AP Euro-Russian Revolution Flashcards

Provisional Government
Terms Definitions
Kulaks
name for wealthier peasants.
pogroms
organized massacres of Jews
Black Hundreds
fanatical Russian nationalists, perhaps instigated by Orthodox priests, who unleashed a wave of violence against Jews. Led by small traders and agricultural laborers who feared that economic change would cost them. Also by police who opposed political reform. Continued to beat up opponents of tsar.
Alexander III
tsar from 1881- 1884
October Manifesto
of 1905 created Duma
Cheka
The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.
Alexsandr Kerensky
Socialist Revolutionary leader. Head of the provisional government, trying to smooth relations between them and the soviet. Leader of the first coalition gov. prime minister of the second coalition gov.
Defensists
those among Russian socialists who argued that Russian workers should defend their country against German attack.
Moscow
russia's second city. Less socially polarized than Russia. Insurrection there began after the first favorable reports from Petrograd arrived. A week of fighting and then provisional govt. forces surrendered.
Pravda
means truth. The Bolshevik party's newspaper whose offices were shut down by provisional government troops.
USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. At the top or most powerful was the Supreme Soviet, the upper house was the Soviet of Nationalities, and the lover house was the Soviet of the Union; made up of 15 separate republics; meant to answer problem of nationalism by allowing separate republics
Social Revolutionaries
populist position; supported peasant revolt; believed in special rural socialism; replace tsar with democratically elected government; distribute land fairly among peasants; adapt Marxism to Russia; peasant revolt instead of urban revolt
"autocracy, orthodoxy, and russification"
Alexander's rule, nationalism
Whites
What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
Reds
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
Alexander Ulyanov
Lenin's brother; member of the revolutionary group "Peoples' Will;" executed due to participation in plot to assassinate Alex III.
Ekaterinburg
town in the Ural Mountains whereto Bolshevik guards moved Nicolas II and his family. They were executed on the orders of the local soviet on july 17.
Mensheviks
minority or "softs"; larger and more open party with membership for sympathizers; favored greater degree of influence by the membership as a whole, covering up/ bridging over all but the most fundamental disagreements, recommend cooperation with liberals, progressives and bourgeois democrats; resembled Marxists of Western Europe under Russian conditions
Intelligentsia
they were the source of revolutionary disturbance and most wanted a catastrophic overthrow of the tsardom; also supported nihilism
Communist Party
Bolsheviks party declared in march 1918 only legal party
"war communism"
Bolsheviks mobilized the home front for the civil war, earliest form of socialism in Soviet Union
anarchy
believed the state should be destroyed altogether
Leon Trotsky
formed workers' Soviets (council of workers, soldiers adn intellects)
Petrograd Soviet
of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. Members included several hundred workers. Elected officers, discussed ways to defend Petrograd against German military attack, and sent representatives to encourage the formation of soviets in other cities. Menshevik-dominated. Bolshevik leaders held back.
Westernizers
Members of Russian leadership who said that Russia needs to become more like Europe if it's to survive.
General Alexsandr Kolchak
established a dictatorship in Siberia, claiming to be the new government of Russia. Backed by Britain and France.
Revolution of 1905
this occurred because of growing public discontent with the government as well as an increase in revolutionary parties or propaganda; the government refused to make any concessions and believed autocracy was the best form of government; the war went so terribly that the Russian public had even less faith in its government; police allowed father Gapon to go among the workers in an attempt to help but it resulted in the Bloody Sunday and a wave of political strikes and eventually the October Manifesto; the Russian government however was still not overthrown by this revolution
Council of People's Comissars
Bolsheviks replace the Provisional Government; Lenin= head; Trotsky= foreign affairs; and Stalin= commissar for nationalities; they make peace in WWI with Germany with the treaty of Brest Litovsk; soon Lenin establishes dictatorship of the Proletariat
Constitutional Democrats
also called Cadets they were liberals, progressives, or constitutionalists in the Western sense; need nationally elected parliament to control the policies of state; made up of: rising business/ professional classes reinforced by enterprising landowners; liberal
Czar Alexander I
favored some liberal ideals and Enlightened despotism
Russo-Japanese War
Russian had established a sphere of influence in Manchuria and sought Korea, Russian fleet is destroyed by Japan
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Revolutionary defensism
the demand of the Petrograd Soviet and accepted by the provisional government which was a middle position between conservatives and radicals. Wanted "peace without annexations and indemnities;" also demanded that Russian military capacity be fully maintained.
General Anton Denikin
White general who headed the 150,000 strong largest White army that was defeated by the Red Army during the summer of 1919 in Ukraine.
Progressive Bloc
formed by some liberal members of the Duma, including Kadets. Committed to working with the tsar in hopes of encouraging reform.
Provisional Government
set up by the Duma committee, a moderate executive committee set up after the tsar dissolved the duma when food riots began in March 1917, because of pressure from the Petrograd Soviet; led by Prince Lvov; admitted Kersensky a moderate social revolutionary; demanded abdication of Nicholas II who does March 17 1917; then Russia= republic so they call for an election of a constituent Assembly, continue war against Germany, promise redistribution of land to peasants; Kerensky named new head who is threatened from the right by Gen. Kornilov who dispatches cavalry to restore order, movement defeated by Bolsheviks Kerensky loses popularity and Lenin calls for a Congress of Soviets in Nov 1917 he ends this
Little Father
another name for tsar Nicholas II the last tsar of Russia
Theodore Herzl, zionism
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine, A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
Russian Civil War
began in 1918 when Kornilov and other generals raised armies to fight the Bolsheviks. Whites vs. Reds. Reds won.
Revolution of March 1917
this was the revolution when tsardom was ended and Nicholas was overthrown; it began with WWI the middle class offered assistance and even formed the Commercial and Industrial Committee however the gov. distrusted these signs of public activity and feared their help; life at court with Rasputin also lead to further public discontent; then the duma was suspended however the union of zemstvos demanded its assembly so it reassembled in November and discussed discontent with the government and war; Rasputin is assassinated; the tsar considers dismembering the Duma and gives police machine guns moderated conclude that the situation could only be saved by force and they basically need a coup to stop the reactionaries and government from killing them; workers at Petrograd begin food riots which developed into a politcal insurrection; the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' deputies formed and demanded majority of the duma so the tsar disbands it; then the duma sets up an executive committee to take charge= moderate; Petrograd Soviet= revolutionary force; the duma committee under pressure form Petrograd Society created a Provisional Government and admit a socialist; they demand Nicholas' s abdication and on March 17, 1917 Russia became a republic
Army Order No. 1
issued by the Petrograd Soviet seeking to replace military officers loyal to the czar and place the Soviet in firm control of the army
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
After Lenin got a hold of the government; he wanted to end the war between Germany. A third of old Russia's population was sliced away by the German meat ax in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was the sacrifice of all of Russia's western territories.
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