Ap Euro: Reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Calvinism
-Protestant sect
-Predestination
-Popular in Scotland, Geneva, England, the Netherlands, France, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland & Scandinavia
Thomas Cranmer
-(1489-1556)
-Archbishop of Canterbury
-Simplified the church service, invited Protestant theologians to England & prepared the first Book of Common Prayer (1549)
-Composed the 42 Articles of Religion
-Annulled Henry VIII and Catherine's marriage
Solas
sola scriptora, fidei, gratia (scripture, faith, grace)
Elizabeth I of England
-Politique
-Restored Protestantism
-Only required outward conformity
vernacular
everyday language of ordinary people
nepotism
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church.
Ninety-Five Theses
authored by Luther, criticizing Catholic Church
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
John of Leyden
-(1509-1536)
-Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leyden
Canopy over St. Peter's Tomb
Bernini's sculpture
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Thirty-Nine Articles
main beliefs of the Anglican Church
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Lord Chancellor of Henry VIII
Daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn...
-Elizabeth
Unitarians
(who reject the trinity) also were influenced by the Anabaptists
Mennonites
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.
Act of Supremacy
establishes the king/queen (Henry VIII) as the ultimate authority of the Church
Conciliar Movement
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
95 theses
Luther's document that we don't need good works, just faith to reach salvation. based on Romans 1:17 "the just shall live by faith alone"
Protestant
a person of the 16th century who protested the catholic churches teachings and practices and who sought reform Christianity by breaking away from the Catholic church
Swiss Reform Church
what calvinism known as in Switzerland
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Edict of Worms
-Imposed by Diet of Worms
-Addressed Martin Luther & effects of Protestant Reformation
Twelve Articles
1515, peasants demanded end of serfdom and tithes, and other practices of feudalism that opressed the peasantry
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her, second wfe
Council of Trent
Council of the Catholic Church. Emphasis on learning and education, expecially priests. Mandated "visitations" and bishops must reside where his diecy is. 1545-63
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Sola Gratia
The belief that everybody is equal in God's eyes.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
St. Teresa of Avila
example of spirituality and mysticism of counter-Reformation; reformed nunneries
Counter-Reformation
Was started in the 1530s by the Church and was aimed at reforming internal Church practices to combat the success of the Protestant Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg
German princes were granted the power to decide the religion of their states in the _______ __ ________.
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Battle of White Mountain
Ferdinand II v. Frederick IV (1620). Ferdinand II wanted to invade Bohemia.
Freedom of a Christian
all Christians have their own place and we're just as Christian as Church officials. we can determine right and wrong and therefore rule over the church officials
2nd act of succesion
passed right before Edward dies. says female and male can be queen or king
Statute of the Six Articles
1539, Anglican Church maintained most of the Catholic doctrines
Frederick V vs. Ferdinand II
Ferdinand is appointed Holy Roman Emperor, but Bohemians are pissed at him for tearing up their letter of Majesty so they appoint Frederick V king instead.
Pilgrimage of Grace
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
Index of Forbidden Books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
What was Henry VIII excuse for divorcing Catherine of Aragon?
-It was a sin for him to marry his brothers' widow.
-God's punishment...no son
Leo X
excommunicated luther
Guise family
-Led Catholic League
Liturgy
Form of worship (Religious ritual)
Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
Michael Servetus
Spanish refugee(denied the trinity i.e. divinity of Christ) sought asylum in Geneva but Calvin called him heretic - burned at stake 1553. Significant because under Calvin's strict theocracy he estabd. in Geneva, persecution of dissenters every bit as intense as Catholic inquisition. This is most famous ex. (However, many flocked to Geneva to find refuge or learn Calvinism.)
Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
"sinners"
The Anabaptists believed that members of all other religious groups other than own were______, and that Anabaptists should leaved the state and form their own religious community.
Ignatius Loyola
1491-1556, founder of Jesuits, organized them in a military fashion, Spiritual Exercises: contained ideas used to train Jesuits
absenteeism
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Simony
Practice of teh Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages wherein Church leaders sold high Church positions. This practice was used to gain power for sons who would not inherit family wealth and land because of birth order.
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss humanist, priest and disciple of Erasmus. Founded the reform church in Switzerland. Much like Luther's but differed over nature of Communion. Believed it to be purely a symbolic act - commemorating the last supper and christ's sacrifice for mankind. Luther, on the other hand, believed there was a spiritual presence in the bread and wine at the time of communion. This difference became apparent at the time of the Marburg Colloquy in 1529. Zwingli tried to simplify the Christian belief and practise even more than Luther.
St. Ignatius of Loyola
founder of Jesuit order
Anabaptists
A religious sect started in Zurich, Switzerland, in the 16th century that believed that true faith was based on reason and free will and that people must knowingly select the Christian faith through rebaptism as adults. These men and women rejected the authority of the state and the courts, abolished private property, and believed themselvesto be true Christians who lived acording to the standards established in the Bible. The movement gained most of its support from artisans and the middle and lower classes, who were attracted by its simple message of peace and salvation. They were persecuted by both Catholic and Protestant authorities, and Zurch's magistrates, angered at the pacifist sect's refusal to bear arms, ordered that hundreds of them be put to death, thereby making them the Reformation's first martyrs of conscience.
Charles V
king of spain- holy roman emporer
John Knox
____ ____ started the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
Did Calvin preach transubstantiation or consubstantiation?
Transubstantiation, like Luther
Ideal Protestant family
-Protestants opposed the anti-woman and anti marriage literature of the Middle Ages.
-New laws gave women greater security and protection
-Protestants and Catholics required parental consent and public vows before a marriage could be deemed fully licit, marriages were usually arranged
-later marriages led to premarital sex an illitimate kids.
-The West European family was conjugal, or nuclear, consisting of a father, mother, and 2-4 children who survived into adulthood.-Wet nurses seemed to increase infant mortality
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Catholic League
Private army of Catholic assembled by the Guise Family in 1576.
Schmalkaldic War
1531 following Diet of Augsburg at which ML had laid out this theology before Chas V and been told unacceptable. German Lutheran Princes established. Schmalkaldic League vs. Catholic Hapsburgs. From 1546-1555 Schmalk War - Civil/Relig. War.
Ecclesiastical Reservation
Catholic Church lands taken away by Lutherans, ensuing dispute
Theocracy
Where the government is run by church officials
Act of Supremancy
Passed by Parilment, declared the king, not the pope, the head of the English church
Extreme Violence
Luther did not support the peasant revolt because he did not believe in the _______ ________.
Elizabeth I
Elizabethan Compromise
Called Virgin Queen- never married. rule was forward-looking, unlike Mary's.
-Takes best parts of Catholicism and Lutheranism and makes Anglicanism. Act of Uniformity in 1559 mandates all English become Anglican or pay Catholic tax. Codified in 39 Articles.
what were the 2 sacraments practiced by the Lutherans?
baptism and communion
Peasant's Revolt
1524 in upheaval of times. Aims social and economic against manorial overlords. ML sided with princes of day. Owed much to them. Peasants turned to anabaptism, felt ML betrayed them. ML shocked by their behav. & Lutheranism became more conservative & submissive to state. ML advised princAes to suppress harshly the revolt - 75,000 peasants killed.
martin luther, john calvin
top 2 leaders of protestant movement
Pope Paul III
Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism. He sought to improve church disciple through existing doctrine, rather than making new ones.
Duke of Parma
-Replaced Duke of Alba
-Won back 10 southern provinces that had revolted
Philip Melanchthon
friend of Martin Luther, he wrote the Confessions of Augsburg, an attempt to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes that failed. The statements made did become the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church.
Bloody Mary
1553: Mary I is crowned and restored Catholic doctrine—Counter-Reformation. Maried to Phillip II, Catholic king of Spain. Loses Calais in war w/ France. Presecutes famous Protestants, leads to Fox's book of martyrs.
What was the baroque style?
very dramatic, with intense action, mysterious use of light, very ornate, highly decorative, art from of the Counter Reformation, emphasizes spiritualness/mysticism of Catholic Church
Sola Scriptura
The belief that the bible is the sole source of the Christian doctrine.
Albrecht Durer (late 1400s-early 1500s)
Painter of the Northern Renaissance, studied in Venice, did water color and woodcutting. Painted "Self Portrait In a Fur Lined Coat"
Ignatius of Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
What were the 4 major problems of Charles V?
1. Protestantism/German states
2. France
3. Pope
4. Ottoman Turks
justification by faith alone
we don't reach salvation by good works or the church but ONLY scripture, based on Romans 1:17 "the just shall live by faith alone"
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
English and Dutch Indies Co.s
1600- English East Indies Co. 20,000 pounds capital.
1602- Dutch East Indies Co. 200,000 pounds capital.
Dutch are wealthier than English
Theses Number 1
Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ . . . meant the whole life of the faithful to be an act of penitence. [If you are a faithful Christian, you should be spending your whole life making up for all the evil things and evil thoughts you've had for God]
Order of the English Crown
-Henry VIII --> Edward VI --> Mary --> Elizabeth
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