AP Euro-French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
plebiscite
general referendum
Jean-Paul Marat
radical journalist, physician, philosopher, skin disease, stabbed to death by Charlotte Corday
Mountain
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; very much supported Parisian military; wanted Louis XVI executed and won by a very narrow majority
corvée
obligatory work for peasants demanded by nobles for several days a year
Jacques Hebert
"Hebertistes" radical social democrat who led the angry men, hibertists were his followers
Trafalgar
The crucial battle that frustrated Napoleon's plans to invade England
Marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Reason
What was the main "religion" during the French Revolution, since traditional churches were so strongly opposed by the government?
Edmund Burke
1729-1797, A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
83 Departments
France was divided into these, governed by elected officials, replaced old provincial boundary lines
Brunswick Manifesto
1792, during the radical stage. Austria and Prussia made this saying that they would destroy Paris if any harm came to the French king(Louis XVI)
July 14, 1789.
The fall of the Bastille
National Assembly
This governing body wanted a constitutional monarchy
Bourbons
Another powerful family in the south and west of France. In league with the Montmorency-Chatillon, the Bourbons supported the Huguenot protesters to battle the Guises for political reasons.
Cahiers
List of problems compiled by the three estates; used so they could be discussed at the Estates General meeting
The Directory
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
estates general
a legislative body that included the representatives from all three estates, met for the first time since 1614
Old Regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the start of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
Abbée Sieyès
the most influential writer in the 3rd estate; wrote "What is the Third Estate?"
Louis XVI
King of France (r. 1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
War of the First Coalition
french revolutionary forces were soundly defeated by the austrian military
Madame de Pompadour
most famous mistress of 18th c. who influenced Louis XV in making important gov't decisions and giving advice on appointments and foreign policy
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
second revolution
a phase when the fall of the French monarchy marked a rapid radicalization of the Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document saying what political rights citizens have; passed by the National Assembly in August 1789
storming of the Tuleries
August 10, 1792: the king's palace in Paris was stormed and the King was taken prisoner, after fleeing to the Legislative Assembly
The event that contributed most to Napoleon's downfall
his 1812 invasion of Russia
3 immediate causes of the French Revolution?
division between the three estates, the rising prices of bread, rumors spread that the king was planning to order an attack on Paris
What idea about taxation was changing in France?
During the War of Austrian Succession, the income taxes on every individual regardless of social status increased by 5%
Declaration of the Rights of Woman
Written by Olympe de Gouges as a call for equal rights for women. Why shouldn't women have equal rights as men?
Who was included in each of the Three Estates?
First - clergy, owned about 10% of the land and did not pay regular taxes.
Second - nobles, owned about 25% of the land, lightly taxed
Third - commoners - prosperous merchants and peasants
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