AP European History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
popular parliament
Thirty Years War
Petrarch's Latin epic poem.
to add or attach
Philosophe who wrote Candide, satirizing prejudice, oppressive government, and bigotry. Championed freedom of religion and thought.
Union of Austria and Germany
Albert Einstein
German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity
utopian socialists
early-nineteenth-century theories that sought to replace the existing capitalist structure and values with visionary solutions or ideal communities
Chzechslovakia was only socialist country with out a
the selling of church offices
Thomas More
English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of "Utopia", in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first lay chancellor of England, he was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church.
Minority religious communities of the Ottoman empire.
Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, Cezanne, van Gough, Picasso
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
Denis Diderot
made first encyclopedia during enlightenment
Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes
The process of limiting German military forces. The German army was limited to 100,000 men on long-term service, its fleet was reduced to a coastal defense force, and war planes, submarines, tanks, heavy artillery, and poison gas were forbidden.
idea that God determines man's salvation before birth
as taking communion, wine becomes blood, wafer becomes body (catholic)
South Africans of Dutch ancestry, speaks Afrikaans
positivist method
Auguste Compte’s discipline of sociology, which postulated that "each branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or ficticious; the Metaphysical, or abstract; and the Scientific, or positive."
Frederick William(1640-1688)
The "Great Elector", who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society.
"peaceful coexistence"
Krushev’s foreign policy; peaceful coexistence with communism was possible
Charles "Turnip" Townsend
This British agricultural reformer instituted crop rotation, using wheat, turnips (his nickname), barley, and clover. This new system replaced the fallow field one.
Marshall Plan
After the massive destruction in Europe following World War II, the United States proposed an economic plan in 1947 to help restore the region. Aid was provided to any European nation that promised cooperation (Soviet-bloc nations did not participate). The plan was very successful.
These people believed that only adults could believe and accept baptism and therefore the baptism of infants was invalid. They considered themselves to be true Christians unblemished by sin and did not support violence but preferred peace and salvation.
Forced recuritment into the army to meet the needs of war.
a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue, Created mercantilism and was able to connect France through industries and trade routes
Congress of Vienna
Following Napoleon's exile, Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia met to make peace in Europe, prevent the rise of another Napoleon, and redraw the map of the continent.
The practice of lending money for interest
Teheran Conference
A pledge between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin which guaranteed that after the end of the war Germany would be occupied by Allied powers and demilitarized.
Woodrow Wilson
(1856-1924) President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy".
his work portrayed humans as wise, temperate, and dignified; had a very symbolical/allegorical approach to art; painted Disputa and School of Athens
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881)
Max Planck
Rejected belief that heated body radiates energy in steady stream
Energy radiation discontinuously in irregular packets called 'quanta'.
Quantum theory-raised questions of subatomic realm of atom.
1867 compromise that created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, each state had its own capital, constitution, and legislative assembly, but were united under one monarch and had a common foreign policy, served to alienate the other Slavic groups that made up the Austrian region
John Knox
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Petit bourgeoisie
these people sought to distance themselves from lower-class and pursued to advance through education or career advancement.
Water Frame
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
he doctrine that reality is composed of many ultimate substances. The belief that no single explanatory system or view of reality can account for all the phenomena of life.
A relaxed period between the super powers during the khrushchev rule in the soviet union
Catherine the Great
-Empress of Russia-Overthrew husband and let him die in prison-Sponsored Philsophes and tried to westernize Russia-Supported Serfs until they had a rebellion against her

Scientific Revolution
- Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
Nuremberg Trials
After World War II, the victorious Allies convened a multinational judicial panel to try Nazis accused of crimes against humanity. Held in Nuremberg, Germany, the trials lasted from 1945-46. The highest-ranking Nazi tried was Hermann Göring, who committed suicide before his death sentence could be carried out.
Otto van Bismarck
Bismark, master of Realpolitik, was chancellor of Prussia from 1861-1871. He was devoted to the Hohenzollerns (Prussian ruling family) and the unification of Germany, which occurred in 1871. He continued to serve as Chancellor until he was fired in 1890 by William II.
An area of present day Russia. Having the strongest economy of the Russian states.
The royal family of Prussia. Ruled the German territory of Brandenburg. Through inheritance they acquired lands within the Holy roman Empire
Book of the Courtier
Written by Baldassare Castiglione, this was a practical guide for the nobility at the court of Urbino. It embodies the highest ideals of Italian humanism: knowledge of languages and history, athleticism, military skills, musical skills, and chivalry.
Labor unions
Britain outlawed this in the 19th century because it inhibited free competition
Louis XIII
Weak French King (1610-43) who was greatly influenced by his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Marshal Tito (Josip Broz)
(1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence.
Society of Jesus
Formed by Ignatius de Loyola. Participated in the Catholic reformation, this movement established schools and sought to fight Protestantism.
Justifications for Imperialism
People justified imperialism by the concept of "white man's burden," which stated that European should govern other because it was right and better for the people
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
War communism
in world war i russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under communist control
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war, Russia lost significant western territory, signed by Lenin
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Pragmatic Sanction
an imperial decree that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land
William Pitt
Known as "Pitt the Elder." 1708-1778. British political leader and orator who directed his country's military effort during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763).
Charles Darwin
(1809-1882) the inventor of the idea of evolution in his book Origin of Species
ran Congress of Vienna to help prevent Austria from splitting up
Tycho Brahe

Scientific Revolution
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Holy Alliance
an alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles
balance of power
a distribution and opposition of forces among nations such that no single nation is strong enough to assert its will or dominate all the others.
James I
Son of Mary Queen of Scots. Ruled England and Scotland together until 1625. Believed in divine-right rule and Anglicanism, which led to conflict with the largely Puritan Parliament. Closest relative to Elizabeth I at the time of her death.
Abolition Movement
In England it was started by William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson.
Printing Press
Sometimes regarded as a tool of the Renaissance in spreading ideas, this helped mass produce books and pamphlets.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Battle at Borodino
The bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era saw 30,000 French soldiers fall and nearly twice as many Russians. In spite of the heavy casualties, the Russian army was not destroyed and the battle was considered a defeat for France.
Act of Settlement
provided that the English crown would go to the German Hanovers if none of Queen Anne's children survived
Dark Age
period between the fall of Rome and the Rennaissance where the church controled almost all aspects of life
new monarchs
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Eli Whitney
This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
Ten Hours Act
This act said children and women couldn't work more than ten hours
the belief that the end of the world is at hand and in a Second Coming of Christ resulting in a golden age
Avignon Papacy
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
Index of Prohibited Books
Books banned by the Catholic Church
The Prince
A book wrote by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 about the imperfect conduct of humans and says how a ruler is able to keep power and manage to keep it disregarding enemies.
Women march for Bread
st. petersburg 1914. helps abdicate Nicholas II
He did not ascribe free will to human beings because that would detract from the sovereignty of God. Men and women cannot actively work to achieve salvation; rather, God in his infinite wisdom decided at the beginning of time who would be saved or damned
I was the British writer who argued that monarchical stability and noble privilege were inseparable and were necessary components of a strong society.
Edmund Burke
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572. Organized by Catherine de Medici
Battle of Koniggratz
This battle in Bohemia resulted in a decisive Austrian defeat, ending the Austro-Prussian War.
95 Thesis
Written by Martin Luther in 1517 as a collection of complaints against the Catholic Church. Most of the complaints dealt with the sale of indulgences. Introduced the question of authority: does authority lie with the Pope or the Bible? Marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Napoleonic Code
Also known as the Civil Code of 1804, this safeguarded all forms of property, allowed freedom of religion, and gave Napoleon dictatorial power.
War of Schmalkaldic League
Protestant nobles vs. Charles V, first war of religion fought in Europe, France supports nobles even though France is Catholic to weaken Charles V
Antonio de Oliveira Salzar
served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.
Great Northern War
when Peter the Great tried to conquer Sweden to gain control of the Baltic and thus establish trade with the West, the Peace of Nystadt gave Peter control of the lands he wanted
Second Treaty of Paris
They start with Indemnity of 700 million francs, Occupation army, This is pretty standard, And until 1919, this is not that big of a deal, France loses some of its land, And renews dread & threat of revolution, Reconfirms quadruple alliance, Agreement to hold regular congresses
Following the Munich Conference, Hitler quickly:
systematically took the rest of Czechoslovakia.
These were issued by the French King and acted as warrants of arrest without charge.
lettres de cachet
African Slaves to Virginia (1619)
The first slaves were brought to Charles County (in place of indentured servants) to work on the plantations (mostly tobacco) in the new colonies. This caused the widespread use of slaves in the American colonies, ending officially in 1865.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Women's March on Versailles
Marched first to Hotel de Ville (City Hall) to demand bread; thousands marched to Versailles to confront the king and National Assembly with weapons; Louis XVI promised grain supplies from Paris and they took him and his family back to Paris
Council of Trent 1542
Pope Paul III call general council of Christendom together to resolve religious differences caused by Protestant revolution. Reaffirm traditional Catholic teachings opposing protestant beliefs. Only church interpret scripture, faith and good works necessary salvation, 7 sacraments, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, purgatory, indulgences, and training of priests. Clear body of doctrine and unified church. Popes supreme domination especially over bishops and councils. Church gain new CONFIDENCE causing it enter MILITANT phase.
What view of Fabian socialists differed from orthodox Marxism?:
democracy could lead to socialism, revolution was not necessary.
William Pitt the Elder
As secretary of state in charge of the Seven Years' War, this British official sent tons of troops to confront the French in Canada. Proved instrumental in helping Great Britain emerge as a world power from the war.
common vernacular and its affects
books began to be written in common vernacular which would have hurt the church because well, the church lied but since books were still being hand written, they were expensive thus not many people could get them.
Donte's Divine Comedy (first works of Italian Poetry)
Cantebury Tales (first anglo-saxon writtings)
writings less about God and church
I prompted Pope Paul III to convene the Council of Trent in 1545 to assess the condition of the Catholic Church and to define its doctrines.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
justification by works and faith
Council of Trent did make this much of a compromise. Confirmed importance of faith (as before) but still kept "works." Restated many of its established doctrines - 7 Sacraments, Priesthood, confession, transubstantiation. Rejected Bible supremacy. Scripture and tradition on equal footing. (C of T did tighten up on some of worst abuses).
What did the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand begin?
The Third Balkan War - The Serbian Black Hand Society killed him and his wife, causing Austria Hungary to punish Serbia with demands. Serbia didnt agree to these, so AH declared war on Serbia.
Stalin dies

.French Calvinists.
traitors and collaborators. 
Individualism stressed personality, uniueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
language of the church
Peasant village assembly responsible to the government
9.5 million
_______union members of Solidarity
Well-to-do English landholders below nobility
fast, maneuverable British fighter plane that helped England win the Battle of Britain
"3rd of May, 1808" romanticism
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
They were the radical Russian Communists, led by Lenin, who established Communist rule in Russia. They were nicknamed the "Reds."
Calvin establishes reformed faith in Geneva
papal pardon for remission of sins
Peter Stolypin
(1862-1911) Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Demilitarized zone; to protect France; invasion of it was the first sign of aggression of WWII
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people, attracted to Enlightenment ideas and frustrated with the Old Regime, driving force behind French Revolution
the conflicting ideas to the thesis
An average male at the time
Charles II
Represent restoration of Stuart Monarchy. Issued the Declaration of Indulgences which went against Parliaments laws against Puritan and Catholic dissenters from Anglican faith. Heir was brother James I.

Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
This French socialist was disillusioned by the failure of the socialist revolts in 1848.
Louis Blanc
Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and thus found the route to the Indian Ocean. This helped establish an overseas trade route from Europe to India and the East Indies, which provided Europeans with the cargoes of jewels and spiced they so desired.
Great Awakening
A religious movement among American colonial Protestants in the 1730s to 1740s. A pulling away from ritual and ceremony, it made religion intensely personal to the average person by creating a deep sense of spiritual guilt and redemption."
Wrote based on gypsy music
Liszt & Chopin
- French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles
- Parlement of Paris claimed right to register royal decrees before they became laws
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I
Revisionist Socialism
gain power through elections, gradual change to communism, no violent revolution
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England. Executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to publicly recognize his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.
This was a short ottoman parliament designed to model the western model of an empire
Axis Powers
Japan, Italy, and Germany for WWII
It emphasized the importance of man and his greatnes and potential.
Non-Aggression Pact
agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
categorical imperative
According to Emmanuel Kant the internal sense of moral duty or awareness possessed by all human beings
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
Willy Brandt
West Germany chancellor; sought peace with East Germany; went to Poland in December 1970; laid a wreath at the tomb of the inknown soldier another monument commemorating the armed uprising of Warsaw's Jewish ghetto against Nazi armies after which the ghetto was destroyed and survivors were sent to the gas chambers
(1938) the union of Austria with Germany due to Germany's military occupation in austria
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
often called the organizer of Protestantism
John Calvin
This Renaissance writer believed that sin was unknowable and that the "road to salvation lay in doubt, not in faith."
de Montaigne
Ptolemy’s System
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
Beginning in the early 1900s, a school of art that focused on the emotional reaction to a subject. Paintings usually have strong lines and bold, vibrant colors. Masters of the style include Georges Rouault, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gaugin.
Commercial Revolution
A period of economic innovation that was a result of colonization and exploration between the late fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. The Commercial Revolution saw the rise of joint-stock companies and the growth of mercantilism.
The Social Contract
Written in 1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Ulrich Zwingli
The leader of the Swiss Reformation movement.
Louis XIV
French king how established a powerful centralized monarchy. Established the prototype of absolutism.
Grace Abounding
John Bunyan's autobiography. It was a personal statement and a model for the faithful.
lengthy civil war
what the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre lead to
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read.
Crimean War
(1853-1856) A war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia. The Russians lost the Crimean war. The allies won, with France benefiting in particular from the war. Russia was no longer the dominant power in Europe.
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
The leader of the Southern Society. He also favored limited independence for Poland and democracy.
Georges Clemenceau
He represented France at the Paris Conference. He too sought vengeance against Germany.
Werner Heisenberg
physicist who speculated that there is no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies - broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities, proposing that uncertainty was at the root of all physical laws
Girolamo Savonarola
a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Berlin Conference of 1855
Leopold II took the congo
the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
David Hume
Author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
John Locke
Created the rights of life, liberty, and property. -Famous work was Two Treatises on Government which explained that government should give and utilize these rights
peasants cited his theology as part of their demands for economic reforms
Under this 1928 agreement the major powers of Europe renounced war as an intrument of national policy.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
'Land, Peace, Bread.'
Are the three things the communist promised the russian peasants in 1917, bolshevik slogan
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Also known as Frances Ferdinand, he was the heir of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. He was assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914. This event sparked a series of actions that led to the beginning of World War I.
Third Estate
Everyone not included in the First or Second Estate. At times this term refers specifically to the bourgeoisie, the middle class, but it also included the sans-culottes: the laboring lass. Also included were lawyers and merchants.
National Assembly
The Third Estate got pissed and left the Estates General. They formed their own party with some sympathetic members of the clergy and called it this.
Germans surrendered when...
They realized the Entente powers could march all the way to Berlin
Iphigenia at Tauris
Goethe's reworking of an ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides.
Bismark System of Alliances Goals
1. Keep France dipolmatically isolated
2. Not be dragged into war
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Freidrich Engels
Worked in Brit at father's factory and acquiered first hand knowledge of wage slavery of working classes
wrote Manifesto w/ Marx.
Enabling Act
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament; parliament voted itself out of power
Reform Bill of 1867
British law that enacted: 1) redistribution of seats to provide a more equitable representation in the House of Commons; 2) the right to vote given to all adult male citizens of boroughs who pain 10 pounds or more in annual rent
Nonjuring clergy
Those clergy that did not take the oath of Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The white man's burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The white man's burden", critical about imperialism
Cecil Rhodes
- Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire buildRelationship between 2 states in which the stronger state guarantees to protect the weaker state from external aggression in return for full or partial control of its domestic and foreign affairs.er with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
J.G. Fichte (1762-1814)
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
A governmental organization founded on December 8, 1991 which composed of former Soviet republics and a partial successor to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Commonwealth of Independent States
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in spain after a coalition of republicans, socialists, and communists was elected. general francisco franco led the rebellion. the revolt quickly became a civil war. the soviet union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while germany and italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help franco.
Frederick William II
The son of King Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William was born in Potsdam and became Crown Prince in 1786, when his "ather ascended the throne.
Leonardo da Vinci
The true Renaissance man. A painter, a military engineer, a physician, and a botanist. But you know him better for the Mona Lisa.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
Dom Pedro
Installed by Joao VI as the regent in Brazil. He embraced the cause of Brazilian independence. He became emperor of Brazil.
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting
Tennis Court Oath
The Oath of the National Assembly to continue to sit until they have given France a constitution.
Natural Law

Scientific Revolution
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
The most important symbol of Romanticism became the?:
isolated individual in heroic struggle.
What were the challenges to the Conservative order in England?
The Peterloo massacre, Chartism, Combination Acts, The Reform Bill of 1832, and William Wilberforce's attack on the slave trade.
Council of People's Commissars
The new government set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of government buildings on November 6, 1917.
Peace of Utrecht
ended Louis XIV's 4th war, the War of the Spanish Succession by confirming Philip V as the Spanish ruler but affirming that the Spanish and French thrones would remain separate; gave many of France's overseas possessions to England
7 Years War is between
France, Russia, HRE vs. Prussia and Great Britain
Descartes' idea was that the world consists of two fundamental entities or substances, which we can call?:
the physical and the spiritual.
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year. Eliminated the rotten boroughs.
Which of the following locations had the greatest influence on shaping the values of the Italian Renaissance?:
the townhouse of an Italian merchant.
Under Philip II of Spain, the Dutch rebelled because of religious & nationalistic ideals. These 2 methods to suppress it didn't work:
1. Inquisition-based Duke of Alva's Council of Troubles ("Council of Blood")
2. Don Juan, a military hero's, efforts
According to Laura Cereta, inferiority of woman was a consequence of their
own failure to live up to their potential
In mid-1991, war broke out in the former Yugoslavia when?:
Serb armed forces carved out enclaves for Serb minorities in the republics of the former Yugoslavia.
Wrote Pincipia
charles i
animalistic, pleasure-seeking, unconcious desires. (sex, hunger, thirst, advoidance of pain)
evolution and natural selection
Sir Francis Bacon
deductive thinker
Stuart monarchy begins in England
economic support from original conqering country. but still independent
third international
moscow-dominated organization of communist parties around the world between the two world wars.
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
Wrote Ethics which explained Pantheism
French bishop, writer, and orator.
Era from 1300-1500, sometimes called the "age of restoration," as it marked a period of innovation towards modern Europe from the Middle Ages. Literally meaning "rebirth," this epoch saw a return to classical Greek and Roman concepts and a flourishing of humanism.
Student revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" revolt
Astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus. Wrote "Almagest."
Spanish Infanta, wife of Louis XIV
An independent and propertied Russian farmer.
philosophy that God, reason and progress are all myths
He reestablished Bourbon monarchy after Napoleon
famous woman astronomer; applied for position at the Berlin Academy but was rejected even though she was highly qualified
the amount of labor landowners demanded from peasants in the Habsburg Monarchy before 1848
Kingdom of Italy
From the north, down
A person who destroys religious symbols or established doctrine
"peaceful coexistence"
Krushev’s foreign policy; peaceful coexistence with communism was possible.
The favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars was?:
titus oates
U.S. novelist and short-story writer.
Mary Wollstonecraft
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Woman".
Zimmermann Telegram
In 1917, German Foreign Secretary Zimmermann sent what was supposed to be a secret message to the government of Mexico. He asked Mexico to attack the United States, and Germany would, in turn, support Mexican territory claims in the southwest United States. The message was intercepted by the British, who gave it to the United States, and it was one of the major reasons the United States entered World War I.
Menno Simmons
Was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). His followers became known as Mennonites. Protestant reformers.
French nobles or aristocrats that left France because of the French Revolution.
Water frame combined spindles & rollers to create a spinning machine to spin cloth
Richard Arkwright
Columbian Exchange
- interchange of plants, animals, diseases, & human populations between Old & New World
An Italian statesman who fought for the unification of Italy by the use of arms. He rejected the republican, romantic ideas of Mazzini/Garibaldi and was a monarchist. He unites northern Italy.
Alfred Dreyfus
(1859-1935) French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906.
A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best
Royal armory filled with arms and ammunition; also a state prison; attacked and surrendered after three hours of fighting
Clause 231
Inserted into the Treaty of Versailles, this identified Germany as the chief instigator of the war. This justified huge reparation payments.
one who assumes the responsibility and the risk for a business operation with the expectations of making a profit; deciding on the product, building/acquiring structures, and bringing together the workers, capital, and raw material
the royal tax on salt in France
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
Red Shirts
guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to "liberate" it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.
Concordat of Bologna
(1516)Treaty where the french government allowed the pope for have supreme power over a council, but the government got to elect bishops and abbots
A newfound openness of government and media.
Casare Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology.
Another name for the Protestant settlements in northern Ireland during the Cromwellian period.
Ulster Plantation
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
Alfred Nobel
Inventor of dynamite. He established a fund, in 1901, called the Nobel Prize, which rewarded and acknowledged people who worked for literary and scientific achievement and for peace. The prizes are still awarded today.
Middle Ages
Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance, dating approximately 476-1450.
Olympe de Gouges
A playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
John Calvin
This man created his own Protestant movement, which supplanted Lutheranism as the dominant Protestant force in Europe. His religion was especially popular in France, the Netherlands, and Scotland. He stressed divine predestination and the individual's responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan.
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Battle at Austerlitz
This was arguably Napoleon's greatest military triumph. Here, Napoleon defeated the combined Austrian and Russian forces, resulting in the Treaty of Pressburg.
who controlled the spice trade in the Indian Ocean prior to the Portuguese
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Free French
Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government.
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
The stance taken by Woodrow Wilson in dealing with the defeated nations.Victorious nations became critical of this strategy as they wanted to financially cripple the defeated nations.
Vichy France
puppet government in South France that followed Nazi Germany's wishes in World War I under the leadership of Henri Pétain
Putting out system
The Cottage Industry; was eliminated with all the development of new machines and inventions in Britain
planned economy
economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
a body of people or families living together and sharing everything
William III
In 1688, William, a Protestant, was invited to invade England by the political enemies of his father-in-law, a Catholic convert. James fled England, and on Feb. 13, 1689, William and his wife were jointly offered the throne. They (she as MARY II) were crowned on Apr. 11, 1689, and thus was concluded the bloodless GLORIOUS REVOLUTION. In May, William induced the English Parliament to join the alliance against France. After crushing James's invasion of Ireland in 1690 he spent the next 7 years campaigning in the Spanish Netherlands (see GRAND ALLIANCE, WAR OF THE). In 1697 he concluded a favorable peace at Ryswick, which also secured French recognition of his kingship. William later negotiated two partition treaties (1698, 1700) with LOUIS XIV to prevent the French monarch from claiming the entire Spanish empire for his son or grandson when the childless king of Spain died. Louis, however, repudiated the treaty, and William's last diplomatic action was the negotiation of another Grand Alliance against the French. The ensuing War of the Spanish Succession began shortly before William's death.
(1588) The spanish naval army that was under the control of Phillip II and was defeated by an english fleet in the English Channel
Revolutionary Calendar
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Young Italy
An assciation under the leadership of Mazzini that urger the unification of the country
The single greatest cause of warfare between 1550 and 1650 was?:
religious rivalries.
Spanish Armada
Fleet of 130 ships launched by Spain's Catholic Philip II to conquer England during the time of Elizabeth I. England was victorious in defeating the Spanish, who never again posed a decided threat against England.
Republic of Letters
A phrase describing the phenomenon of increased correspondence in the form of letters exchanged between the influential philosophers and other thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment.
National Constituent Assembly
Eventually some members of the Second Estate, and some more clergy members broke off from the Estates General and joined the National Assembly, making this.
Who was elected in the first election after the 2nd Repblic?
Napoleon III`
Social Darwinism
The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
Cahier de doleances
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789.
Alexander II
Came to power in Russia during midst of Crimean War
Believed in abolishing serfdom to allow reform.
March 3, 1861-emancipation edict
-allowed peasants to marry who they choose, own property, be in court
-Gov't provided land for peasants by purchasing for landowners
-Landowners chose best land
-Not completely free: belonged to state due to taxes.
-led to unhappy peasantry and decrease in agriculture.
Instituted the zemstovs.
Assassinated in 1881 by People's Will
Leon Blum
Leon Blum, who began as a literary critic, became active in politics as a result of the Dreyfuss Affair. In 1919, he was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies. In 1925, he became the head of the Socialist Party and, in May 1936, he became France's first socialist Prime Minister since 1870. During his one year in office, he instituted a number of important social reforms, including the 40-hour work week. He used the Popular Front very successfully and it was used the workers and lower middle class. Revolutions by conservatives and inflation ruined the Popular Front and because of this Blum was forced to resign in June 1937.
Coup d'etat of Brumaire
When Napoleon overthrew the French directory and replaced it with the French consulate
European Coal and Steel Community
international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
Portuguese exploration of the African coast was inspired and supported by?:
Prince Henry the Navigator.
After being invaded twice, in 1870 and 1914, I wanted to ensure that Germany would never again be a threat to my country.
Georges Clemenceau
Petition of Rights
Limited the power of Charles 1st of England. a) couldn't declare martial law b) couldn't collect taxes c) couldn't imprision people without cause d) soldiers couldn't be housed without consent
Rene Descartes
(March 31, 1596 - February 11, 1650) a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modem Philosophy"
Irish Land League
This league wanted the Irish to own their own land and intimidated protestant landlords. The leader of this movement was Charles Stewart Parnell.
France 1848 Revolution
Working class led by Louis Blanc, who created national workshops. Elected assembly of moderates and conservatives shut down workshops and working class rebels. Louis Napoleon becomes emperor.
Mary Queen of Scots
Elizabeth's cousin who made threats on Elizabeth's life; Elizabeth eventually had her beheaded
divine right of kings
the theory that monarchs are appointed by and answerable only to God
Wars of the Roses
series of dynastic civil wars in England fought by the rival houses of Lancaster and York between 1455 and 1485
Oliver Cromwell

As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
As a result of this treaty, Austria was eliminated as a dominant threat to the German states; the German Confederation was dissloved.
Treaty of Prague
Lives of Illustrious Men
A set of biographies of famous Roman men by Petrarch.
Peace of Utrecht (1713)
series of treaties that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.
Consequences of the Scientific Revolution
1. Newtonian World View
2. Faith in reason enhanced
3. Secular spirit
4. Questioning of traditional beliefs
5. Belief in natural laws (Life, Liberty, Property)
Elizabeth I’s (England) policy toward religious affairs
Her policy followed a middle course between Catholic and protestant extremes.
During the Ancien Regime, European Jews?:
were separated from non-Jews in districts called ghettos.
Gold Glory and God
This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
Northern humanists differed from their Italian predecessors
in their focus on the textual reexamination of the Bible and the writings of the early Church Fathers.(Italian Renassiance consisted of an interest in Greek manuscripts, more classical based.)
The Council of Trent did the following, but did not_.
1. Enhanced pope's power
2. Limits on simony
-Concede any point of theology
A lasting effect of the Napoleonic occupation of Europe was the?:
stimulation of national feeling in the subject lands.
As public morale weakened in the later stages of the war?:
police powers were expanded to include the arrest of dissenters as traitors.
Glorious Revolution
Council of workers.
a tenet or belief.
Another great Native American civilization. Settled in Peru. Conquered by Pizarro.
(1795-1799) The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power.
vast national recreation agency established by Mussolini in Italy, introduced many Italians to many facets of mass culture and mass leisure, also a way for the gov't to supervise the masses
Viscount Nelson. 1758-1805. British admiral who defeated the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile (1798), thus ending Napoleon's attempt to conquer Egypt, and destroyed French and Spanish naval forces at Trafalgar (1805), where he was mortally wounded.
Liberalization of the Soviet Union.
Communities in distinct districts of cities in which Jews lived apart from non-Jewish Europeans.
German city that became the international meeting place for buying and selling books.
Imre Nagy
liberal communist reformer installed as Chief by the people of Budapest
A free-trade union established among the major German states in 1834.
lower house, members elected by universal male suffrage. (NO LAW MAKING ABILITY)
Gabriel Marcel
Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
Das Kaptial
Writing of political economy
Only completed one volume
Alexander III's policy of forcing Russian culture and language on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
H.G. Wells
British author (1866-1946), wrote mainly science fiction including "The War of the Worlds","The Time Machine", and "The Invisible Man"
legitimate human knowledge arises from what is provided to the mind by the senses or by introspective awareness through experience. Most empiricists do not consider knowledge gained through the imagination, authority, tradition, or purely theoretical reasoning legitimate.
led provisional government. puts in reforms and freedoms. *mistake: continues fighting WWI
Henry Cort
- Refined pig iron-puddling furnace-heavy rolling mills
Paris is worth a Mass!
Henry IV
Bolshebiks vs. Mensheviks
The bolsheviks wanted immediate action. they wanted the urban proletariat to rise from a union into a revolution. the mensheviks wanted more gradual change as shown by marx. the mensheviks thought that they could have people try out capitalism, which would naturally show them the good of socialism. the bolsheviks were afraid that if people went to capitalism they would never go back.
artist who desired to imitate nature by using perspective and beginning to make things looks more realistic
A government organization that ran the kingdom of Castile's sheep-farming industry.
Good Friday Agreement
established a Northern Ireland Assembly with devolved legislative powers and marked a decline in violence
The philosopy that a state's strength depends upon it's wealth.
on Crime and Ounishments better to prevent than to punish crimes. against capital punishment
Flora Tristan
(1803-1844) Socialist and feminist who called for working woman's social and political rights.
economic and political system in which the gov't controls the economy by owning its farms and businesses
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Treaty Potsdam
made at Potsdam conference which Truman got confirmation of success of A-bomb test during it;
large groups of corporations that join together to fix prices and set production quotas, restraining the kind of competition that leads to reduced prices; sucks for consumers
Test Act
Parliament passed this act that required all civil and military officials of the crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation - which no loyal Roman Catholic could honestly do.
..., 1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII.
Defenestration of Prague
Bohemian Calvinists threw Emperor Ferdinand's catholic boyz out of a window into a pile of pooh. They were not happy. Started the 30 Years War.
Significances: Shows the extreme behavior religious passion will stir up in this chapter. example (if a minor one) of the atrocities people will commit.
Thomas Hobbes
English political thinker prompted by English Revolutions. Name associated w/ state's claim to absolute authority. Treatise of political thought Leviathan. State of nature before human organization was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Save themselves from destroying each other by developing commonwealth, power in hands of sovereign authority. Subjects CANNOT rebel if so must be suppressed.
Sigmund Freud
Oedipus Complex. most thoughts come from subconcious. Id, Ego, Superego.
Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
academic pursuits of the clergy were criticized in the 16th century, true or false?
What is iconoclasm?
Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives.
Klemens von Metternich
Led Holy Alliance, Austria, defended class priveleges, and anti-self-determination
Bloody Mary
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-58. Known for her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England. She married Spain's Philip II.
Reform League
organization led by John Bright that pushed parliament to give sufferage to the working class
Emilie du Chatelet
A French mathematician, physicist, and author. In 1737 Published a paper Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu, based on research into the science of fire that foresaw what is today known as infra-red radiation and the nature of light.
Republic of Virtue
People who attended the Convention believed they had created this in which civic virtue would flourish in place of aristocratic and monarchical corruption.
Felt that it was necessary to break from traditional morality, whih is why he said "God is Dead"
Joint-stock Company
A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share the profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.
Henry VIII
marries his brothers wife with special permission from the Pope (because their marriage wasn't consumated), doesn't have a son so wants a divorce - pope doesn't allow it, splits from the catholic church with the Act of Supremacy, wants "catholicism without the pope"
Dual Monarchy
An 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austra and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, and war.
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
Stalin's rise
He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
George III
dismissed Pit the Elder; was crazy; people criticized his electoral system and loss of American colonies
Francesco Sforza
one of the leading condottieri of Milan; after the death of the last Visconti ruler, he turned on his Milanese employers & became the new duke; made Milan into a centralized territorial state
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
James Joyce
influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing) (1882-1941)
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Second Reform Act
Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
Morocco Crisis, 1911
After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing
natural rights
Rights which are not contigent upon laws, customs, or beliefs of a particular soceity or polity.
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".
Peninsular War (1808-1813)
Napoleon's long drawn-out war with Spain
Also known as 'Night of the Broken Glass'. When Nazi mobs wrecked Jewish temples throughout Germany.
Heart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad, 1902. The story reflects the physical and psychological shock Conrad himself experienced in 1890, when he worked briefly in the Belgian Congo.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War(1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe
Two Treatises on Government
John Locke/said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
Claudine de Tencin
A woman who helped the philosophes gain access to useful and social political contacts. She promoted Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws."
Seige of Leningrad
german soldiers waited out in the soviet union trying to capture it. but winter came and the germans were stopped
Arnold Schönberg
Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones
Treaty of London (1830)
This made Greece an independent country.
Splendid Isolation
Period of isolation in GB, where they feel as though they do not need to get involved in the war; Perpetual Neutrality
Treat of Aix-la-Chapelle
(1668) Louis XIV gained control of certain towns bordering the Spanish Netherlands.
Trans-Siberian Railway
desire to expand power in East Asia and Stop British advances there from Siberia to the Pacific Ocean. Transported troops later
Galileo's law of Moving Bodies
Everything revolved around the sun
The Atlantic Charter
(august 1941) Set up the common principles for the Free World. Signed by Roosevelt and Churchill.
Miguel De Cervantes

(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
The July Ordinances were repressive decrees issued by?:
Charles X of France.
War of Spanish Succession
War fought by European powers after the death of the last Hapsburg ruler of Spain in 1700, which left the throne to Louis XIV's grandson. Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
the Black Prince
also known as Edward, prince of Wales, who destroyed French towns to devastate the French
Might as well believe in God in case he's there. What'd this guy write.
Pascal, Pensees
9 million east germans
When the Berlin wall was opened ________ were freed.
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Battle of the Marne
After a French invasion of Germany failed, France and Britain teamed up to stop the German counter-attack and ultimate advance on Paris at this battle.
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Edict of Nantes 1598
Sprout from French Wars of Religion 1562-1598, French kings concerned spread of Calvinism over catholicism therefore prosecute them. War of Three Henries 1588-1589 Henry duke of Guise (Catholic) and Henry III (Calv) killed, but Henry Navarre (calvinist convert catholic save life) end war 1594. Under him edict which RECOGNIZE CATHOLICISM OFFICIAL RELIGION FRANCE BUT GUARANTEE RIGHT HUGUENOTS RIGHT WORSHIP IN SELECTED PLACES EACH DISTRICT, POLITICAL PRIVILEGES LIKE HOLDING OFFICE, ONLY OUT OF POLITICAL NECESSITY NOT CONVICTION (strong persuasion or belief)
He believed he was set on the path toward world monarchy and that it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of western Christendom. In this respect he was the last medieval emperor.
Charles V
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
This groupe, formed by _, led a mitant campaign for women's rights.
Emmeline Pankurst; Suffragettes/Women's Social & Political Union
"Socialism in one country"
Idea that the Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Lorenzo Valla gained fame for?:
proving the Donation of Constantine a fraud.
Cult of the Supreme Being
A religion based on deism devised by Maximilian Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution.
Leonardo Bruni's The New Cicero
a biography of Roman Cicero; about the fusion of political action & literary creation; responsible for transforming humanist intellectuals into statesmen AND intellectuals
Utopian socialism was built upon the idea that?:
cooperative living might create a better environment for people.
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (title)
a book by Copernicus published in 1543. It included the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus such as putting the stars at rest, proclaiming the universe as extremely large, and destroying the Aristotelian idea of crystalized spheres and that Earth is just another planet rotating around the sun. All of these are known as the Copernican hypothesis. This is significant because his book made people look at the world in a new open-minded way and challenges old world views.
One of the most obvious differences between realistic and romantic writers was the fact that?:
realists rejected poetry as a proper way of expressing the real world and preferred the novel instead.
Cause of the War of Spanish Succession
Fear that Louis XIV would sit on both the French and Spanish thrones.
1348 - 1351
Black Death
nobility/landed aristocracy of Prussia, owned estates with serfs; monopoly over officer corps led to a bond between the nobility & army who both shared a loyalty to the absolute monarch
Karl Marx
Wrote the communist Manifesto
Deductive Reasoning; Discourse on Method, "I Think, Therefore I am"
Starting point, doubt - reaffirms all knowledge through reason and separates mind and matter.
"Red Shirt"
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Originated in 18th century Britain. Originally it appealed especially to workers, agricultural workers, and slaves. Theologically, most are Armenian, emphasizing that all people can be saved.
originally a pejorative term for French Calvinists, later the official title for members of the 'Reformed religion", Calvinists. (p. 492)
Cavour and Napolean III's secret meeting where they decided to fight Austria together, Italy would get land, France would get influence
The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's Ideology.
Paul Gaugin
French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
Meiji Restoration
Transformation of Japan under Mutsuhito
Modernize Jap by absorbing and applying Western methods.
Germ army and brit navy established
Indust and econ methods of US
commercial and indust system
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
the nucleus/centerpiece upon which the German nation is eventually formed, unified with Brandenburg (started the war of the Austrian Succession)
Declarations of Rights of Man
French Constitution
stated that religious authority rests with Bible
The most influential classical Roman scholar of the Renaissance. His works were praised by Renaissance fathers such as Petrarch.
an artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.
Marie Antoinette
Austrian daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. Married Louis XVI to strengthen Franco-Austrian relations. Became the most hated woman in France because of her ostentation and refusal to support reforms. Guillotined in October of 1793.
Italia irredenta
"Unredeemed Italy." The desire to liberate this was a reason for Italian support of the Allies against Austria and Germany during WWI.
Guards of the Moscow garrison. Peter hoped to control them. While Peter was on his European tour, they rebelled. Their cause was defeated.
Led by Cornelius Jansen, this Roman Catholic group formed in opposition to the political influence of the Jesuits.
Catherine the Great
Westernized Russia. Established the Free Economic Society. Encouraged foreign investment. Relaxed censorship and encouraged education among the middle and high class.
Maginot Line
French defense against german borders. did not reach to belgium borders so germany conquered france by recreating the schlieffen plan. maginot failed because the guns it was equipped with could not turn around and face into france
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods into Europe.
Pius IX
Pope who denounced unification and published the Syllabus of Errors.
This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
studied in Rome; copied statues of antiquity; famous for David
Suez Canal
waterway through Egypt that connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean, British wanted to control the territory around it (Egypt, Sudan)
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Bourbon Family
French royal family descended from Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (1270?-1342), whose members have ruled in France (1589-1793 and 1814-1830), Spain (1700-1868, 1874-1931, and since 1975), and Naples and Sicily (1734-1860).
pride in country, belief taht people of a country share same religion, language, culture. "symphony of nations". us vs. them mentality
Pazzi Conspiracy

Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici’s.
A movement of British workers that attempted to stop the Industrial Revolution through a campaign of destroying factory machines, which they blamed for unemployment.
Giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep the peace; hitler, stalin
Nikita Kruschev
Leader of the USSR from 1953-1964. While famous for his "we will bury you" comment to the United States, he also opened communication with the West, particularly the United States. He also ended Stalinist purges in the USSR.
Jacques Cartier
"1534, led three voyages that explored the t. Lawrence River as far as Montreal, early attempts to settle Canada failed because of the harsh winter and Indian hostility."
Edict of Nantes
"1598, granted Calvinists the same rights as Catholics in a mainly Catholic nation. It was issued by Henry IV of France on April 13, 1598. This paced the way for tolerance and secularism in France. "
Chapelier Law
This law kept peasants and workers from forming labor unions, and they were left at the mercy of the free market.
Luther's writing attacking the belief that the seven sacraments were the only means of attaining grace, saying that only two, baptism and the Eucharist (which were mentioned in the Bible) were important.
The Babylonian Captivity
hundred days
when Napolean escaped from Elba and took over France again for 100 days until he was exiled to Helena
Locarno Treaty
(1925) Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries.
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Let them do as they please economic doctrine ruled by supply and demand
Georges Danton
leader of the Paris Commune, sought revenge on those who had aided the king, dominated the Committee of Public Safety
de Feltre
Teacher who charged students only what they could afford and taught a specialized curriculum for the student
Archbishop Laud
(In 1625 Charles I succeeded his father, James I) Like his father, Charles I did not sympathize with Puritans and supported the Anglican hierarchy with himself as head of the Church of England. He directed his Archbishop LAUD, to enforce religious conformity. In 1637 when Laud attempted to impose High Anglicanism on Presbyt. Scots the result was rebellion. This caused Ch.I to need money to raise army and therefore he needed to call into session Parliament which he had dismissed and not consulted since 1629. [Recall that Elizabeth II had allowed for Low and High Anglican branches of the Church of England so that both Christians who either leaned to Calvinism or on the other extreme, Catholicism, could find a place within Anglicanism. Charles I was wanting to direct everyone towards High Anglicanism.]
Labour Party
a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900
95 Theses
written by Martin Luther. Regarded as primary catalyst reformation. display Luther's displeasure with church's indulgences and promoted protestantism. Challenge teaching of church on nature of penance, authority of pope, and usefulness of indulgences. Spark theological debate, begins reformation and start Lutheran, reformed, Anabaptist traditions w/ Christianity. Message spoke to ALL people.
Germany has to pay... for WWI reparations
$33 billion
Atlantic Charter
August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.
In colonial Spanish America, the legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista (&qu
Encomienda System
Charles V
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensice territories in Spain and the Netherlands.He also attacked the Schmalkaldic League in 1546
Clement Attlee
Socialist Labor Party under him moved toward establishment of a "Welfare State"; formed government of England after Churchill; nationalized industries.
Ivan IV
Romanov ruler of Russia known as Ivan the Terrible. He was a fierce ruler who laid the groundwork for the westernizing of Russia that was later continued by Peter the Great. Ivan IV's rule of intimidation lasted from 1547-1584.
Etienne Marcel
a bourgeois draper who was leader of the peasants in the peasant revolt in northern France
Divine Right
The belief that a king's word was law.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572, Roman Catholic attacks on Huguenots; believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici; crippled Huguenot political efforts
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
This treaty gave Russia a direct outlet to the Blak Sea, free navigation rights in its waters, and more free access through the Bosporus. Crimea became an independent state and was latter annexed by Catherine. This ended the Ottoman-Russian conflict.
Ivan the terrible
aggressive Russian ruler who had a very violent time of troubles. His death marked the beginning of the romonov rule in russia.
The Book of the Courtier
Books that discussed fundamental native endowments, cultivating private achievements, and the classical education of nobles. Written by Castiglione.
This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
July Monarchy
The formal name of the new monarchy under Louis Philippe.
Battle of Jutland
A naval battle between Germany and Britain. The British victory confirmed British naval superiority.
"all that is in God and nothing that can be apart from it"
a French Calvinist of the 16th or 17th centuries
Whigs and Tories
Whig, member of a former British political party, traditionally in opposition to the Tory party. A Whig may also be a member of the Whig party of the United States. The name is probably derived from Whiggamore, a derogatory term first applied to the Covenanters of 17th-century Scotland, who were supporters of Presbyterianism.
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of the British tory party, he engineer the reform bill of 1867
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help form Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
Elizabeth Farnese
Regent of Philip V who all but ordered him around. She aimed to restore Spain by retaking parts of Italy that used to be Spanish possessions.
Who was Charles DeGualle?
ruler of France post WWII. established the 5th republic. removed french forces from the NATO. antiAmericanism
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties
first Fronde
led by nobles of the robe - resented centralized power in France & taxes to pay the cost of the Thirty Years' War
Poor Law of 1601
In England. Designed both to force people to work and to relieve absolute destitution - part of mercantilist policies. Remained in effect, with amendments until 1834. Made local areas responsible for their own homeless and unemeployed and offered ways to raise money for charity and provide work for beggars - kept poor in their area rather than wandering about.
War of Devolution, 1667-68
War over who would receive possession of the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium). France invaded with 50K 1667
The Star Chamber
dealt w/ noble threats to royal power in England, made by Henry VII Tudor
Louis XIV, The Sun King
He ruled from 1643-1715, the longest reign in French history. He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
Addresses to the German Nation
A speech given by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, this called for a younger generations of Germans to recognize the national duty that historical circumstances had placed on their shoulders.
Frederick William IV
This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences did:
Organized bodies for scientific study
What was the Frankfurt Assembly?
A Nationalist display in a attempt to unite Germany.
W. B. Yeats
He was a symbolist poet who wrote in a fashion in which only the he, the poet, could understand what he was writing (very weird)
The major cause of the growing weakness of Spain and Portugal after 1600 was the?:
failure to find productive investments with profits from New World colonies.
Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination
He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
Art and sciences are not cast in a mold, but are perfected by degrees, by often handling and polishing, as bears leisurely lick their cubs into form. (Michel de Montaigne, Works II. xii, 1533-1592)
skepticism concerning known or revealed truth.
In England, the Factory Act of 1833 clearly?:
forbade work for girls under 18 years of age.
"politics of reality"
foremost German housing reformer
advocated authoritarian conservatism that argued monarchs held society together
a drawing apart or separation
These were the French philosophers
founded the first European birth control clinic
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
"The Social Contract"-individuals are in a contract with each other to form an organized society, the power lies in the general will and that rulers can be removed if they fail to carry out the people's will
"Emile"-importance of education
Reform Bill
enfranchised new towns and cities
urban reformer who advocated modern sanitary reforms
permanent revolution
An atmosphere of constant revolutionary fervor favored by Mao Zedong to enable China to overcome the past and achieve the final stage of communism
A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism
Paul Cézanne
A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form
Walther Rathenau
was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
German Social Deomcratic Party
espoused revolutionary Marxist rhetoric
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Strong supported of mercantilism to support Louis XIV and increase Frenh power and wealth
prince of Piedmont who led uprise against Austria
called the bourgeois monarch of France who favored upper bourgeois interests
inventor of the first steam powered locomotive
Lord Palmerston
prime minister of Britain whose primary interest was foreign policy, but opposed expanding franchise
ministry was considered the apex of "classical British liberalism"
Dawes Plan
Accepted by France, Germany and Britain. Germany would get private loans from the United States and pay reparations to France and Britain thus enabling those countries to repay the large sums they owed the United States.
<This circular flow of money was a success>
He was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist. He is regarded as an avant-garde writer of fantasy and satire
The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
Trans-Siberian Railroad
A railroad that went across Siberia
William II
This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway
Logical Empiricism
The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
to cast off: discard, to give up sovereign power formally
Isabella d'Este
First lady of the Renaissance; female patron of the arts
Congress of Trappau (1820)
principle of intervention was introduced, but denied by the British
Ferdinand of Castile and Isabella of Aragon
*extrememly catholic
Austrian-Prussian War (1866)
Bismarck's attempt to isolate Austria from German affairs
White terror
royalist rebellion in Paris, trying to kill all revolutionaries, Napoleon first appears and says "width of a grape shot" and ends rebellion
Oswald Spengler
an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians.
The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)
Raymond Poincaré
French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
"New Imperialism"
The new idea that revitalized the period of expansion and gathering of colonies
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
Franz von Papen
Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning
Leon Gambetta
A successful politician in France, he was a moderate republican who helped stabilize government
Jules Mazarin
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government. Died in 1661
Elizabeth I
her rule was an era of intense nationalism induced by dynastic rivalries and religious turmoil; great literature birthed (Italian/Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550)
Percy Shelley
romantic poet who sought to reform the world
Ludivico il Moro
invited the French to reenter Italy and revive their dynastic claim to Naples. he forgot to see that France also had dynastic claims to Milan
Second five-year plan
1958-1962. An attempt to make Chinese industrial output equal to that of western nations in 15 years. Collectives expanded to form communes. People forced to work long hours. Industry (steel mills) was stressed. Reservoirs were built, cotton harvested, trees planted. People flew flags in fields, sang songs, and had slogans to boost morale. People were encouraged to make backyard furnaces.
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
Id, Ego, Superego
Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
Renaissance Popes
These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches
Alfred von Schlieffen
German who concocted the plan of "France for breakfast, Russia for dinner"
Louis Blanc
This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year
David Ricardo, "iron law of wages"
Leading British economist; established field of classical economics; stresses importance of free trade and competition for economic growth; argument that wages "naturally" tend towards minimum level corresponding to subsistence needs of workers
Danish War (1864)
war that arose over the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein between Denmark and Germany
Ignatius of Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
"Universal Man"
This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter
Fashoda Crisis of 1898
This event occurred when both Britain and France wanted the town of Fashoda; in the end, the British gained control of the town, because the French gave up
Witte's reforms
He "used the west to catch up to the west" in Russia, by having foreigners build factories and making new transport lines.
Founding of the British empire in India
Britain gained this territory by slowly asserting influence and putting people in charge
Isolation & "Opening" of China and Japan
Isolation to protect against the corruptive west, and a forced opening for reasons of trace
Russo-Japanese War - impact in Russia
This war showed that Russia was still not strong, and it caused revolution back at home.
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