed to Belgium. (873)
The Modernization of Russia
Russia was backwards as 90% of the population still lived out on the land, the open field system was still used, and serfs had yet to be freed. They reluctantly began to modernize, starting with Alexander II freeing the serfs. They began industrializing and built miles and miles of railroad. There was a halt in progress politically when Alexander II was assassinated.
Nobility of the sword
- the old fashioned nobility who gain their power by fighting for land. There was constant conflict between them and nobility of the robe.
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
The Popular front was also what? What were its beliefs, who was involved?
French Radical Socialists, Socialists, and Communists came together in a coalition called the Popular Front. It campaigned on a pledge to defend the republic against fascism, to take measures against the depression, and to introduce labor reforms. Their leader was Léon Blum. (However the communists did not join the cabinet, but pledged their support).
Explain how Louis XIV positioned himself to further his interest with foreign parties.
Marries sister of Charles II and is friendly with English royalists and Netherlandic republicans
- Belgians were neutral and were brutally attacked
How did the invasion of Belgium factor into American joining into WWI?
whetted
sharpened
principia
rene descartes
Botticelli
1444-1510 Florence Painter
machiavelli
"prince" about political science
bolsheviks
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Punk
Rebellious movement against set standards and philosophies.
Kellogg-Briand
Anti war pact in 1928
bohemian
1st phase of 30 years war
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
hhh
U.S. Maps on page 860, 864
Stalin
Wanted a strong, communist Russia. Used Terror, secret police, initiated many 5 year plans.
Assignats
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral- the fest french paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Maria Theresa
This Austrian queen consolidated central authority, created trade unions, created salaried government employees, put limitations on guilds, reduced serf obligations, and expelled jesuits.
constanstinople and rome
Two capitals of christianity:
Gabelle
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
Great Famine
1315-1322; scarcity and starvation in northern Europe; nutritional deficiency led to higher susceptibility to disease, lower agricultural productivity (higher prices), and major population decline
Colbert (1619-1683)
The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies
syndicalism
the idea founded by the French philosopher Sorel, in which the working class would be able to overthrow capitalism through combined movements in the form of labor unions. These labor unions in a syndicalist society would run the industry and government.
Yalta Conference
Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in eastern Europe
richard arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
Raphael Sanzio
A Renaissance artist who painted religious topics, including the Madonna and Child
Hitler's Rise
Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
Land and Liberty
biggest populist group in Russia
Manorial System
economic system during the Middle-Ages that revolved around self- sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land
Stalingrad
Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
Francesco Petrarch
(1304-1374) "father of humanism"; made up phrase "Dark Ages" (400-900) to denote what he thought was the cultural decline that took place following the collapse of the Roman world in the fifth century
party system
a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country; political parties have basic similarities: they control the government, have a stable base of mass popular support, and create internal mechanisms for controlling funding, information and nominations
V. I. Lenin
Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
Tonnage
taxes paid by a shipping company based on the total tonnage of its ships
ethiopia
italy expands by taking it over. Last unclaimed African place. Italy had the most tech advanced air force. Artistic depictions. Other countries upset. League of nations stepped in.
Henri Bergson
A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
Consolidate
to bring together into a single or unified whole
Methodism
This movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
Jacques-Louis David
Neoclassic artist who painted "Oath of the Horatii", emphasizing loyalty to the state and the eve of Revolution; later a member of the National Assembly
Fredrick William I
Prussian king; strove to maintain highly efficent beaucracy of civil workers; by end of riegn in 1740, doubled army's size, made it 1 of the best armies in Europe
Dutch East India Co
-Dutch Indian spice company
-joint stock company
-if it took territory, it could have political soveignty
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Montaigne
A skeptic and inventor of the essay living in France who stated that he knew nothing decades before Descartes wrote "Cogito ergo sum."
Decolonization
this was the period after WWII in which the great rush for colonies had screeched to a halt and everyone gave up their colonies.
Morocco Crisis, 1911
After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
40. I was a Hungarian nationalist in the 1848 revolution
Louis Kossuth
French educational reforms
The Dreyfus affair lead to the separation of church and state, and lead to more people in government backed schools that were no longer catholic schools but republican schools.
Reichstag Fire
this building was set on fire. Hitler blamed the communists. started the anti-communist belief. Nazis set out to kill all communists
Milan Decree
Issued by Napoleon in 1807 to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806, which initiated the Continental System. Stated that no European country was to trade with the United Kingdom. Authorized French warships and privateers to capture neutral ships sailing from any British part or from any country that was occupied by British forces.
Trade Unionism
the system or principles and theory of labor unions
Thomas More
the author of Utopia and a Christian humanist who challenged monarchy but was a strict Christian; was the lord chancellor under Henry VIII
Michel D' Montaigne
extreme french skeptic; "Que sais je? Rien" (What do i know? Nothing)
Decembrist Uprising, 1825
political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms, first upper-class revolt against Russia's autocratic system of gov
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Second French Republic
After the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d'etat.
Frederick of Saxony
Hid and protected Luther after the Diet of Worms. Was very religious and gathered thousands of relics. Was a supporter of reformation
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
raison d'etat
The law that allowed for any action to be justified by "doing it for the state"
peace of augsburg
end of war in germany - christianity and lutherism were equal
Social Democratic Labor party
1898 founded by Marxists in Russia. Lenin was a part of this. different view then the Rssian Social Democratic Party.
Dutch East Indian Company
a trading company established in 1602 under government sponsorship, set up a settlement in southern Asia at the cape of good hope, which was meant to serve as a base to provide food and other provisions to Dutch ships enroute to the Spice Islands
The National government headed by Labour Party leader Ramsay MacDonald (1931-1935) coped with the depression by
retrenchment lines and budget balancing; also by encouraging industry to reorganize and rationalize production by providing low-interest loans. The government concentrated on economic nationalist measures rather than on fundamental changes in the capitalist system.
War of the Spanish Succession
war that lasted from 1701-1713; In 1700, childless Spanish king Charles II (r. 1665-1700) died, opening a struggle for control of Spain and its colonies. His will bequeathed the Spanish crown to Phillip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson. This testament violated a prior treaty by which the European powers had agreed to divide the Spanish possessions between the king of France and the Holy Roman emperor, both brothers-in-law of Charles II. Claiming that he was following both Spanish national and French dynastic interests, Louis broke the treaty and accepted the will. In response to this, in 1701, the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians formed a grand alliance against Louis XIV. The allied powers united to prevent France from becoming too strong in Europe and to check France's expanding commercial power in North America.
Test Act of 1673
This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
Louis XV. Duke of Orleans - economics
financial management by John Law
paper currency to stimulate economic recovery
currency based on joint-stock company (the Mississippi Bubble)
downturn. (the Bubble burst). ripples in other nations (britains South Sea Bubble in India)
What were some of Martin Luther's worst fears?
Martin Luther feared the omnipotence of God, his own "littleness", the devil, and the belief that he was damned. The sacraments, prayers, and masses weren't helping to alleviate these fears!
First & Second Treatises of Govt. (1690)
Written by Locke, the first was attacking patriarchalism and the second outlines a theory of political or civil society based on natural rights.
What happened to the city of La Rochelle in 1628?
La Rochelle was the fourth largest French Atlantic ports that had ties with northern Protestants from Holland and England-so Louis XIII seized and cut off English aid and the city fell in 1628
Signoria
elected council of Florence to propose laws and manage foreign affairs
Signoria
council
codicil
any supplement
Conciliarism
council in church
Newton publishes Principia Mathematica
1687
Why was Peter, "the Great"?
...
Helsinki accords
ratify European territorial boundaries, moniter human rights in signing countries
Charles II o-o or O-O
1660-1685
inordinate
not within proper or reasonable limits
Mercenaries
original free lances, replaced feudal levies in armies, received modest pay, given rations, pillaged towns they conquered, deserted less frequently than soldiers.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions; this was the foundation of the scientific method
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Liberalism
Political philosophy that in the 19th centure advocated representative government dominated by the properited classes, minimal government interference in the econmy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Newton
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Krupp
A prominent German family famous for their steel and weapon production. In World War I, they produced most of the artillery for the German Imperial Army.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
amsterdam
an industrial center and the nominal capital of the Netherlands
Counter-Reformation
Period of Catholic revival in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Francesco Sforza
1401-1466, illegitimate son of Mazio Sforza and duke of Milan, succeeding father as leader of band of mercenaries and becoming one of most powerful confottieri of time, Medici supported him when he became duke and seized Genoa, beautified Milan.
Thomas Malthus
Greatly enhanced the case against government interference in economic matters.
Code Napoleon
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
Glasnost
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary leader who aided Lenin
-coordinated October Revolution
-offered Germany an armistice (Treaty of B-L) after Bolsheviks come to power
Robert Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
Shorter Catechism
written by luther in 1529; gave concise explanations of the doctrine in question and answer form
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Politiques
A group of politicians who put the state above religion. Henry Navarre became one when he converted to catholicism in order become prince.
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
(NAZIS) The political party of Adolf Hitler.
National Socialists
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Protestantism
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
Leon Blum
Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
Al-Qaeda
Group of terrorist against the US who causd 9:11
Pope Clement VI
Didn't annul henry's marriage, medici, afraid of couciliary movement, councils, Very involved in renaissance, afraid of habsburg wars.
The Fourteen Points
Wilson's proposition for world peace and democracy after the horrors of the global conflict in WWI. Was viewed with mixed reaction from many Americans who wanted to return to post-war isolationism and those that wanted America to play a large role in post-war peace
Denis diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
War Communism
The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
Cult of Domesticity
the lifestyle of middle-class women was generally limited to the household, where their talents, ambitions, and opportunities for applying their intelligence were sharply circumscribed. Men began to only do work with men, discluding their wives from the working class. The home came to be a seen as a center of virtue, children, and the respectable life.
Justification by faith
Conclusion that righteousness by God did not result form charitable acts or ceremonies but was given in full measure to any and all who believe in and trust Jesus.
Russian Civil War
(October 1917) Bolshevik Party seized power and created civil war between Bolsheviks and supporters of Tsar that Bolsheviks had executed but Bolsheviks won
New economic policy
A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to simulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Econic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
Battle of Agincourt
The French outnumbered the English by at least 15,00, but the French placed themselves in a disvantageous position, and the English Archers bombardment of arrows resulted in the French losing that battle
Critics of "Civilizing"
It is the pure selfishness of Europeans, it is morally wrong. It is a double standard
Middle class values
The middle class frowned upon heavy drinking and the women were fond of fashion. Education was necessary and sexual purity was considered a virtue
Great White Walls
This was a policy of discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out of countries
Enclosure System
This cut off the Open field system with fences so each farmer had their own small plot of land to take care of.
Three Estates
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
Marie Theresa
Gets attacked by Fredrick II but only loses a little bit of land, successfully maintains the empire
In Absentia
When a ruler is absent from the government they are ruling, either if they have two or more offices or do not like the place they are ruling.
In June 1790 Louis XVi accepted what type of monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Brethren of Common Life
purification of the Catholic faith and emphasis on morality
Charles de Gaulle (Fifth Republic)
Frenchman who assumed leadership of some important groups and played an important role in ensuring the establishment of a French provisional government. Later became president of the Fifth republic.
-Wilson's 14 Points
US, Wilson is truly the honest broker here: he doesn't really have any interests except for promoting long term peace a la Fourteen Points.
Course of WWII
First war in Europe, then war in Asia
Population Explosion 1700's
This caused food prices to rise, and spurred agricultural innovation. The expansion occurred across the continent in cities and the country. The death rate declined and there were fewer wars and epidemics in the 18th century and hygiene improved with better medical knowledge. This expansion provided new demands for food, job and labor. The food supply also changed and the cultivation of the potato came into place.
Heinrich Himmler
Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler
difference between French parlements and English House of Lords and Commons
French parlements were courts of law, and had to compete for influence over and attention from the monarch. The English House of Lords and Commons controlled the monarch's access to money and taxes, which made it a valid and powerful government body.
Francis I (of France)
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor
On the Origin of Species
Written by Charles Darwin and expanded the thoughts on evolutionary aspects from animals to people, believed it was true unlike others who believed everything in the bible.
National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis)
A small extremist group that formed in the early days of the Weirmar Republic and quickly grew under Hitler
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand -- the Black Hand
the serbs assassinated the archduke to make a statement, and the Austrians got really pissed, because he was the next in line for the throne and the guy on the throne then was old
Compare the absolute monarchs standing army to the medieval armies?
The medieval armies were only used during times of war or for war compaigns while stnading armies were always employed and secret police would control citizens
In 1922, when it displaced the Liberals as the official opposition party, the British Labour Party
It faced the Conservatives as the final opposition. Plus; since this party had been no more than a loose federation of trade union and socialist organizations before the war, tightened its organizational structure, promoted labor legislation, and, bridging the gap between the trade unionists and the socialists; committed itself to a program of socialism.
Catherine de Medici (1547 to 1589)
The wife of Henry II (1547 to 1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
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