AP Euro: List Flashcards

Terms Definitions
United Provinces
...
Hapsburgs
the war's losers
1453
Fall of Constantinople (date)
July Monarchy
Monarchy of Louis Phillipe
John Wyclif
english theologian, religious reformer, and biblical translator whose objections to roman catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384).
Gladstone Reforms
Prime Ministers Gladstone's reforms.
Charles II
(r1660-1685) After Cromwell dies. England brings back the monarchy. They put him in power. Charles's eldest son. The Restoration. Same old argument. What is the role of monarchy and state. He makes not so secret treaties with France(which is an absolute monarch). He is pro-France and pro-Catholism. The rements of the Civil War are still present.
Edgar Degas
ballerina, horse racing, born penniless, he related to poor people, chauvinist, he goes blind, so he turns to sculpture
Morton's Fork
Archbishop of Canterbury Morton, convinced slow paying nobles to pay Henry's taxes in a wily manner; way for Henry VII to get money
corregidor
Royal official entrusted with judicial and administrative affairs for the monarch. Made of hidalgos.
Peter I
(r1682-1725) "______ the Great" Monster of the man in every way. He modernizes Russia into a European country. He does everything he can to bring Russia out of the dark ages. He reigns for 36 years. He learns how modern industries work. It is his goal to make Russia just like Europe. He expands Russia, he expands it to the Baltic sea, so Russia can start trading with Europe. He came up with the Table of Ranks. Meritocracy: rewarded people for people's intelligence, hard work.
The Short Parliament
(1640): Charles dissolved Parliament for 11 years. In 1640, he calls Parliament back. He needs money, Parliament (They will meet for 3 weeks) agrees to give Charles the money if he signs the Petition of Rights. He refuses to sign and dissolves it again.
Cardinal Mazarin
Italian cardinal. Regent for Louis XIV. He defeats the Frondeurs. Saves French monarchy.
religion
The general reason for the French Civil Wars (Catherine de Medicis vs. Henry Navarre vs. Guise family).
flagellantism
a radical movement in the Catholic Church during the 13th and 14th centuries. especially popular during the Black Death. Flagellants would beat themselves, believing it would lead God to help them and the whole of humanity.
17th c.
Population began to shift. Most populous cities in ___ were no longer Italy, but more in Northerly reaches of Europe. Focus became the Atlantic not Mediterranean.
Intendant System
French system of Burecacy, Bureacratic system that takes power away from the Nobles. Lets non-nobels have officials jobs. Switch of loyalties, the peasants now are loyal to the King and not to their lord. Beginning of modern school system, French peasants need to be educated to get official jobs.
Camille Pissaro
landscapes, light and movement, 1830s and 1840s, gives up idea that paintings has to be realistic, gives up concept of line
General Cavaignac
(the Benedict Arnold of France)The General of France under Guziot in charge of the June days.
Guise Family
Catholic nobles of Eastern France, allied with King Philip II of Spain to get the throne
Presbyterians
would accept Church with a central, political authority only if it did not seem at all Catholic. Part of the Rebels
Time of Troubles
(1598-1603)After Ivan IV dies, there is a huge power struggle between the Boyars. There was no political structure. There was lawlessness, there was no food. Extreme hardship on the Russia people.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
A Finance Minister. Father of Mercantalism, economic theory that countries profit by making things inside the countries and then selling them outside the countries.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III
(Napoleon's Nephew) 1848-1870 France votes to establish a new Republic, where they can vote. They vote for him. He promises to crack down lawlessness and return France back to the glory days Napoleon. He wins by 70% of the vote, landslide. He ran of the fact he will make France glorious again. It appears that the revolution has been successful. He does the same stuff as his Uncle. He puts France on the right path. He declares himself the Emperor of France and gets rid of the constitution, and calls France, the Second Empire. While he is the second emperor of France he is going to make mistakes in foreign wars.
Brunswick Manifesto
(July 25, 1792): Earl of ________, from Prussia. He declares: If anything should happen to the King of France, Prussia will come and wipe out all of France. War has started.
Roundheads
The army of wealthy London, South and east England, backed by Parliament; older population; navy.
professionalization of army
Curbs the wildness visited on citizens. Growth in size of standing armies as well.
Common Law
Law based on precedent and tradition, instead of biased towards feudal lords. Helped woo English masses when implemented as Royal Law.
Merchant Adventurers
The people who worked for the Merchants of the Staple.
The Third Estate
Peasants, Workers, middle class: No power to own property. They have no rights. 95-96% of the population.
Mary Cassatt
mothers and children, women, the male impressionist resented her because she was a women
Romanov Family Dynasty
(1613-1917) Starts after Time of Troubles continues until the Russian Revolution. This Family will rule Russia until 1917.
Spanish Armada
1588, was a huge Spanish fleet organized by Philip II in order to punish Queen Elizabeth of England for helping the Dutch rebels. Was ultimately shitted on, w/ the majority of the naval fleet being destroyed.
forced loans
forced the members of Parliament to give him (Charles I) money to support his endeavors
Utopian socialism
They are trying to create a perfect society in a capitalist society. They want to Take what we have a fix it. They want to create an Industrial society that works.
House of Commons
Lower house of the Parliament. Lower class. Middle Class. Back then they were not common people. They still had to be a land owner, had to have money, and they had to educated. The house that is going to be a pain to the King.
Marston Moor
Major Battle in the English Civil War. 1644. Oliver Cromwell is hugely victorious. Charles is kidnapped by Scotland. Scotland is holding Charles. there is no monarchy in England anymore. Cromwell becomes the Protectorate, or Lord Protector.
Defenestration of Prague
Bohemians dumped emperor's reps out of the window and declared emperor no longer their leader and chose Frederick V.
Long Parliament
Created by Charles I. He needed taxes to get the victorious Scots out of England. Stayed in session for 13 years. New parliament still had grudges against Charles.
Emperor Charles V
r. 1519-1556, Emperor of HRE, also king of Spain, vast territory
Treaty of Cateau Cambresis
France received Calais and the Lorraine bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and renounced any claims on Italy as an outcome of the War between France and Hapsburgs.
Talleyrand
He had been a minister since Louis up until Napoleon. He adapted to whoever happened to be in power. When things started to go badly, he betrayed the then government and put his loyalties to another Government. He wants to get whatever he can for France. He learns to get what he wants, by dividing and conquering. Turns the Big Four against each other. Austria and England align themselves and Prussia and Russia align themselves. This makes him a very powerful diplomet. He becomes the most important figure in France. The Big Four were thinking of getting rid of France, he convinces the Big Four to have a new King. He saves France. Louis XVIII now controls France.
July Revolution 1830
The people revolt against the July Ordinances. He gets very scared, Charles abdicated the throne and runs away to England.
William of Orange
aka William the Silent, an aristocrat that became the leader of the Dutch rebels; his leadership increased Dutch success against Philip II
John Pym
leader of the House of Commons during the Long Parliament; levied complaints against the monarchy during time in power (Triennial Act, etc.)
Louis Phillipe
If put in power by Marquis de Layfette (no relation to other Louis) "the bourgeoisie king", called the July Monarchy. He is nothing to nobody. (or something like that.) He tries to accomodate everyone, and still gets nothing done. It weakened his monarchy. He has a Chief Minister who really runs the country.
War with the Netherlands
English waged this war because English Navigation Act forbade goods from other places to be brought to England and its colonies by any other ships other than British ones. Little change.
Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
the exile of the seven popes at Avignon.
The Second Estate
3-4% of the Population. Control 90% of the land. Only nobles were allowed to wear swords.
Henri de Saint Simon
First guy that says. We should take the rational thought that came form the Enlightenment and deconstruct society, break it down into smaller pieces and not make it as brutal as and protect people's rights.
Maxmilien Robespierre and George Danton
Head of the Jacobins, become the leaders of France, lead the Reign of Terror and are eventually executed.
Joan of Arc (1412? -- 31)
french national heroine and martyr, who, at the age of 17 led the army that raised the seige of Orleans. later recognized as a roman catholic saint.
The Social Welfare State
We've got to do something as a society. We have to guarantee that people could live. The establishes lines as the Government sees as poor. If you are poor, then the government has to help workers. It made it legal for unions to go on strike. It establishes workman compensation, if you get hurt on the job, they will pay you. Unemployment, if you lose your job then the government pays up to a certain time until you can get a new job. Retirement money. They come up with compulsory schooling.
Council of Troubles
aka Council of Blood, was est. by Duke of Alva; he executed 1000+ Calvinists and suspected Calvinists, many of which were wealthy
Union of Utrecht became the United Provinces
Composed of 7 northern provinces including Holland and Zeeland. Dutch Republic.
The Corn Laws of 1815-1846
A tariff on imported grains. In affect until 80% of England's crops were bought up. It benefited the wealthy and hurt the poor. Raises cost of foreign grain, lower cost of English grain. Creates anger in the working class. Causes new reforms.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
(Aug 26th) A real shift from an Absolute Monarch to a place where the people have rights and the King doesn't have full control of the National Assembly. Written by Thomas Jefferson and Lafeyette. Not quite as radical as ours. The idea of equality isn't the same as us-we are equal but not that equal some people are most useful giving the clergy and nobles a high place in society.
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